fiji

Matanitu Tu-Vaka-i-koya ko Viti
Fijī Ripablik

fiji dweep samooh ganaraajya
dhvaj kul chinh
raashtravaakya: Rerevaka na Kalou ka Doka na Tui
ishvar se daro aur raani ka sammaan karo
raashtragaan: gaud bles fiji
rajdhani
aur sabse badaa nagar
suva
18°a10′aS 178°a27′aE / 18.167°aS 178.45°aE / -18.167; 178.45
raajabhaasha(eain) angreji, baau fijiyn aur hindustaani
nivaasi fiji dveepavaasi, fijiyn
sarkaar sainik nettrutv ke saath anirvaachit jan sarkaar
- fiji ki sarvapramukh mahaaraani Elizabeth dviteeya1
- raashtrapati raatu Joseph iloilovaatoo ulveevaadoo (Joseph iloilo)
- pradhaanamantri Commodore josiya fraank beineemaaraama
svatantrata sanyukt raajashaahi se
- dinaank 10 October 1970
kshetrafal
- kul 18,274 varg kilometer (155 vaan)
7,056 varg meal
- jal (%) naganya
janasankhya
- July 2006 janaganana 9,05,949 (156vaan)
sakal ghareloo utpaad (PPP) 2005 praakkalan
- kul $5.447 karod (149 vaaain)
- prati vyakti $6375 (93 vaan)
maanav vikaas soochakaank (2013) Straight Line Steady.svg 0.724[1]
uchch · 88vaan
mudra fiji dollar (FJD)
samay mandal (yoo॰atee॰asee॰+12)
doorabhaash koot 679
Internet teeeladi .fj
1. adhyakshon ke mahaan samiti maanit.

fiji jo ki aadhikaarik roop se fiji dweep samooh ganaraajya (fijeeyaai: Matanitu Tu-Vaka-i-koya ko Viti) ke naam se jaana jaata hai, dakshin prashaant mahaasaagar ke melaaneshiya me ek dweep desh hai. yeh new jeelaind ke North aailaind se kareeb 2000 kimi uttar-poorv me sthit hai. iske sameepavarti padosi raashtron me pashchim ki or vanuaatu, poorv mein tonga aur dakshin me tuvaalu hain. 17veen aur 18veen shataabdi ke dauraan dach evam angreji khojakartaon ne fiji ki khoj ki thi. 1970 tak fiji ek angreji upanivesh tha. prachur maatra me van, khanij evam jaleeya sroton ke kaaran fiji prashaant mahaasaagar ke dveepon me sabse unnat raashtra hai. vartamaan me paryatan evam cheeni ka niryaat iske videshi mudra ke sabse bade srot hain. yahaaain ki mudra fiji dollar hai.

fiji ke adhikaansh dweep 15 karod varsh poorv aarambh hue jvaalaamukheeya gatividhiyon se gathit hue. is desh ke dveepasamooh mein kul 322 dweep hain, jinmein se 106 sthaayi roop se base hue hain. iske atirikt yahaaain lagbhag 500 kshudr dweep hain jo kul mila kar 18,300 varg kimi ke kshetrafal ka nirmaan karte hain. dveepasamooh ke do pramukh dweep viti levu aur vanuaa levu hain jin par desh ki lagbhag 8,50,000 aabaadi ka 87% nivaas karti hai.

anukram

naamakaran

fiji dweep ka mukhya dweep viti levu ke naam se jaana jaata hai aur isi naam ka uchchaaran inke padosi dweep tonga ke nivaasi " fisi " ke roop mein karte the jiske kaaran iska naam fiji pada hai. Europeeya logon ko fijeevaasiyon ke baare me sarvapratham captain cook ke mahaasaagareeya abhiyaanon ke dauraan unke dal ke sadasya rahe lekhako ke lekhon ke dvaara pata chala. yeh lekhak fijeevaasiyon se pehle pahal tonga dweep par mile the. in lekhon mein fiji ke mool nivaasiyon ko durjeya yoddha aur kroor aadamakhoron ke roop mein varnit kiya gaya tha saath hi unhein prashaant kshetr mein shreshth vaahikaaon (poton) ke nirmaata lekin ausat naavik ke roop me bhi darshaaya gaya hai. ve apne ghar ko viti kehte the, lekin tongaaon ne ise fisi kaha aur captain cook ne jo ek videshi the inka uchchaaran fiji kiya aur ab in dveepon ke naam isi naam se jaana jaata hai.

itihaas

fiji ke pehle nivaasiyon ka aagaman Europeeya anveshakon se bahut pehle hi ho gaya tha jo ki satraahavein shataabdi me fiji aaye the. mitti ke bartanon ki khudaai se pata chalta hai ki 1000 E.poo ke aaspaas bhi fiji mein nivaasi raha karte the, haalaanki abhi bhi unke fiji pravaas ke vishay me koi pukhta jaankaari naheen hai. dach anveshak haabil taismaan san 1643 mein jab dakshini mahaadveep ki talaash mein nikle the tab unhonein fiji ka daura kiya tha. unneesaveen sadi tak Europeeya sthaayi roop se dweep par naheen base the.

1874 mein Britain ne is dweep ko apne niyantran me lekar ise apna ek upanivesh bana liya. british log bhaarateeya majadooron ko yahaaain theke par ganne ke kheton mein kaam karne ke liye le aaye. san 1970 mein is desh ko Britain ne svatantrata di. san 1987 mein desh ka lokataantrik shaasan do sainya vidrohon se baadhit hua kyonki pehle takhtaapalat mein aisa maana gaya ki tatkaaleen sarkaar me bhaarateeya feejiyon ka prabhutv tha tatha doosare mein british raajashaahi aur Governor general ki jagah ek gair kaaryakaari adhyaksh ki niyukti hui. iske baad desh ka naam parivrtit karke 'fiji ganaraajya' kar diya gaya (1997 mein ise badalkar fiji dweep samooh ganaraajya kar diya gaya). is takhtaapalat ke kaaran bhaarateeyon ne badee sankhya me desh chhod diya jiske parinaamasvaroop melaaneshiyns ka bahumat ho gaya.

levuka, 1842.

1990 mein nae samvidhaan ke dvaara raajaneetik vyavastha me mool feeji logon ke varchasv ko sthaapit kiya gaya. rangabhed virodhi samooh (GARD) ka gathan ektarfa thope gaye samvidhaan ka virodh karne aur 1970 ke samvidhaan ki bahaali ke liye kiya gaya. 1987 ke takhtaapalat ko anjaam dene vaale lieutenant Colonel sitiveni rebooka nae samvidhaan ke tahat huye chunaav ke baad 1992 mein pradhaanamantri bane. teen saal baad, sitiveni rebooka ne samvidhaan sameeksha aayog ki sthaapana ki, jiske falasvaroop 1997 mein ek naya samvidhaan astitv mein aaya saath hi is samvidhaan ko feeji bhaarateeya aur feeji svadeshi samudaayon ke netaaon ka samarthan bhi mila. fiji ko ek baar fir se raashtramandal ke ek raashtra ke roop mein saveekruti mil gayi.

nai sahasraabdi mein desh ne fir ne fir se ek takhtaapalat dekha. is takhtaapalat mein George speet ne tatkaaleen pradhaan mantri Mahendra chaudhari, ki sarkaar ko ukhaad feinka jo 1997 ke samvidhaan ke baad nirvaachit huyi thi. commodore Frank baineemaraama ne raashtrapati maara ke isteefe jo sanbhavat: majaboor me diya gaya tha ke baad kaaryakaari shakti grahan kar leen. san 2000 mein suva ki mahaaraani Elizabeth bairakon mein huai do sainik vidrohon ne fiji ko hila kar rakh diya jab vidrohi sainikon ne shahar mein huddang macha diya. uchch nyaayaalaya ne samvidhaan ki bahaali ka aadesh diya aur, September 2001 mein, lokatantr ko bahaal karne ke liye aam chunaav aayojit kiye gaye, jo antarim pradhaanamantri leseeniya karaase ki sokosoko duaavaata ni levenivaanuaa party ne jeete.

san 2005 mein, bahut vivaadon ke beech, karaase sarkaar ne ekta aayog banaane ka ek prastaav rakha jiske antargat san 2000 ke takhtaapalat ke peediton ko muaavaja dilaane ke saath iske uttaradaayi logon ke liye maafi ki sifaarish ki gayi thi. is prastaav ka sena aur vishesh roop se sena ke commander Frank baineemaaraama ne purajor virodh kiya. Frank baineemaaraama ne aalochakon ke saath sahamati jataai ki vartamaan sarkaar ke samarthakon jinhone takhtaapalat mein ek nirnaayak bhoomika nibhaai ko kshama daan dena anuchit hai. unhone sarkaar par apne hamle May se July tak lagaataar jaari rakhe jiske kaaran unke sambandh sarkaar se jo pehle se tanaavapoorn the aur tanaavapoorn ho gaye. November 2006 ke ant aur December, 2006 ke shuroo mein, takhtaapalat feeji d' éaatat ke liye baineemaaraama mukhya roop se uttaradaayi tha. baineemaaraama ne apni maangon ki soochi karaase sarkaar ko sonp di jiske baad karaase sarkaar sansad mein ek vidheyak lekar aayi jisme 2000 mein takhtaapalat ke prayaas me shaamil logon ko kshamaadaan dene ki peshakash ki gayi thi. us ne karaase ko 4 December tak in maaaingon ko sveekaar karne ya apne pad se isteefa dene ka alteemetam de diya. karaase ne maagon ko sveekaar karne ya isteefa dene se saaf inkaar kar diya. 5 December ko raashtrapati raatu josefa iloilo, jinhone baineemaaraama se mulaakaat ke baad sansad bhang karne ke ek kaanooni aadesh par hastaakshar kar diye.

apne aakaar ke hisaab se, fiji ka sashastr balon ka bedaa kaafi bada hai aur sanyukt raashtra ke duniya ke vibhinn bhaagon mein chal rahe shaanti abhiyaanon me isne pramukh yogadaan diya hai. iske alaava, Iraq mein 2003 ke ameriki netrutv vaale aakraman ke baad iske kai bhootapoorv sainik Iraq ke suraksha kshetr ki seva me tainaat hain.

raajaneeti

fiji ki raajaneeti aam taur par ek sansadeeya pratinidhi lokataantrik ganaraajya ke daayare mein kaam karti hai. iske tahat pradhaanamantri sarkaar ka mukhiya, aur raashtrapati raashtra ka mukhiya hota hai. desh me bahudaleeya pranaali hai. kaaryakaari shaktiyon ka prayogaadhikaar sarkaar ke paas hai. vidhaayi shaktiyaaain sarkaar aur sansad donon mein nihit hain. nyaayapaalika, vidhaayika aur kaaryapaalika se svatantr hai.

aajaadi ke baad se ab tak fiji me chaar takhtaapalat ho chuke hain, do 1987 mein, ek 2000 mein aur ek 2006 ke ant mein. 1987 ke baad se sena ya to shaasan me hai ya usaka nirvaachit sarkaaron par poora prabhaav hai.

fiji chaar raajanaitik prabhaagon me vibhaajit hai:

  • madhya
  • poorvi
  • uttari
  • pashchimi

in prabhaagon ko aage 14 jilon me baaainta gaya hai.

bhoogol

fiji ka maanachitr

fiji mein 322 dweep hain (jinmein se 106 base hue hain) iske atirikt 522 kshudradveep hain. dweep ke do sabse mahatvapoorn dweep hain viti levu aur vanuaa levu. ye dweep pahaadi hain, jinme 1300 meter (4250 foot) tak ki chotiyaan hain, jo ushnakatibandheeya vanon se aachhaadit hain. rajdhani suva viti levoo me sthit hai aur desh ki lagbhag teen chauthaai aabaadi ka ghar hai. anya mahatvapoorn shaharon mein shaamil hain naadi (antararaashtreeya havaai adda yahaaain sthit hai) aur lautoka (ek badee cheeni mil aur samudri-pattan yahaaain sthit hain).

vanuaa levu ke mukhya shaharon mein laabaasa aur saavusaavu pramukh hain. anya dveepon ya dweep samoohon mein shaamil hain taabeuni aur kadaavu jo kramash: teesara aur chautha sabse bada dweep hain iske alaava maamaanuka samooh (naadi se thodaa baahar) aur yasaava samooh lokapriya paryatan sthalon me hain, lomaaiviti samooh, suva se baahar hai aur doorasth laau samooh. rotuma, dveepasamooh ke uttar mein kuchh 500 kilometer (310 meal) ki doori par sthit hai aur ise fiji me ek vishesh prashaasanik darja haasil hai. fiji ke niktatam padosi tonga hai. fiji mein ushnakatibandheeya jalavaayu hai aur varsh bhar mausam garm bana rahata hai.

arthavyavastha

fiji me prachur maatra me van, khanij aur matasya sansaadhan hain jiske kaaran yah prashaant dweep kshetr ki tulanaatmak roop se adhik viksit arthavyavasthaaon me se ek hai. fiji ne 1960 va 1970 ke dashak mein teji se vruddhi ki lekin 1980 ke dashak ki shuruaat mein arthavyavastha me thaharaav aa gaya, 1987 ke takhtaapalat ne to ise aur manda kar diya. takhtaapalat ke baad ke varshon mein aarthik udaareekaran ke chalte kapda udyog ka vikaas badee tej gati se hua hai saath hi cheeni udyog se judee jameen ke patton ki anishchitta ke baavajood desh ki arthavyavastha ne apni vruddhi dar kaayam rakhi hai. ganna kisaanon ke patton ki avadhi samaapt ho jaane se cheeni ke utpaadan mein riyaayati moolya ke baavajood giraavat aayi hai. cheeni ke liye Europeeya sangh dvaara subsidy ka praavadhaan kiya gaya hai aur sabse adhik laabhaanvit hone vaalon me Mauritius ke baad fiji doosare sthaan par hai. shahareekaran aur seva kshetr ke vistaar ne, haal ke sakal ghareloo utpaad ki vruddhi mein yogadaan kiya hai. teji se badh raha cheeni ka niryaat aur paryatan udyog videshi mudra ke pramukh srot hain. fiji raajasv ke liye paryatan par nirbhar h. cheeni prasanskaran saari audyogik gatividhiyon ka ek tihaai banta hai. lambe samay ki samasyaaon me kam nivesh aur anishchit sanpada adhikaar shaamil hain. fiji mein raajaneetik uthalaputhal ne arthavyavastha par gambhir prabhaav daala hai, jo varsh 2000 mein 2.8% se ghati aur 2001 mein keval 1 % ki dar se badhi hai. paryatan kshetr mein teji se badhottari hui hai fir bhi yeh abhi 2002 ke takhtaapalat ke pehle ke star ko chhoo paane me naakaam rahi hai. haalaaainki mudraasfeeti kam hai fir bhi fiji ke reserve bank ne rin dvaara vittaposhit, atyadhik upabhog ke bhaya ke kaaran neeti soochak dar February 2006 mein 1 % se badhaakar 3.25 % kar di hai. kam byaaj daron ne ab tak niryaat ke liye adhik nivesh naheen jutaaya hai lekin aavaas kshetr me, teji se gir rahi vaanijyik bandhak dar ke chalte uchhaal aaya hai.

suva mein 1984 mein kholi gayi reserve bank ki chaudah manjila imaarat fiji ki sabse uainchi imaarat hai. suva ka kendreeya vaanijyik kendra jo November 2005 mein khola gaya tha yojana ke mutaabik sabse uainchi imaarat honi thi lekin ant mein iske design mein parivartan kar diya gaya aur iske chalte reserve bank abhi bhi sabse uainchi imaarat hai.

sanskruti

fiji ki samruddh sanskruti svadeshi, bhaarateeya, cheeni aur Europeeya parampara ka mishran hai. sanskruti anek pahaluon se milkar bani hai, jinme saamaajik vyavastha, parampara, bhaasha, bhojan, veshabhoosha, vishvaas pranaali, vaastukala, kala, shilp, sangeet, nrutya aur khel aadi shaamil hain. aabaadi ka adhikaansh svadeshi sanskruti se prerit hai aur iski paalana vo apne din pratidin ke jeevan mein karta hai. svadeshi sanskruti par bhaarateeya aur cheeni sanskruti ke, saath hi Europeeya sanskruti ka bhi kaafi prabhaav hai. is sabhyataaon ke mishran ne fiji ki sanskruti ko ek adviteeya aur raashtreeya pehchaan dilaai hai.

bhaasha

yahaaain angreji, feeji hindi aadi kai bhaashaaeain boli evam prayog ki jaati hain.

fiji me boli jaane waali hindi avadhi bhaasha ka hi svaroop hai. fiji me avadh kshetr ka bahut prabhaav hai, vahaaain raamaayan ka boli mein bhi bahut prabhaav hai. avadh mein prayukt shabdaavali aaj bhi jyo ki tyon yanha prachalit hai, jaise sabji petha/seetaafal ko kohanda kaha jaata hai, poodi ko sohaari, pair ko god aadi kaha jaata hai. iska mool kaaran vanha girmitiya ke roop mein pahunche bhaarateeya avadh kshetr ke the. raashtrakavi pandit kamala prasaad mishr, hindi sevi va mantri sv. shri vivekaanand sharma, pro॰aasateindar nandan aadi sabhi ki jade bhaarateeya avadh kshetr mein hai. inke poorvaj faijaabaad, sultaanapur, jaunapur, aadi janapadon se gaye the. isi kaaran yanha ki bhaasha avadhi ke roop mein viksit hui hai aur aaj sthaaneeya prabhaav ke kaaran fiji hindi ke roop mein prachalit hai.

fiji ke mool nivaasi polineshiyaai aur melaashiyaai logon ka mishran hain, jo sadiyon pehle dakshin prashaant ke mool sthaan se yahaaain aaye the. 1879 se 1916 ke beech british 61000 majadooron ko Bhaarat se yahaaain ganne ke kheton me kaam karne ke liye yahaaain laaye the iske baad 1920 aur 1930 ke dashak me hajaaron bhaarateeya svechha se yahaan aaye. aaj yahi bhaarateeya fiji ki arthavyavastha ki reedh hain. bhaarateeya fijiyon ki janasankhya me teji se vruddhi hui hai.

fiji ke mool nivaasi poore desh mein rahate hain, jabki bhaarateeya mool ke fiji naagrik dono pramukh dveepon ke shahari kshetron aur ganna utpaadak kshetron ke paas rahate hain. svadeshi mool ke lagbhag sabhi isaai hain, jinme do tihaai methodist hai. bhaarateeya feejiyon mein 77 pratishat hindu hain, 16 pratishat muslim, 6 pratishat isaai ke saath kuchh sikh bhi hain.

'the ikonomist' ke anusaar 1977 mein 255000 ki sankhya ke saath fiji mool ke naagrik alpasankhyak ho gaye the. 600000 ki kul janasankhya mein se lagbhag aadhe naagrik bhaarateeya mool ke the, jabki shesh cheeni, Europeeya aur mishrit vansh ke hain.

raashtreeya janaganana har das varsh me aayojit ki jaati hai. antim baar ise 1996 mein aayojit kiya gaya tha, lekin 2006 ki janaganana ko 2007 tak sthagit kar diya gaya. vitt mantri raatu jon kubuaabola ne 27 October 2005 ko ghoshana ki, ki "mantrimandal ne faisala liya hai ki janaganana aur aam chunaav ek hi varsh me karaana desh ke hit mein naheen hai, kyonki log chunaavon ki or dhyaan ki vajah se janaganana adhikaari se poorn sahayog naheen kar paayeinge". saankhyiki kaaryaalaya ne unke is kathan ka samarthan ye kehte huye kiya ki chunaav, janaganana se logon ka dhyaan hata deinge jiski vajah se janaganana ka kaarya dushkar ho jaayega.

sandarbh

  1. "2014 Human Development Report Summary". United Nations Development Programme. 2014. pp. 21-25. http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr14-summary-en.pdf. abhigman tithi: 27 July 2014.

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