firoj shaah tuglak

firoj shaah tuglak Delhi saltanat mein tuglak vansh ka shaasak tha. firojashaah tuglak ka janm 1309 ko hua| vo Bhaarat par antim musalim shaasak tha| usaki hookoomat 1351 se 1388 tak rahi| vo, dipaalapur ki hidoon Rajkumari ka putr tha|usane apni hookoomat ke dauraan kai hindooyon ko musalim dharm apnaane par majaboor kiya| usane apne shaasanakaal me hi chaandi ke sikke chalaaye| firojshaah tuglak (1351-1388 E.), muhammad tuglak ka chachera bhaai evam siphasalaar 'rajab' ka putr tha. usaki maaain 'beebi naila' rajput sardaar ranamal ki putri thi. muhammad tuglak ki mutyu ke baad 20 March 1351 ko firoj tuglak ka raajyaabhishk thatta ke nikat hua. pun: firoj ka raajyaabhishek Delhi mein August, 1351 mein hua. sultaan banane ke baad firojshaah tuglak ne sabhi krje maaf kar diye, jismein 'sondhar rin' bhi shaamil tha, jo muhammad tuglak ke samay kisaanon ko diya gaya tha. usane upaj ke hisaab se lagaan nishchit kiya. sarkaari padon ko pun: vanshaanugat kar diya.

anukram

praarambhik asafalata

sultaan banane ke baad firoj tuglak ne Delhi saltanat se alag hue apne pradeshon ko jeetne ke abhiyaan ke antargat Bengal evam sindh par aakraman kiya. Bengal ko jeetne ke liye sultaan ne 1353 E. mein aakraman kiya. us samay shamsuddeen iliyaas shaah vahaaain ka shaasak tha. usane ikadala ke kile mein sharan le rakhi thi, sultaan firoj antat: kile par adhikaar karne mein asafal hokar 1355 E. mein vaapas Delhi aa gaya. pun: Bengal par adhikaar karne ke prayaas ke antargat 1359 E. mein firoj tuglak ne vahaaain ke tatkaaleen shaasak shamsuddeen ke putr sikndar shaah par aakraman kiya, kintu asafal hokar ek baar fir vaapas aa gaya.

aanshik safalataaeain

1360 E॰ mein sultaan firoj ne 'jaajanagar' (udeesa) par aakraman karke vahaaain ke shaasak bhaanudev truteeya ko paraast kar puri ke jagannaath mandir puri ko dhvast kiya. 1361 E. mein firoj ne nagarakot par aakraman kiya. yahaaain ke jaamabaabaniyon se ladti hui sultaan ki sena lagbhag 6 maheene tak run ke registaan mein fainsi rahi, kaalaantar mein jaamabaabaniyon ne sultaan ki adheenata ko sveekaar kar liya aur vaarshik kar dene ke liye sahamat ho gaye.

in saadhaaran vijyon ke atirikt firoj ke naam koi badi safalta naheen judi hai. usane dakshin mein svatantr hue raajya vijyanagar, bahamani evam madura ko pun: jeetne ka koi prayaas naheen kiya. is prakaar kaha ja sakta hai ki, sultaan firoj tuglak ne apne shaasan kaal mein koi bhi sainik abhiyaan saamraajya vistaar ke liye naheen kiya aur jo bhi abhiyaan usane kiya, vah maatr saamraajya ko bachaaye rakhane ke liye kiya.

raajasv vyavastha

raajasv vyavastha ke antargat firoj ne apne shaasan kaal mein 24 kashtadaayak karon ko samaapt kar diya aur keval 4 kar 'khraaj' (lagaan), 'khums' (yuddh mein loot ka maal), 'jajiya', evam 'jkaat' (islaam dharm ke anusaar adhaai pratishat ka daan, jo un logon ko dena padta hai, jo maaladaar hon aur un logon ko diya jaata hai, jo apaahij ya asahaaya aur saadhanaheen hon) ko vasool karne ka aadesh diya. ulemaaon ke aadesh par sultaan ne ek naya sinchaai (hak A sharb) kar bhi lagaaya, jo upaj ka 1/10 bhaag vasoola jaata tha. sambhavat: firoj tuglak ke shaasan kaal mein lagaan upaj ka 1/5 se 1/3 bhaag hota tha. sultaan ne sinchaai ki suvidha ke liye 5 badi naharein yamuna nadi se hisaar tak 150 meal lambi sataluj nadi se ghagghar nadi tak 96 meal lambi sirmaur ki pahaadi se lekar haansi tak, ghagghar se firojaabaad tak evam yamuna se firojaabaad tak ka nirmaan karavaaya. usane falo ke lagbhag 1200 baag lagavaaye. aantarik vyaapaar ko badhaane ke liye anek karon ko samaapt kar diya.

nagaron ki sthaapana

nagar evam saarvajanik nirmaan kaaryon ke antargat sultaan ne lagbhag 300 naye nagaron ki sthaapana ki. inmein se hisaar, firojaabaad (Delhi), ftehaabaad, jaunapur, firojpur aadi pramukh the. in nagaron mein yamuna nadi ke kinaare basaaya gaya firojaabaad sultaan ko sarvaadhik priya tha. jaunapur nagar ki neenv firoj ne apne chachere bhaai 'fkharuddeen jauna' (muhammad bin tuglak) ki smruti mein daali thi. uske shaasan kaal me khijraabaad evam Meerut se ashok ke do stambhalekhon ko laakar Delhi mein sthaapit kiya gaya. apne kalyaanakaari kaaryon ke antargat firoj ne ek rojgaar ka daftar evam muslim anaath striyon, vidhvaaon evam ladkiyon ki sahaayata hetu ek naye 'deevaan-A-khairaat' naamak vibhaag ki sthaapana ki. 'daarul-shafa' (shafa=jeevan ka antim kinaara, jeevan ka antim bhaag) naamak ek raajakeeya aspataal ka nirmaan karavaaya, jismein greebon ka muft ilaaj hota tha.

firoj ki neeti evam parinaam

firoj ke shaasanakaal mein daason ki sankhya lagbhag 1,80,000 pahuainch gayi thi. inki dekhbhaal hetu sultaan de 'deevaan-A-bandagaan' ki sthaapana ki. kuchh das praanton mein bheje gaye tatha shesh ko kendra mein rakha gaya. daason ko nakad vetan ya bhookhand diye gaye. daason ko dastakaari ka prashikshan bhi diya gaya. sainya vyavastha ke antargat firoj ne sainikon pun: jaageer ke roop mein vetan dena praarambh kar diya. usane sainya padon ko vanshaanugat bana diya, ismein sainikon ki yogyata ki jaaainch par asar pada. khums ka 4/5 bhaag fir se sainikon ko dene ke aadesh diye gaye. kuchh samay baad usaka bhayaanak parinm saamane aaya. firoj tuglak ko kuchh itihaasakaar dharmaandh evam asahishnu shaasak maanate hain. sambhavat: Delhi saltanat ka vah pratham sultaan tha, jisne islaami niyamon ka kadaai se paalan karke ulema varg ko prashaasanik kaaryon mein mahattv diya. nyaaya vyavastha par pun: dharmaguruon ka prabhaav sthaapit ho gaya. mukti kaanoon on ki vyaakhya karte the. musalmaan aparaadhiyon ko mrutyu dand dena band kar diya gaya. firoj kattar sunni musalmaan tha. usane hindu janta ko 'jimmi' (islaam dharm sveekaar na karne vaale) kaha aur hindu braahmanon par jajiya kar lagaaya. dau॰ aar.si. majoomadaar ne kaha hai ki, "firoj is yug ka sabse dharmaandh evam is kshetr mein sinkadar lodi evam aurangajeb ka apragaami tha.' Delhi saltanat mein pratham baar firoj tuglak ne braahmanon se bhi jajiya liya.

sanrakshan evam rachanaaeain

shiksha prasaar ke kshetr mein sultaan firoj ne anek makbaron evam madarason (lagbhag 13) ki sthaapana karavaayi. usane 'jiyaauddeen barani' evam 'shams-A-siraaj afeef' ko apna sanrakshan pradaan kiya. barani ne 'ftava-A-jahaaaindaari' evam 'taareekh-A-firojshaahi' ki rachana ki. firoj ne apni aatmakatha 'futoohaat-A-firojshaahi' ki rachana ki jabki 'seerat-A-firojshahi' ki rachana kisi agyaat viddhaan dvaara ki gayi hai. firoj ne jvaalaamukhi mandir ke pustakaalaya se loote gaye 1300 granthon mein se kuchh ka ejuddeen dvaara 'dalaayate-firojshaahi' naam se anuvaad karavaaya. 'valaayale-firojshaahi' aayurved se sambandhit granth tha. usane jal ghadi ka avishkaar kiya. firoj kaal mein Khan-ai-jahaaain telagaani ke makabara ki tulana jeroosalam mein nirmit umar ke masjid se ki jaati hai. sultaan firoj tugalak ne Delhi mein Kotla firoj shaah durg ka nirmaan karavaaya. apne bhaai jauna khaaain (muhammad tuglak) ki smruti mein jaunapur naamak shahar basaaya.

ghoosakhori

sultaan firojshaah tuglak ne prashaasan mein swayam ghoosakhori ko protsaahit kiya tha. afeef ke anusaar-sultaan ne ek ghudsavaar ko apne khjaane se ek taka diya, taaki vah rishvat dekar arj mein apne ghode ko paas karva sakein. firoj tuglak saltanat kaaleen pehla shaasak tha, jisne raajya ki aadamani ka byaura taiyaar karavaaya. khwaaja hisaamuddeen ke ek anumaan ke anusaar- firoj tuglak ke shaasan kaal ki vaarshik aay 6 karod 75 lakh taka thi. uske samay mein injaaredaari ko pun: badhaava diya gaya.

sikkon ka prachalan

firoj tuglak ne mudra vyavastha ke antargat badi sankhya mein taanba evam chaaaindi ke mishran se nirmit sikke jaari karavaaye, jise sambhavat: 'addha' evam 'misr' kaha jaata tha. firoj tuglak ne 'shanshagaani' (6 jeetal ka) ka naya sikka chalavaaya tha. usane sikkon par apne naam ke saath apne putr athva uttaraadhikaari 'ftah khaaain' ka naam ankit karavaaya. firoj ne apne ko khleefa ka naaib pukaara tatha sikkon par khleefa ka naam ankit karavaaya. firojshaah tuglak ka shaasan kalyaanakaari nirankushata par aadhaarit tha. vah pratham sultaan tha, jisnein vijyon tatha yuddhon ki tulana mein apni praja ki bhautik unnati ko shreshth sthaan diya, shaasak ke kartavyon ka vistrut kiya tatha islaam dharm ko raajya shaasan ka aadhaar banaaya. henari iliyet aur elafinsatan ne firoj tuglak ko “asaltanat yug ka akabara” kaha hai. firojshaah tuglak ki safalataaon ka shreya uske pradhaanamantri 'Khan-A-jahaaain makabool' ka diya jaata hai.

mrutyu

sultaan firoj shaah tuglak ki mrutyu sitmbara1388 i॰ mein hui thi. haujkhaas parisar,Delhi mein use dafna diya gaya.