falit jyotish


falit jyotish us vidya ko kehte hain jismein manushya tatha pruthvi par, grahon aur taaron ke shubh tatha ashubh prabhaavon ka adhyayan kiya jaata hai. jyotish shabd ka yaugik arth grah tatha nakshatron se sambandh rakhanevaali vidya hai. is shabd se yadyapi ganit (siddhaant) jyotish ka bhi bodh hota hai, tathaapi saadhaaran log jyotish vidya se falit vidya ka arth hi lete hain.

grahon tatha taaron ke rang bhinn-bhinn prakaar ke dikhlaai padte hain, ataev unase niklanevaali kirnon ke bhi bhinn bhinn prabhaav hain. inheen kirnon ke prabhaav ka Bhaarat, baibeeloniya, khaldiya, yoonaan, misr tatha cheen aadi deshon ke vidvaanon ne praacheen kaal se adhyayan karke grahon tatha taaron ka svabhaav gyaat kiya. pruthvi saur mandal ka ek grah hai. ataev ispar tatha iske nivaasiyon par mukhyataya soorya tatha saur mandal ke grahon aur chandrama ka hi vishesh prabhaav padta hai. pruthvi vishesh kaksha mein chalti hai jise kraantivrutt kehte hain. pruthvi falit jyotish us vidya ko kehte hain jismein manushya tatha pruthvi par, grahon aur taaron ke shubh tatha ashubh prabhaavon ka adhyayan kiya jaata hai. jyotish shabd ka yaugik arth grah tatha nakshatron se sambandh rakhanevaali vidya hai. is shabd se yadyapi ganit (siddhaant) jyotish ka nivaasiyon ko soorya isi mein chalta dikhlaai padta hai. is kaksha ke ird gird kuchh taaraamandal hain, jinhein raashiyaaain kehte hain. inki sankhya hai. mesh raashi ka praarambh vishuvat tatha kraantivrutt ke sanpaatabindu se hota hai. ayan ki gati ke kaaran yeh bindu sthir naheen hai. paashchaatya jyotish mein vishuvat tatha kraativrutt ke vartamaan sanpaat ko aaranbhabindu maankar, 30-30 ansh ki 12 raashiyon ki kalpana ki jaati hai. bhaarateeya jyotish mein sooryasiddhaant aadi granthon se aanevaale sanpaat bindu hi mesh aadi ki ganana ki jaati hai. is prakaar paashchaatya gananaapranaali tatha bhaarateeya gananaapranaali mein lagbhag 23 anshon ka antar pad jaata hai. bhaarateeya pranaali niryan pranaali hai. falit ke vidvaanon ka mat hai ki isse falit mein antar naheen padta, kyonki is vidya ke liye vibhinn deshon ke vidvaanon ne grahon tatha taaron ke prabhaavon ka adhyayan apni apni gananaapranaali se kiya hai. Bhaarat mein 12 raashiyon ke 27 vibhaag kiye gaye hain, jinhein nakshatr kehte hain. ye hain ashvini, bharani aadi. fal ke vichaar ke liye chandrama ke nakshatr ka vishesh upayog kiya jaata hai.

anukram

parichay

hast chitrit pratilipi (Hand-colored).

jyotishshaastr ya estrolauji (greek bhaasha ἄaaσaaτaaρaaοaaν ke shabd estron, yaani "taara samooh" -λaaοaaγaaίaaα aur -laujiya (-logia), yaani "adhdhayan" se liya gaya hai). yeh pranaaliyon, prathaaon (tradition) aur maton (belief) ka vo samooh hai jiske jriye aakaasheeya pindo (celestial bodies) ki tulanaatmak sthiti aur anya sambandhit vivranon ke aadhaar par vyaktitv, manushya ki jindagi se jude maamalon aur anya saansaarik vishyon ko samajhakar, unki vyaakhya ki jaati hai aur is sandarbh mein soochanaaen sangathit ki jaati hain. jyotish jaananevaale kojyotishi (astrologer) ya ek bhavishyavakta kaha jaata hai.'teesari sahasraabdi E.poo. (3rd millennium BC).[1][2] mein iske praacheenatam abhilikhit lekhon se ab tak, jyotish ke siddhaanton ke aadhaar par kai prathaaon aur anuprayogon ke nishpaadan hua hai. sanskruti, shurooaati khagol vigyaan aur anya vidyaaon ko aakaar dene mein isne mahatvapoorn bhoomika nibhaai hai.

aadhunik yug (modern era) se pehle jyotish aur khagol vigyaan (Astrology and astronomy) aksar avibhedya maane jaate the. bhavishya ke baare mein jaanana aur daiveeya gyaan ki praapti, khagoleeya avlokan ke praathamik prerakon mein se ek hain. punarjaagaran se lekar 18 veen sadi ke ant ke baad se khagol vigyaan ka dheere dheere vichhed hona shuroo hua. falat:, khagol vigyaan ne khagoleeya vastuon ke vaigyaanik adhyayan aur ek aise siddhaant ke roop mein apni ek pehchaan banaai jiska usaki jyotisheeya samajh se kuchh lena dena naheen tha.

jyotishon ka vishvaas hai ki khagoleeya pindon ki chaal aur unki sthiti ya to pruthvi ko seedhe tareeke se prabhaavit karti hai ya fir kisi prakaar se maanaveeya paimaane par ya maanav dvaara anubhav ki jaane waali ghatnaaon se sambaddh hoti hai.[3] aadhunik jyotishiyon dvaara jyotish ko ek prateekaatmak bhaasha (symbolic language)[4][5][6], ek kala ke roop mein ya bhavishyakathan (divination),[7][8] ke roop mein paribhaashit kiya gaya hai, jabki bahut se vaigyaaniko ne ise ek chhadm vigyaan (pseudoscience) ya andhavishvaas (superstition) ka naam diya hai.[9][10] paribhaashaaon mein antar ke baavajood, jyotish vidya ki ek saamaanya dhaarana yeh hai ki khagoleeya pind apne kram sthaan se bhoot aur vartamaan ki ghatnaaon aur bhavishvaani (prediction) ko samajhne mein madad kar sakte hain. ek matadaan mein, 31% amirikiyon ne jyotish par apna vishvaas prakat kiya aur ek anya adhyayan ke anusaar, 39% ne use vaigyaanik maana hai.[11][12][13][14]

vaigyaanik aadhaar

jyotish ke aadhaar par shubhaashubh fal grahanakshatron ki sthitivishesh se batalaaya jaata hai. iske liye hamein sootron se ganit dvaara grah tatha taaron ki sthiti gyaat karni padti hai, athva panchaangon, ya naavik panchaagon, se use gyaat kiya jaata hai. grah tatha nakshatron ki sthiti prati kshan parivrtanasheel hai, ataev prati kshan mein honevaali ghatnaaon par grah tatha nakshatron ka prabhaav bhi vibhinn prakaar ka padta hai. vaastavik grahasthiti gyaat karne ke liye ganit jyotish hi hamaara sahaayak hai. yeh falit jyotish ke liye vaigyaanik aadhaar ban jaata hai.

kundali

kundali vah chakr hai, jiske dvaara kisi isht kaal mein raashichkr ki sthiti ka gyaan hota hai. raashichkr kraantichkr se sambaddh hai, jiski sthiti akshaanshon ki bhinnata ke kaaran vibhinn deshon mein ek si naheen hai. ataev raashichkr ki sthiti jaanane ke liye sthaaneeya samay tatha apne sthaan mein honevaale raashiyon ke udaya ki sthiti (svodaya) ka gyaan aavashyak hai. hamaari ghadiyaaain kisi ek nishchit yaamyottar ke madhyam soorya ke samay ko batalaati hai. isse saaraniyon ki, jo panchaagon mein di rahati hain, sahaayata se hamein sthaaneeya spashtakaal gyaat karna hota hai. sthaaneeya spashtakaal ko ishtakaal kehte hain. ishtakaal mein jo raashi poorv kshitij mein hoti hai use lagn kehte hain. taatkaalik spasht soorya ke gyaan se evam sthaaneeya raashiyon ke udayakaal ke gyaan se lagn jaana jaata hai. is prakaar raashichkr ki sthiti gyaat ho jaati hai. bhaarateeya pranaali mein lagn bhi niryan liya jaata hai. paashchaatya pranaali mein lagn saayan liya jaata hai. iske atirikt ve log raashichkr shirobindu (dasham lagn) ko bhi gyaat karte hain. bhaarateeya pranaali mein lagn jis raashi mein hota hai use oopar ki or likhkar shesh raashiyon ko vaamaavart se likh dete hain. lagn ko pratham bhaav tatha uske baad ki raashi ko doosare bhaav ityaadi ke roop mein kalpit karte hain1 bhaavon ki sankhya unki kundali mein sthiti se gyaat hoti hai. raashiyon ka ankon dvaara tatha grahon ko unke aadyaksharon se vyakt kar dete hain. is prakar ka raashichkr kundali kahalaata hai. bhaarateeya paddhati mein jo saat grah maane jaate hain, ve hain soorya, chandra, mangal aadi. iske atirikt do tamo grah bhi hain, jinhein raahu tatha ketu kehte hain. raahu ko sada kraantivrutt tatha chandrakaksha ke aarohapaat par tatha ketu ka avarohapaat par sthit maanate hain. ye jis bhaav, ya jis bhaav ke svaami, ke saath sthit hon unke anusaar inka fal badal jaata hai. svabhaavat: tamograh hone ke kaaran inka fal ashubh hota hai. paashchaatya pranaali mein (1) mesh, (2) vrush, (3) mithun, (4) kark, (5) Singh, (6) kanya, (7) tula, (8) vrushchik, (9) dhanu, (10) makar, (11) Kumbh tatha (12) meen raashiyon ke liye kramash: nimnalikhit chinh hain :

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

(1) budh, (2) shukr, (3) pruthvi, (4) mangal, (5) guru, (6) shani, (7) vaaruni, (8) varun, tatha (9) yam grahon ke liye kramash: nimnalikhit chinh :

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

tatha soorya ke liye aur chandrama ke liye prayukt hote hain.

bhaavon ki sthiti ankon se vyakt ki jaati hai. spasht lagn ko poorvabindu (vrutt ko aadha karanevaali rekha ke baaeain chhor par) likhkar, vahaaain se vrutt chaturthaansh ke tulya teen bhaag karke bhaavon ko likhte hain. grah jin raashiyon mein ho un raashiyon mein likh dete hain. is prakaar kundali ban jaati hai, jise angreji mein hauroskop (horoscope) kehte hain. Europe mein, bhaarateeya saat grahon ke atirikt, vaaruni, varun tatha yam ke prabhaav ka bhi adhyayan karte hain.

fal ka gyaan

Unbalanced scales.svg
is lekh ki nishpakshata vivaadit hai.
krupaya iske vaarta prushth par charcha dekhein.

fal ke gyaan ke liye raashiyon ke svabhaav ka adhyayan karna padta hai. kundali ke vibhinn bhaavon se hamaare jeevan se sambandh rakhanevaali vibhinn baaton ka pata chalta hai, jaise pratham bhaav se shareer sambandhi, doosare bhaav se dhan sambandhi aadi.[krupaya uddharan jodein] jis bhaav mein jo raashi ho usaka svaami us bhaav ka svaami hota hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein] ek grah raashichkr par vibhinn prakaar se kirnein feinkata hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein] ataev kundali mein grah ki drushti bhi poori ya kam maani jaati hai[kiske dvaara?]. grah jis grah sthaan par atyadhik prabhaav rakhata hai use uchch tatha usase saatavein bhaav ko usaka neech kehte hain. soorya ke saannidhya se grah hamein kabhi kabhi dikhaai naheen padte; tab ve ast hue kahalaate hain. isi prakaar vibhinn sthitiyon mein grahon ke prabhaav ke anusaar unhein baal, yuva tatha vruddh kehte hai. grahon ke anya grah svabhaav ki sadrushata athva virodh ke kaaran mitr athva shatru hote hain.[krupaya uddharan jodein] ataev falit ke liye grahon ke balaabal ko jaana jaata hai. jo grah yuva, apne sthaan athva uchch mein sthit ho tatha apne mitron se yut athva drusht ho, usaka prabhaav bahut hota hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein]isi prakaar vah bhaav jo apne svaami se yut athva drusht ho aur jismein shubh grah hon, poorn fal deta hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein] is prakaar grahon ke balaabal, unki sthiti tatha unapar anya grahon ka bhi vichaar kiya jaata hai. iske saath paristhitiyon tatha manushya ki dasha ka bhi vichaar kiya jaata hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein] inheen sab kaaranon se falit bataana ati kathin kaarya hai. jo log ganit jyotish ke gyaan ke bina fal bataate hain, ve theek naheen bata sakte.[krupaya uddharan jodein] chooainki adhikaansh jyotishi aise hi paae jaate hain, isaliye kuchh logon ko is vidya ki vaijnyaaanikta par sandeh hone laga hai. hamaare jeevan ke oopar sabse adhik soorya tatha chandrama ka prabhaav padta hai[krupaya uddharan jodein], ataev paashchaatya deshon mein sooryasthit raashi (sooryakundali) tatha chandrasthit raashi (chandrakundali) ko vishesh mahatva dete hain. soorya hrudaya ki sthir pravruttiyon ka tatha chandrama pratikshan chal maanasik pravruttiyon ka bodhak hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein] ataev Bhaarat mein chandrakundali ko mahatva diya jaata hai. paashchaatya deshon mein bhi ab log isi vichaaradhaara ko prashraya de rahe hain. chooainki soorya athva chandra ek raashi mein bahut samay tak rahate hain, at: inki kundaliyon se vibhinn vyaktiyon par honevaale prabhaav ka theek adhyayan naheen kiya ja sakta. spasht lagn sheegra badalta rahata hai, ataev lagnakundali ko vyakti ki vaastavik janmakundali maana jaata hai. sookshm fal ke liye hora, dreshkaan, navaansh kundaliyon ka upayog kiya jaata hai.

grahadasha

grahon ka vishesh fal dene ka samay tatha avadhi bhi nishchit hai. chandranakshetr ka vyateet tatha sampoorn bhogyakaal gyaat hone se grahadasha gyaat ho jaati hai. grah apne shubhaashubh prabhaav vishesh roop se apni dasha mein hi daalte hain. kisi grah ki dasha mein anya grah bhi apna prabhaav dikhlaate hain. ise un grahon ki antardasha kehte hain. isi prakaar grahon ki antar, pratyantar dashaaeain bhi hoti hai. grahon ki paarasparik sthiti se ek yog ban jaata hai jiska vishesh fal hota hai. vah fal kis samay praapt hoga, iska nirnaya grahon ki dasha se hi kiya ja sakta hai. bhaarateeya pranaali mein vinshottari mahaadasha ka mukhyataya prayog hota hai. iske anusaar pratyek manushya ki aayu 120 varsh ki maankar grahon ka prabhaav bataaya jaata hai.

shaakhaaeain

falit jyotish ki kai shaakhaaeain hain. paashchaatya jyotish mein inki sankhya chhah hai:

  • (1) vyaktiyon tatha vastuon ke jeevan sambandhi jyotish
  • (2) prashn jyotish,
  • (3) raashtra tatha vishv sambandhi jyotish,
  • (4) vaayumandal sambandhi jyotish,
  • (5) aayurved jyotish tatha
  • (6) jyotishdarshan.

bhaarateeya jyotish mein keval jaatak tatha sanhitaas do shaakhaaeain hi mukhya hain. paashchaatya jyotish ki (1), (2) tatha (3) shaakhaaon ka jaatak mein tatha shesh teen ka sanhita jyotish mein antarbhaav ho jaata hai.

ghatak

grah

gruh English Name ling vimshotari dasha (varsh)
soorya Sun pulling 6
chandra Moon streeling 10
mangal Mars pulling 7
budh Mercury napunsak 17
bruhaspati Jupiter pulling 16
shukr Venus streeling 20
shani Saturn pulling 19
raahu Dragon's Head pulling 18
ketu Dragon's Tail pulling 7

raahoo evam ketu vaastavik gruh naheen hai inhe chhaayaagrah mana gaya hai|

grahon ki aapasi mitrata-shatruta is prakaar hai|

gruh mitr shatru sam
soorya chandra, mangal, guru shukr, shani budh
chandra soorya, budh mangal, guru, shukr, shani
mangal soorya, chandra, guru budh shukr, shani
budh soorya, shukr chandra mangal, guru, shani
guru soorya, chandra, mangal budh, shukr shani
shukr budh, shani soorya, chandra, mangal guru
shani budh, shukr soorya, chandra mangal, guru

raashi

raashi English Name svabhaav raashi svaami
mesh Aries char mangal
vrushabh Taurus sthir shukr
mithun Gemini duisvabhaav budh
kark Cancer char chandra
Singh Leo sthir soorya
kanya Virgo duisvabhaav budh
tula Libra char shukr
vrushchik Scorpio sthir mangal
dhanu Sagittarius duisvabhaav guru
makar Capricorn char shani
kumbh Aquarius sthir shani
meen Pisces duisvabhaav guru

yadi 360° ko 12 se vibhaajit kiya jaae to ek raashi 30° ki hoti hai|

nakshatr

# nakshatr staathi nakshatr svaami pad 1 pad 4 pad 3 pad 4
1 ashvini 0 - 13°a20' mesh ketu chu che cho la
2 bharani 13°a20' - 26°a40' mesh shukr li loo le po
3 kruttika 26°a40' mesh - 10°a00' vrushabh soorya a E u A
4 rohini 10°a00' - 23°a20' vrushabh chandra O va vi vu
5 mrrugasheersha 23°a20' vrushabh - 6°a40' mithun mangal ve vo ka ki
6 aardra 6°a40' - 20°a00' mithun raahoo ku gh chh
7 punarvasu 20°a00' mithun- 3°a20' kark guru ke ko ha hi
8 pushya 3°a20' - 16°a20' kark shani hu he ho d
9 aashlesha 16°a40' kark- 0°a00' Singh budh di doo de do
10 magha 0°a00' - 13°a20' Singh ketu ma mi moo me
11 poorva faalguni 13°a20' - 26°a40' Singh shukr no ta ti too
12 uttar faalguni 26°a40' Singh- 10°a00' kanya soorya te to pa pi
13 hast 10°a00' - 23°a20' kanya chandra poo sh n th
14 chitra 23°a20' kanya- 6°a40' tula mangal pe po ra ri
15 svaati 6°a40' - 20°a00 tula raahoo roo re ro ta
16 vishaakha 20°a00' tula- 3°a20' vrushchik guru ti too te to
17 anuraadha 3°a20' - 16°a40' vrushchik shani na ni noo ne
18 jyeshtha 16°a40' vrushchik - 0°a00' dhanu budh no ya yi you
19 moola 0°a00' - 13°a20' dhanu ketu ye yo bha bhi
20 poorvaashaadha 13°a20' - 26°a40' dhanu shukr bhoo dha fa dha
21 uttaraashaadha 26°a40' dhanu- 10°a00' makar soorya bhe bho ja ji
22 shravan 10°a00' - 23°a20' makar chandra khi khoo khe kho
23 dhanashtha 23°a20' makar- 6°a40' kumbh mangal ga gi gu gay
24 shatabhisha 6°a40' - 20°a00' kumbh raahoo go sa si soo
25 poorvaabhaadrapada 20°a00' kumbh - 3°a20' meen guru se so da di
26 uttaraabhaadrapada 3°a20' - 16°a40' meen shani doo th jh nya
27 revati 16°a40' - 30°a00' meen budh de do ch chi

yadi 360° ko 27 se vibhaajit kiya jaae to ek nakshatr 13°a20'(terah degree bees minute) ka hota hai, arthaat ek raashi me sava-do (2.25) nakshatr hote hai |

gahra vishvaas

praacheen kaal se hi jyotish mein gahra vishvaas prachalit tha, jo ki harmetik (Hermetic) maiksim ke shabdon "jaisa oopar, vaisa neeche" ke saar mein bhi samaahit hai.taaiko braahe ne jyotish par apne adhyayan mein ek samaan saaraansh diya hai: "saspiseeenado despiseeyo", oopar dekhkar bhi main niche dekhta hooain".[15] haalaanki, yeh siddhaant jiske anusaar svarg mein ghatit ghatnaaon ka pratibimb pruthvi par bhi avalokit hota hai, duniya bhar mein bahut si jyotish paramparaaon ka hissa hai, pashchim mein aitihaasik roop se jyotish ke peechhe kaam karne waali kriyaavali par jyotishiyon ke beech bahas hoti I hai. is pe yeh vivaad bhi hai ki aakaasheeya pind kya keval chinh maatr hain ya yeh ghatnaaon ki poorvasoochana hain, ya fir ve vaastav mein kisi prakaar ki shakti ya fir tantr se vaastavik ghatnaaon ka sanchaalan karte hain.[tathya vaanchhit]

bhale hi khagoleeya yaantriki (celestial mechanics) aur sthaleeya gatiki (dynamics) ke beech sambandh sabse pehle isaak nyootan ke gurutvaakarshan (gravitation) ke saarvabhaumik siddhaant ki khoj se saamane aaya, lekin khagoleeya pindon ka gurutvaakarshan hi unke jyotish prabhaav ko janm deta hai yeh baat kisi vaigyaanik anusandhaan dvaara naheen kahi gayi, na hi kisi jyotish ne iska samarthan kiya.[tathya vaanchhit]

adhiktar jyotish paramparaaen vaastavik ya anumaanit aakaasheeya pindon ki saapeksh sthiti aur gati par aadhaarit hoti hain ya fir kisi samay aur sthaan par hui ghatna mein liye gaye ya ganana mein shaamil khagoleeya svarup par aadhaarit hote hain. ye mukhyat: hain - jyotish grah (astrological planets), baune grah (dwarf planets), kshudragrah (asteroids), taarein (star), chandra aasandhi (lunar node), arabi bhaag (Arabic parts) aur kaalpanik grah (hypothetical planets). is prakaar ki ullekhaneeya aabhaasi sthiti ko ushnakatibandheeya (tropical) ya taaraamandal (sidereal), ek or se baarah chinhon (signs) ke raashichkr (zodiac) aur doosari or se sthaaneeya kshitij (horizon) (aarohi (ascendant)-avarohi (descendant) aksh) aur madhya-aakaasheeya (midheaven) - imam koeli (imum coeli) aksh ke dvaara paribhaashit kiya gaya hai.

yeh uttaravarti (sthaaneeya) dhaancha vishisht roop se baarah jyotish gharon (astrological houses) mein vibhaajit kiya gaya hai. iske alaava, ye jyotish ke vibhinn pahalu (astrological aspects) jyaamiteeya/koneeya aur vibhinn khagoleeya pindon aur konon ke beech sambandh sthaapit karta hai.

bhavishya ki pravrution aur ghatnaaon ki bhavishyavaani karne ka jyotish ka daava do mukhya vidhiyon par aadhaarit hai, pashchimi jyotish mein: jyotish sambandhi paaragaman (astrological transit) aur jyotish sambandhi pragaman (astrological progression).jyotish sambandhi paaragaman mein grahon ki gati ke aadhaar par vyaakhya ki jaati hai kyonki antariksh aur kundali se hokar gujrate samay unki gati mahatvapoorn hoti hai. jyotish pragaman mein janm kundali tay padyatiyon ke anusaar samay me aage ki or badhati hai. vaidik jyotish mein nishkarsh pe pahuainchane ke liye grah avadhiyon par dhyaan diya gaya hai jabki paaragaman ka prayog samay se judi mahattvapoorn ghatnaaon mein kiya jaata hai. adhikaansh pashchimi jyotishiyon ne bhi ghatnaaon ka poorvaanumaan lagaana chhod diya hai, uske badle ve saamaanya pravruttiyon aur ghatnaaon par dhyaan keindrit karte hain. tulanaatmak drushti se, vaidik jyotish, pravruttiyon aur ghatnaaon donon ki bhavishyavaani karte hain. sanshaivaadiyon ke anusaar pashchimi jyotishiyon ka ye tareeka pramaan yogya anumaan lagaane se bachaata hai aur unhein mahatvapoorn se svechhit aur asanbandhit ghatnaaon ka abhipraaya apne suvidhaanusaar bataane ka saamarthya deta hai.[16]

ateet mein, jyotish aksar aakaasheeya pindon ke nikat avlokan aur unki chaal par aashrit rahate the. aadhunik jyotishi, khagolavidon (astronomer) ke dovaara diye hue aankadein jo ki ek khagoleeya saarani efemereedas (ephemerides) ke roop mein hote hain, jo khagoleeya pindon ki samay ke saath badalti raashi chakr sthiti ko darshaati hai.

paramparaaen

inhein bhi dekhein: jyotish paranparaaon, prakaar aur pranaaliyon ki soochi (List of astrological traditions, types, and systems)
raashi chakr (Zodiac) chinh, 16 veen shataabdi Europe, ek kaashthachitr

jyotishiyon ki bahut saari paramaparaaeain hain, jinmein se kuchh jyotish siddhaanton aur sanskrutiyon ke prasaaran ke kaaran ek si visheshata waali hoti hain anya doosari paranparaaon ka vikaas vilgan mein hua aur unke jyotish siddhaant alag hain, haalaanki unamein bhi ek hi khagoleeya srot se liye jaane ke kaaran kuchh saamaanya visheshataaen hoti hain.

vartamaan paranparaaeain

aadhunik jyotishiyon dvaara jin mukhya paramparaaon ka istemaal kiya jaata hai, vo hain:

vaidik aur pashchimi jyotish samaan vansh ke hain jaise ki jyotish ki kundaleen pranaali (horoscopic systems), donon paramparaaon mein dhyaan ek jyotish saarani ya kundali (horoscope) ke nirmaan, khagoleeya tatvon ke prastuteekaran aur kisi ghatna ki jaankaari ke liye soorya, chandrama aur grahon ki sthiti ka gyaan.haalaanki, vaidik jyotish, raashi chakron ke chinhon ko mool nakshatron (constellation) se milaakar nakshatr raashi chakr (sidereal zodiac) ka prayog karti hai, jabki pashchimi jyotish ushnakatibandheeya raashi chakron (tropical zodiac) ka istemaal karte hain. vishuon ke poorv nirnaya ke kaaran (precession of the equinoxes), sadiyon baad, pashchimi jyotish ke baarah raashi chinhon ka unke maulik nakshatron ki tarah aakaash ke samaan bhaag se sambandh naheen raha.pravhaav ki drushti se, pashchimi jyotish mein chinhon aur nakshatron ke beech sambandh toot gaya hai, jabki vaidik jyotish mein abhi bhi iska sarvochch mahatva hai. donon sabhyataaon ke beech anya matabhedon mein shaamil hain- 27 (ya 28) nakshatr (nakshatra) ya chandra bhavan ke prayog jinka upayog Bhaarat mein vaidik kaal se kiya ja raha hai aur grahon ki avadhi ki pranaali jinhein dasha (dashas) ke naam se jaana jaata hai.

cheeni jyotish mein ek poornataya vibhin parampara ka vikaas hua hai. is mein pashchimi aur bhaarateeya jyotish se vipreet aakaash ka vibhaajan baarah raashi chakr ke sthaan par aakaasheeya bhoomadhya rekhaaon dvaara kiya jaata hai. cheeneeyon ne ek aisi pranaali viksit ki jismein har chinh din ke baarah 'dohare ghanton ' aur saal ke baarah maheeno se sambaddh maana jaata tha. raashi chakr ka pratyek chinh alag alag saal par shaasan karta hai aur cheeni brahmaandiki ke panyach tatv pranaali ke saath judkar 60 (12 x 5) varsh chakr deta hai. yahaaain yeh shabd, cheeni jyotish suvidha ke liye prayog kiya gaya hai, lekin Korea (Korea), Japan, viytanaam, Thailand aur anya Asiaee deshon mein theek isi parampara ke sanskaran vidyamaan hain.

aadhunik samay mein, ye paramparaaen ek doosare ke adhik sampark mein I hain, dhyaan dene waali baat ye hai ki bhaarateeya aur cheeni jyotish pashchim mein prachaarit ho rahi hai, jabki pashchimi jyotish ki jaankaari abhi bhi Asia mein simit hai. pashchimi duniya mein jyotish vigyaan mein aadhunik samay mein kaafi vividhta I hai. nae aandolan dikhaai diye hain jisne alag alag drushtikonon par dhyaan keindrit karte hue paaramparik jyotish ko asveekaar kar diya hai, jaise ki madhyabinduon par jyaada jor dena, ya fir zyaada manovaigyaanik drushtikon .haal hi mein hue kuchh pashchimi vikaas:

aitihaasik parampara

apne lambe itihaas ke dauraan, jyotish vigyaan ne kai kshetron mein shoharat praapt ki aur parivartan ke saath-saath ismein vikaas bhi hua. aisi kai jyotish paramparaaen hain jinka aitihaasik mahattv hai, magar aaj vo bahut kam prayog mein aate hain. jyotishiyon ki unamein abhi bhi ruchi barkaraar hai aur ve use ek mahatvapoorn sansaadhan ke roop mein dekhte hain. jyotish ke aitihaasik drushti se mahatvapoorn paranparaaon mein shaamil hain:

pashchimi, cheeni aur bhaarateeya jyotish ke itihaas (history of astrology) ki charcha itihaas ke mukhya lekhon mein ki gayi hai.

gupt paramparaaen

17 veen sadi ki rasaayan vidya paath se uddharan aur prateek.

kai soofi ya gupt paranparaaon ko jyotish se joda gaya hai. kuchh maamalon mein, jaise kabbaala (Kabbalah) mein, jyotish ke apne paaramparik tatvon ko pratibhaagiyon dvaara ikkatha karke antarbhoot kiya jaata hai. anya maamalon mein, jaise ki aagam bhavishyavaani mein, bahut se jyotishi jyotish ke apne kaam mein paramparaaon ko sammilit karte hain. gupt paramparaaen mein nimn- likhit cheejein shaamil hain, lekin gupt paramparaaen itne tak hi seemit naheen hain:

itihaas ke anusaar, pashchimi duniya (Western World) mein rasaayan vidya visheshat: samavargi tha aur jyotish ki paaramparik baabil-yoonaani shaili se mila hua tha; kai maayanon mein ye manogat (occult) ya gupt gyaan ko khojane mein ek doosare ke poorak the.[17] jyotish ne rasaayan vidya ki chaar sansthaapit tatvon (classical elements) ki avadhaarana ka praacheenakaal se lekar vartamaan samay tak upayog kiya hai. paramparaagat roop se, saur-mandal ke saat grohon mein se pratyek ka apna prabhutv kshetr ya adhiraajya hai aur vo nishchit dhaatu par aadhiptya rakhata hai.[18]

raashi chakr

raashi chakr (Zodiac) 6 vi sadi mein aaraadhanaalaya beet alfa, ijraail.

raashi chakr, nakshatron ka ek ghera ya samooh hai jiske maadhyam se soorya, chandrama aur grah aakaash mein paaragaman karte hain. jyotishiyon ne in nakshatron par dhyaan diya aur unako kuchh vishisht mahatva diya. samay ke saath-saath unhonne baarahon nakshatron ki vishishtataaon ko dhyaan mein rakhakar us par aadhaarit baarah raashi chinhon (signs) ki ek pranaali bana li. (mesh (Aries), vrushabh (Taurus), mithun (Gemini), kark (Cancer), Singh (Leo), kanya (Virgo), tula (Libra), vrushchik (Scorpio), dhanu (Sagittarius), makar (Capricorn), Kumbh (Aquarius) aur meen (Pisces)). pashchimi aur vaidik raashi chakron ka kundalini jyotish ki parampara mein ek hi mool hai, isliye donon ek doosare se bahut se maayane mein samaan hain. doosari or cheen mein, raashi chakr ka alag tareeke se vikaas hua tha. haalaanki cheeniyon ka bhi ek baarah chinhon wala tantr hai (jaanvaron ke naam par aadhaarit), cheeni raashi chakr shuddh panchaang chakr ka havaal deta hai, ismein pashchimi aur bhaarateeya raashi chakron se juda hua koi samakaksh nakshatr naheen hai.

baarah raashi chakron ki sarvanishth baat ye hai ki soorya aur chandrama ki ant:kriya ko hi jyotish ke sabhi roopon mein kendra maana gaya hai.

pashchimi jyotishiyon ke ek bade hisse ne aakaash ko 30 ansh ke baarah baraabar khandon mein baatane vaale ushnakatibandheeya raashi chakr ko apne kaam ka aadhaar banaaya jiski shuruaat mesh ke pehle bindu se hoti hai, jahaaain aakaasheeya bhoomadhya rekha (celestial equator) aur kraantivrutt (ecliptic) (aakaash ke maadhyam se soorya ke path), uttari golaarddh ke valaya vishuv (equinox) par milte hain. vishuon ke purassaran ke kaaran (precession of the equinoxes), pruthvi ka antariksh mein ghoornan karne ka raasta dheere dheere badalta hai, is pranaali mein raashi chakr chinh ka samaan naam vaale nakshatr (constellation) se koi sambandh naheen hai, balki vo maheenon aur rituon ke sanrekhan mein (seedh mein) rahate hain.

vaidik jyotish ki parampara ka paalan karne vaale aur alp sankhya mein yaani kuchh pashchimi jyotishi samaan nakshatr raashi chakr upayog karte hain. yeh raashi chakr usi samaan roop se vibhaajit kraantimndal ka prayog karta hai lekin raashi chinhon ke samaan naam vaale vichaaraadheen nakshatron ki sthiti ke lagbhag sanrekhan mein rahata hai. nakshatr raashi chakr ushnakatibandheeya raashi chakr se ayaanaamsa (ayanamsa) kahi jaane waali doori se baraabar doori se alag hai, jo ki vishuon ke jhukaav ke saath-saath aage badhta hai. iske alaava, kuchh nakshatrajnyaaata (arthaat jyotishi jo nakshatr takaneek ka prayog karte hain) vaastavik, asamaan raashichkron ke nakshatron ko apne kaam mein istemaal karte hain.

kundalini jyotish

jyotish gharon aur grahon evam chinhon ke liye banaaai gaye shilp ke namoone ko prardashit karne waali

18 veen sadi aaisalaind ki paandulipi.

kundali jyotish (Horoscopic astrology) pranaali, bhoomadhya (Mediterranean) kshetr aur vishesh roop se helenistik misr (Hellenistic Egypt) ke aas-paas ke kshetr mein doosari ya pehli shataabdi ke shurooaati daur mein viksit hui.[19] ye parampara samay ke vishisht kshan par svarg ya kundali ke dvi- aayaami aarekh se sambaddh hai. yeh chitr vishesh niyamon aur disha nirdeshon ke aadhaar par khagoleeya pindon ke sanrekhan mein chhipe arthon ko samajhne ke liye prayog mein laaye jaate hain. ek kundali ki ganana saamaanyat: ek vyakti vishesh ke janm ke samay ya fir kisi udyam ya ghatna ke shuruaat mein ki jaati hai, kyoonki us samay ke aakaasheeya sarekhan ko un vishyon ki prakruti ka nirdhaarak maana jaata hai jinke baare mein ham jaanana chaahate hain. jyotish ke is roop ka ek vishisht lakshan jo ise doosaron se alag karta hai vo hai - pareeksha ke vishisht kshan, jise anyatha padhaan ke roop mein bhi jaana jaata hai. par kraantivrutt (ecliptic) ki prushthabhoomi ke saamane, poorvi kshitij ki badhne waali degree ki ganana.kundali ka jyotish duniya bhar mein faile jyotish ka sarvaadhik prabhaavashaali roop hai, khaas taur par Africa, Bhaarat, Europe aur madhya poorv mein aur bhaarateeya (Indian), madhya kaaleen aur aadhunik pashchim jyotish sahit kundali jyotish ki kai mukhya prathaaeain, helenistik paramparaaon se uttpann hui hain

kundali

chitr:Horoscope-handdrawn.jpgek hast- likhit
janmakundali (horoscope).

kundalini jyotish ka kendra aur usaki shaakhaaen, kundali ya jyotish ke lekhaachitr ki ganana hai. yeh dvi-aayaami rekhaachitr prastuti, diye gaye samay aur sthaan par, pruthvi par sthiti ke sahaare, svarg mein aakaasheeya pindon ki aabhaasi sthiti ko darshaata hai. kundali bhi baarah vibhinn khagoleeya gruhon (houses) mein vibhaajit hain jo jeevan ke vibhinn kshetron ka nirdhaaran karte hain. kundali mein jo ganana hoti hai usamein ganit aur saral rekhaaganit shaamil hoti hai jo ki svargeeya nikaayon ki spasht sthiti aur samay ka khagoleeya saarani par aadhaarit hoti hai. praacheen helenistik jyotish mein aaroh kundali ke pehle aakaasheeya gruh ko parilkshit karta tha. yoonaani mein aaroh ke liye horoskopos shabd ka istemaal kiya jaata tha jisse horoskop shabd ki utpatti hui.aadhunik samay mein, yeh shabd jyotish lekha-chitr ko darshaata hai.

kundali jyotish ki shaakhaaen

kundali jyotish ki paramparaaon ko chaar shaakhaaon mein vibhaajit kiya ja sakta hai jo ki vishisht vishyon ya uddeshyon ki or nirdisht hain. aksar, ye shaakhaaen ek anoothe prakaar ki takaneekon ka samuchchaya ya fir bhinn kshetr ke liye pranaali ke mool siddhaanton ke vibhinn prayogon ka istemaal karti hain. jyotish ke kai anya up-samuchchayon aur prayogon ka aarambh chaar maulik shaakhaaon se hua hai.

  • navajaat jyotish (Natal astrology), vyakti ki janm-patri ka adhyayan hai jiske aadhaar par vyakti ke baare mein aur uske jeevan ke anubhavon ke baare mein jaankaari praapt ki jaati hai.
  • kataarchik jyotish (Katarchic astrology) mein chunaavi (electional) aur ghatna jyotish donon shaamil hain. inmein se pehle jyotish mein jyotish ke gyaan ka upayog kisi udyam ya upakram ko shuroo karne ke liye shubh ghadi ka pata lagaane ke liye kiya jaata hai aur baad vaale ka upayog kisi ghatna ke hone ke samay se us ghatna ke baare mein sab kuchh samajhne ke liye kiya jaata hai.
  • pratighanta jyotish (Horary astrology) mein jyotishi kisi prashn ka javaab, us prashn ko poochhe jaane ke kshan ka adhdhayan karke deta hai.
  • saansaarik ya vishv jyotish (Mundane or world astrology), mausam, bhookamp aur dharm ya raajyon ke unnayan evam patan sahit duniya mein hone waali vibhinn ghatnaaon ke baare mein jaanane ke liye jyotish ka anuprayog. ismein jyotish yug (Astrological Ages), jaise ki Kumbh yug (Age of Aquarius), meen yug, ityaadi shaamil hain. pratyek yug ki lambaai lagbhag 2,150 saal hoti hai aur duniya mein kai log in mahaayugon ko aitihaasik aur vartamaan ghatnaaon se sambaddh maanate hain.

jyotish ka itihaas

tres riches hayoores d dak d beri (Trèas Riches Heures du Duc de Berry) se

15 veen sadi mein nikaaya ke kshetr ki chhavi chitr shareer ke hisson aur raashichkreeya sanketon ke beech sambandhon ko darshaata hai.

utpatti

jyotish ke jo siddhaant baad mein Asia, yooropaaur madhya poorv mein viksit hue unka varnan praacheen baabil (Babylonians) mein bhi hai aur khagoleeya chinhon ki unki pranaali doosari sahasraabdi isa poorv ke madhya mein sankalit ki gayi.[20] baad mein khagoleeya chinhon ki yaheen pranaali pratyaksh ya apratyaksh roop mein baabil se Bhaarat, madhya poorv aur misr mein faili, jahaaain yeh pehle se vidyamaan jyotish ke svadeshi roopon ke saath mil gayi.[21] baabil ki jyotish misr mein aarambh mein chauthi shaataabbdi ke madhya isa poorv mein I thi aur doosari aur pehli shaataabbdi ke shuruaat mein ailekjendriya ki vijay ke baad (Alexandrian conquests), yeh baabil jyotish, mistr sabhyata ke dakshini jyotish se mishrit ho gayi aur kundali jyotish ka nirmaan kiya. (horoscopic astrology) jyotish ke is naveen praaroop ki utpatti ailekjendriya misr (Alexandrian Egypt) ki maani jaati hai, jald hi ye praacheen duniya mein Europe, madhya poorv aur Bhaarat mein fail gayi.

aadhunik yug ke pehle

khagol vigyaan aur jyotish ke beech antar jagah jagah par alag hai, ve drudhta se praacheen Bhaarat[22][23], praacheen baabil aur madhyakaaleen Europe (medieval Europe) se judi hui hai, lekin helenistik duniya (Hellenistic world) se ek had tak alag hai. jyotish aur khagol vigyaan (astrology and astronomy) ke beech pehla shabdaarthik (semantic) antar 11 veen sadi mein faarasi khagolajnya (Persian astronomer) Abu- rehaan-al-birooni (Abū Rayhāan al-Bīarūanī)[24] dvaara diya gaya tha. (jyotish aur khagol vigyaan (astrology and astronomy) dekhein).

jyotish udyamon se praapt kiye gaye khagoleeya gyaan ka svaroop itihaas mein praacheen Bhaarat se lekar maaya sabhyata se madhyakaaleen Europe tak kai sanskrutiyon mein doharaaya gaya hai, . is aitihaasik yogadaan ko dekhte hue, jyotish ko rasaayan vidya (alchemy) ki tarah chhadm vigyaan (pseudoscience) ke saath-saath proto science (protoscience) kaha jaane laga (pashchimi jyotish tatha rasaayan vidya neeche se dekhein).

aadhunik yug se pehle kabhi jyotish ko bina aalochna ke sveekaar naheen kiya gaya; helenistik sanshayi logon, girijaaghar adhikaariyon aur madhyakaaleen muslim khagolashaastriyon (Muslim astronomers) jaise ki al-faraabi (Al-Farabi), (alafarebius), ibn-al- hetham (Ibn al-Haytham), (aalhaajein), Abu-rehaan-al-birooni (Abū Rayhāan al-Bīarūanī), aivisena (Avicenna) aur aiviroj ne ise kaafi chunautiyaan Dean. jyotish ko jhootha thaharaae jaane ke vaigyaanik (jyotish shaastriyon dvaara prayog kiye jaane vaale tareeke anumaan par aadhaarit (conjectural) the na ki prayog (empirical) par) aur dhaarmik (roodhivaadi islaami viddvaanon (Islamic scholars) se vivaad) donon hi kaaran the.[25] ibn kyyim-al javjiyya (Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya) ne (1292-1350) apne mifth daar al-sa kedaah mein jyotish aur bhavishyavaani (divination) ka khandan karne ke liye prayogaashrit tarkon ka istemaal kiya hai.[26]

kai pramukh vichaarakon, daarshanikon aur vaigyaaniko, jaise ki paaithaagoras, pleto, arastoo (Aristotle), gailen (Galen), paaraaselasas (Paracelsus), girolaamo kaardan (Girolamo Cardan), nikolas koparniks (Nicholas Copernicus), taaki al- deen (Taqi al-Din), taaiko braahe, gaileeliyo gaileeli, johaanis kepler, kaarl jang (Carl Jung) aur doosaron ne ya to jyotish ke siddhaanton ka prayog kiya ya jyotish mein ullekhaneeya yogadaan diya.[2][27]

aadhunik drushtikon

aadhunik samay mein jyotish vyavahaar mein kai navarachanaaen hui hain.

pashchimi jyotish

  • 20 veen shataabdi ke madhya ke dauraan, alfred vitte (Alfred Witte) aur unke baad reinhold ibarateen (Reinhold Ebertin) ne kendra binduon ke kundali istemaal ke (midpoints in Astrology) vishleshan mein agragaami rahe. (jyotish mein keindrabindu)
  • 1930 ke dashak se 1980 ke dashak tak den roodhyaar (Dane Rudhyar), lij green (Liz Greene) aur steefen aroyo (Stephen Arroyo) sahit kai jyotish shaastriyon ne manovaigyaanik vishleshan (astrology for psychological analysis) ke liye jyotish ka prayog kiya, jinmein se kuchh kaarl jng (Carl Jung) jaise mahaan manovaigyaanik bhi the.
  • 1930 ke dashak mein Don neroman (Don Neroman), "estrojiyograafi" ke naam se ek sthaaneeya jyotish shaastr (Locational Astrology) ko viksit karke ise Europe mein lokapriya bhi banaaya. 1970 ke dashak mein America ke jyotishi jim levis ne (Jim Lewis)aastrokaartograafi naam ki (Astrocartography). ek lokapriya aur alag drushtikon viksit ki. donon hi tareekon se sthaan mein parivartan ke saath jeevan ki sthitiyon mein aane vaale badalaao ko jaana jaata hai.

vaidik jyotish

  • 1960 ke dashak mein,H.aar.sheshaadri (H.R. Seshadri Iyer) ayyar ne yog bindu ko jodkar ek pranaali shuroo ki jo ki pashchim mein lokapriya hui.
  • 1990 ke dashak ke shurooaati daur se, bhaarateeya vaidik jyotish shaastri aur lekhak vi. ke. chaudhari (V.K. Choudhry) ne janmapatri padhane ke liye (Systems' Approach for Interpreting Horoscopes) pranaali drushtikon (bhavishya bataane wala jyotish) jyotish, ki ek saral pranaali ki rachana ki.[28] yeh pranaali jyotish, jyotish jaanane ki koshish kar rahe hain logon ki madad karti hai, ise "S A" bhi kehte hain.
  • svargeeya ke. S. krushnaamoorti (K. S. Krishnamurti) ne vichaaraadheen grah ki dasha (dasha) ke anupaat ko taaron (stars) se up-vibhaajit karke taaron ke vishleshan par aadhaarit krushnaamoorti paddhati ka vikaas kiya, yeh pranaali "ke pi" aur "up siddhaant" ke naam se jaani jaati hai.

duniya ki sanskruti par prabhaav

jyotish vigyaan ka pashchimi tatha poorvi sanskrutiyon par gahra prabhaav pada hai. madhya kaaleen yug mein, jab shikshit log jyotish mein vishvaas karte the, svargik pindon ko gyaan ki pranaali aur unke neeche sthit sansaar ka paraavartan karne waali pranaali ke roop mein maana jaata tha.

jyotish ne vigyaan bhaasha aur saahitya donon ko prabhaavit kiya hai. udaaharan ke liye, influenja ya jukaam (influenza) shabd madhyakaaleen laitin shabd influenshiya se liya gaya, iska naam aisa isliye pada kyonki chikitsakon ka maanana tha ki mahaamaari pratikool grahon aur taarakeeya prabhaav ki vajah se failati hai.[29] shabd aapada, "disaastar" itaaliyn shabd disaistro se liya gaya hai jo ki ek "naakaaraatmak upasarg"[30] dis aur laitin shabd aistar " taara" se vyutpann hai, jiska matlab hai bure taare ya "dusht-nakshatr". visheshan, "lyoonetik" (lyoona/chandrama), "merkayurial" (markaari), "maithunik", (shukr) saamarik, (mangal (Mars)), "aanandit" (bruhaspati/ jov) aur "seesak" (shani) puraane shabd hain jinka prayog un vyaktigat gunon ko bataane ke liye kiya jaata tha jo grahon ke jyotish lakshanon se sabse zyaada milte the ya prabhaavit hote the, iname se kuchh gun praacheen roman devataaon ke gunon se vyutpann hain aur unka naam bhi usi aadhaar par rakha gaya hai. saahitya mein, kai lekhakon visheshakar jioffre chausar (Geoffrey Chaucer)[31][32][33] aur William sheksapiyr,[34][35] ne apne paatron ka varnan karne ke liye jyotish ke chinon ka prayog kiya aur is tareeke se us vivran mein baareeki paida ki. haal hi mein, michel ward ne kaha tha ki kronikaals of naaraniya (Chronicles of Narnia) ke rachayita si.S.luis (C.S. Lewis) ne apni rachana ko saat svargon ke paatron aur chinhon se saraabor kiya. aksar, jyotish prateekon ko samajhne vaale saahityon ki saraahana karne ki aavashyakta hai.

kuchh aadhunik vichaarakon visheshakar, kaarl jang[36] ka vishvaas tha ki jyotish mein dimaag ko padhane aur bhavishya bataane ki taakat haishiksha ke kshetr mein jyotish madhya kaaleen Europe (medieval Europe) ki vishv vidyaalayi shiksha (university education) mein pratibinbit hota hai, jise saat pruthak kshetron mein vibhaajit kiya gaya tha, jinme se pratyek ek grah dvaara prastut kiya jaata tha aur use saat svatantr kalaaon (liberal arts) ke roop mein jaana jaata tha. daante aleeghiri ne vichaar kiya ki ye kalaaen jo aaj us vigyaan mein badal chuki hain, jise ham bhali bhaati jaante hain, usi dhaaainche mein fit baithati hain jismein grahon ko fit kiya jaata hai. sangeet mein jyotish shaastr ka sabse prasiddh udaaharan hai, british sangeetakaar gustav host (Gustav Holst) dvaara banaaya gaya orkestra soot, "the plainets (The Planets)", jiska dhaancha grahon ke jyotish chinhon par aadhaarit hai.

jyotish aur vigyaan

Francis bekan (Francis Bacon) aur vaijaanik kraanti ke samay se shuroo hui vaigyaanik shikshan ki nai shaakhaaen, praayogik avalokanon par aadhaarit pranaaleebaddh praayogik prerana ke tareekon par aadhaarit hone lagi.[37] is bindu par, jyotish shaastr aur khagolamiti alag-alag ho gaye, khagolamiti ek kendreeya ya mukhya vigyaan ke roop mein ubhara jabki jyotish shaastr prakruti vaigyaaniko dvaara ek andhavishvaas ya ek gupt vigyaan ke roop mein dekha gaya. yeh alagaav athaarahavi aur unneesaveen sadi ke dauraan aur tej ho gaya.[38] saaaincha:Infobox Pseudoscience

samakaaleen vaigyaaniko jaise ki richrd daukins (Richard Dawkins) aur steefen haaukins (Stephen Hawking) ne jyotish shaastr ko avaijnyaaanik kaha[39][40] aur paisifik khagolamiti samaaj (Astronomical Society of the Pacific) ke ainadrayoo fraakanoi (Andrew Fraknoi) ne ise chhadm vigyaan kaha.[41] 1975 mein, Amreeki maanavavaadi sangathan (American Humanist Association) ne jyotish shaastr mein vishvaas karne vaalon ke sandarbh mein kaha ki vo log jyotish mein vishvaas karte hain jabki unke vishvaas ka koi pramaanit vaigyaanik aadhaar naheen hai balki uske khilaaf kai pramaan hain.[10] jyotirvid kaarl segan ne paaya ki vo is vaktavya par hataakshar naheen kar sakte, isliye naheen ki vo ye sochate hai ki jyotish maanya hai balki isliye kyoonki unhein lagta hai ki is vaktavya ka lahaja sattaavaadi (authoritarian) hai.[42][43] segan ne kaha ki vo ek aise vaktavya par hastaakshar karne ke ichhuk hote aur jyotish ke vishvaas ke mukhya sidhaanton ko nakaarate, jo is vaktavya se jyaada vishvaasotpaadak aur is se kam vivaad paida karne wala hota.[44]

bhale hi ek samay mein jyotish shaastr ka bada hi simit sthaan raha ho, lekin 20 vi shataabdi ki shuruaat se hi ye jyotish shaastriyon ke beech anusandhaan ka vishay raha hai. 20 vi shataabdi mein navajaat jyotish anusandhaanon ke aitihaasik adhdhayan mein, jyotish aalochak jaifare deen aur sah lekhakon ne ek mukulit anusandhaan kaarya ka utpaadan kiya, jo ki praathamik roop se jyotish shaashtrdiyon ke samudaae mein hi raha.[45]

anusandhaan

mangal prabhaav (Mars effect): prasiddh khilaadion ke janm saarini mein mangal ki dainik sthiti (diurnal position) mein parivartan se aane waali aapekshik aavrutti.

adhdhayan jyotish anumaan aur kaaryakaari tareeke se nikaale gaye (operationally-defined) parinaamo ke beech saankhyikeeya mahatva (statistically significant) se sambandh sthaapit karne mein baar baar asafal rahe hain.[9] jyotish mein prabhaav aakaar (Effect size) ke adhdhayan is nishkarsh par pahuainchate hain ki jyotish anumaanon ki ausat sateekata sanyog se hone waali cheejon se jyaada naheen hai aur jyotish ka kathit pradasrshan aalochanaatmak nirikshan ke samay poori tarah gaayab ho jaata hai.[46]sanjnyaaanaatmak (cognitive) vyavahaar (behavioral), shaareerik aur anya parivrtanasheel ghatakon ki jaanch ke liye adhdhayan karte samay, "time tvins (time twins)" ke ek jyotish adhdhayan ne ye prardashit kiya ki maanav lakshan janm ke samay soorya, chandra aur grahon se prabhaavit naheen hoti.[46][47] jyotish par sanshaya karne vaalon ka ye bhi kehna hai ki jyotish vyaakhyaaon aur kisi ke vyaktitv ke vivran ki kathit (fact) sateekata is vajah se hai kyoonki log sakaaraatmak 'binduon ya hits' ko badha-chadha kar lete hain aur jo kuchh bhi pasand naheen aata ya fit naheen hota use nazar andaaj kar dete hain visheshakar tab jab vivran ke liye aspasht bhaasha ka prayog kiya gaya hon (vague language is used).[46] ve yeh bhi tark dete hain ki aniyantrit shilpakrutiyon ke kaaran jyotish ke saakshyon ko aksar galat roop mein dekha jaata hai.[48] "astro -tvins" ke 15, 000 namoonon ka ek bade paimaane par adhyayan, 2006 mein prakaashit hua tha. isne janm ki taareekh aur saamaanya buddhi aur vyaktitv ke vyaktigat antar ke beech sambandh ki jaanch ki aur is nishkarsh par pahuaincha ki daraasal inke beech koi sambandh hai hi naheen.[49] yeh bhi paaya gaya hai ki raashi chakron aur pratibhaagiyon ke vyaktigat gun ke beech koi rishta naheen hota hai.[49]

fraanseesi manovaigyaanik aur saankhyikeevid Michael gaukuelin (Michel Gauquelin) ne daava kiya ki unhonne kuchh grahon ki sthiti aur kuchh maanaveeya gun jaise vruti ya peshe ke beech sambandh paaya hai.[50] gaukuelin ke sabse vyaapak roop se gyaat daave ko mangal prabhaav (Mars effect) ke roop mein jaana jaata hai, jo ki mangal grah se sambandh prardashit karte hue ye dikhaata hai ki aam aadmi ki tulana mein kisi prasiddh khilaadi ke janm ke samay mangal grah praay: aakaash mein kuchh vishishth sthitiyon mein hota hai yahi daava richrd tarnas (Richard Tarnas) ne apni kruti brahmaand aur maanasikta mein bhi kiya hai isame unhonne grahon ki sthiti aur aitihaasik drushti se mahatvapoorn ghatnaaon aur logon ke beech sambandhon ki khoj ki hai 1955 mein iske mool prakaashan se, mangal prabhaav, ise khaarij karne vaale kai aalochanaatmak adhdhyanon aur sanshayi (skeptical) prakaashanon ka vishay raha hai,[51][52][53] aur saath hi mangal prabhaav ke mool daavon ka samarthan karne vaale ya use vistrut karne vaale kai adhdhayan bhi seemaant patron (fringe journals) mein prakaashit hue hain.[54][55] gaukuelin ki khoj par vigyaan ki mukhyadhaara ne vishesh dhyaan naheen diya.

chitr:Cellarius ptolemaic system.jpgd
tolemaik pranaali (Ptolemaic system), aindriaas selerias (Andreas Cellarius), 1660/61 dvaara varnit.

anusandhaan mein baadhaaen

jyotishshaastriyon ka tark hai ki aaj jyotish shaastr mein vaigyaanik anusandhaan karne mein kuchh mahatvapoorn baadhaaen hain,[56][57] jismein shaamil hai - dhan ki kami, jyotish shaastriyon dvaara vigyaan aur saankhyiki mein prushth bhoomi ki kami,[58] aur sanshaya karne vaalon evam vaigyaaniko ka jyotish shaastr mein paryaapt roop se daksh na hona[56][57][59] jyotish shaastr mein vaigyaanik anusandhaan (scientific research) ke kshetr mein prakaashit patron ki sankhya bahut kam hai (yaani vaigyaanik anusandhaan ki taraf nirdisht jyotish patra ya jyotish anusandhaan ka prakaashan karne vaale vaigyaanik patra (scientific journal) donon hi kam sankhya mein hain) kuchh jyotish shaastriyon ka maanana hai ki aaj jyotish ka kaam karne vaale kuchh log vaigyaanik jaanch ka prayog isliye karte hain kyoonki unhein lagta hai ki dainik roop se graahakon ke saath kaam karne se unka vyaktigat satyaapan (personal validation) hoga.[57][60]

jyotish shaastriyon dvaara diya gaya ek aur tark hai ki jyotish ke jyaadaatar adhyayan mein jyotish abhyaas ki prakruti pratibinbit naheen hoti aur vaigyaanik paddhati (scientific method) jyotish par laagoo naheen hoti.[61][62] jyotish par vichaar rakhane vaale kuchh logon ka tark hai ki jyotish ke virodhiyon ke iraade aur maujooda najariye ke chalte jyotish ki sateekata maaloom karne ke liye hone vaale proyogon mein, chetan ya achetan roop se, jaaainchi jaane waali parikalpana ke nirmaan, jaanch ke sanchaalan aur parinaam ki soochana pakshapaat poorn dhang se di jaati hain .[2][9][10][59][63]

praarambhik vigyaan, visheshakar jyaamiti aur khagolamiti / jyotish, madhya kaaleen vidvaanon (medieval scholars) ki soch ke anusaar daiveeya shakti se jude hue the. 13 vi shataabdi ki paandulipi mein, the kampaas, ishvar ki kruti (creation) ka ek prateek hai, jaisa ki kai logon ka maanana tha - ek vrutt (circle) mein kuchh aisa hota tha jo bilkul hi daiveeya ya sampoorn tha

tantr

jyotishi jyotish ke bhautik tantr ko prastut karne mein lagaataar vifal rahe hain,[64][65] aur kuchh aadhunik jyotishi maanate hain ki svargeeya nikaayon aur saansaarik ghatnaaon mein kaaran aur parinaam ka ek seedha rishta hain.[57]estronaamikl society of the paisifik (Astronomical Society of the Pacific) dvaara prakaashit ek sampaadakeeya mein ye likha gaya hai ki aisa koi bhi pramaan naheen hai jis se ki ye kaha ja sake ki aakaasheeya pindon ka sthaleeya maamalon ko prabhaavit karne mein koi yogadaan ho sakta hai[9] kuchh shodhakartaaon ka maanana hai ki jyotish ke prekshan aur ghatnaaon ke beech theek usi tarah ka akaaran (acausal) aur shuddh roop se sahasamabaddhata (correlative) ka rishta hai, jaise ki kaarl jang diye gaye samakaalik (synchronicity) siddhaant mein bataaya gaya hai.[66] doosaron bhavishyavaani (divination) mein iska aadhaar dekhte hain.[67] fir bhi kuchh ka ye tark hai ki prayog par aadhaarit sahasambandh swayam apani aipistemolaaji (epistemologically) ke bal par khade ho sakte hain aur unhein kisi bhi siddhaant ya tantr ke sahaare ki jaroorat naheen hai.[59] kuchh paryavekshakon ke liye, ye gair-yantravaadi avadhaaranaaen is baat ki vyavahaarikta par prashnachinh lagaati hain ki jyotish ko vaigyaanik maanyata di jaae aur kuchh ne to jyotish mein vaigyaanik paddhati ke prayog ko puri tarah asveekaar kar diya hai.[59] doosari or kuchh jyotish, ye maanate hain ki yadi paryaapt parishkrut vishleshanaatmak tareekon ka upayog kiya jaae to jyotish, vaigyaanik paddhati ke adheen hai aur apne is drushtikon ka samarthan karne ke liye vo is kshetr mein kai pathapradarshi adhdhayan bhi karte hain[68] nateejatan, kai jyotishiyon ne saankhyikeeya satyaapan par aadhaarit jyotish ka adhdhayan jaari rakhane ki vakaalat ki.[69]

yeh bhi dekhein

luaa truti package.lua mein pankti 80 par: module 'Module:Portal/images/a' not found.

jyotish pranaaliyaan
praudyogiki aur vigyaan ke sambandh mein jyotish vigyaan

sandarbh

  1. Robert Hand. "The History of Astrology — Another View". http://www.zodiacal.com/articles/hand/history.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007-06-19.
  2. a aa i aaiseink, H. J., niyaas, di.ke.bi, jyotish:vigyaan ya andhavishvaas?(penguin books, 1982)
  3. David Pingree. "The Dictionary of the History of Ideas, Astrology". http://etext.virginia.edu/cgi-local/DHI/dhi.cgi?id=dv1-20. abhigman tithi: 2007-12-18.
  4. Reinhold Ebertin (1994). Combination of Stellar Influences. Tempe, Ariz.: American Federation of Astrologers. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 978-0866900874.
  5. Michael Star. "Astrology FAQ, Basics for Beginners and Students of Astrology". http://home.istar.ca/~starman/astrofaq.shtml. abhigman tithi: 2006-07-17.
  6. Alan Oken. Alan Oken's As Above So Below. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 978-0553027761.
  7. "Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary". Meriam-Webster. http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/astrology. abhigman tithi: 2006-07-19.
  8. ""astrology" Encyclopæadia Britannica. 2006". Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. http://concise.britannica.com/ebc/article-9356010/astrology. abhigman tithi: 2006-07-17.
  9. a aa i E "Activities With Astrology". Astronomical society of the Pacific. http://www.astrosociety.org/education/astro/act3/astrology3.html#defense.
  10. a aa i "Objections to Astrology: A Statement by 186 Leading Scientists". The Humanist, September/October 1975. http://www.americanhumanist.org/about/astrology.html. sandarbh truti: Invalid <ref> tag; name "humanist" defined multiple times with different content
  11. Humphrey Taylor. "The Religious and Other Beliefs of Americans 2003". http://www.harrisinteractive.com/harris_poll/index.asp?PID=359. abhigman tithi: 2007-01-05.
  12. "Science and Technology: Public Attitudes and Understanding". National Science Foundation. http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/seind06/c7/c7s2.htm#c7s2l3. abhigman tithi: 2007-01-05.
  13. "Astrology". Encarta. (2008). Microsoft. abhigman tithi: 2007-08-28 “aScientists have long rejected the principles of astrology, but millions of people continue to believe in or practice it.”
  14. jyotish: dhokhaadhadi ya andhavishvaas?chaaj buffet dvaara "Astrology Fraud or Superstition". See Sharp Press. http://www.seesharppress.com/astro.html.
  15. Adam Mosley. "Tycho Brahe and Astrology". http://www.hps.cam.ac.uk/starry/tychoastrol.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-06-19.
  16. ebaaut.com : kya jyotish ek chhadm vigyaan hai? jyotish vigyaan ke aadhaar aur prakruti ki jaanch
  17. veor, saamail on estrothyurji, the esoterik treetaaij of hermetik estrolaaji, peepi. 60-117, gloriyn prakaashan, I ऍs bi ऍn 978-1-934206-06-5
  18. veor, saamail on estrothyurji, the jodikl course, peepi. 3-58, gloriyn prakaashan, 2006, I ऍs bi ऍna978-1934206-06-5
  19. David pingri - estral omeins se jyotish tak, bebeelon se Bikaner tak, roma: istituto italiano par l'Africa ai l'oriyente, 1997. PG.26.
  20. "namar belly (bail ki roshani), sansaar ka sabse puraana jyotish dastaavej (surya siddhant, vedic astrology, india is even older than that
  21. aleksaandr David-neel (Alexandra David-Neel), Tibet mein jaadoo aur rahasya, pi.290, dovar prakaashan ink., 1971 I S bi N 0-486-22682-4; pehla fraanseesi ank.1929
  22. "Astronomy in Ancient India". http://www.crystalinks.com/indiastronomy.html. abhigman tithi: 2009-01-27.
  23. "Ancient India's Contribution to Astronomy". http://mathemajik.googlepages.com/astronomy.htm. abhigman tithi: 2009-01-27.
  24. S paains (September 1964), "al birooni ke anusaar khagol vigyaan aur jyotish ke beech antar shabdaarthik antar, aaisis 55 (3):343-349
  25. Saliba, George (1994b), A History of Arabic Astronomy: Planetary Theories During the Golden Age of Islam, New York University Press, 60 & 67-69, ISBN 0814780237
  26. Livingston, John W. (1971), "Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah: A Fourteenth Century Defense against Astrological Divination and Alchemical Transmutation", Journal of the American Oriental Society 91 (1): 96–103, doi:10.2307/600445
  27. Bruce Scofield. "Were They Astrologers? — Big League Scientists and Astrology". The Mountain Astrologer magazine. http://www.mountainastrologer.com/standards/editor's%20choice/articles/science_ast.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-08-16.
  28. vi. ke. chaudhari (V.K. Choudhry) aur ke raajesh chaudhari, 2006, janmapatri bataane waali pranaali drushtikon, system eproch (aastroloji) sistams eiproch for interpreting horoskops (Systems' Approach (astrology)Systems´ Approach for Interpreting Horoscopes), chautha sanshoshit ank, saagar prakaashan, nai Delhi, Bhaarat. aaiesabeeऍn 81-7082-017-0
  29. http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=influenzaonalaain shabdavichaar shabdakosh
  30. "Online Etymology Dictionary: Disaster". http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=disaster. abhigman tithi: 2009-01-22.
  31. A. Kitson. "Astrology and English literature". Contemporary Review, October 1996. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2242/is_n1569_v269/ai_18920172. abhigman tithi: 2006-07-17.
  32. M. Allen, J.H. Fisher. "Essential Chaucer: Science, including astrology". University of Texas, San Antonio. http://colfa.utsa.edu/chaucer/ec22.html. abhigman tithi: 2006-07-17.
  33. A.B.P. Mattar et al. "Astronomy and Astrology in the Works of Chaucer". University of Singapore. http://www.math.nus.edu.sg/aslaksen/gem-projects/hm/astronomy_and_astrology_in_the_works_of_chaucer.pdf. abhigman tithi: 2006-07-17.
  34. P. Brown. "Shakespeare, Astrology, and Alchemy: A Critical and Historical Perspective". The Mountain Astrologer, February/March 2004. http://www.astrofuturetrends.com/id19.html.
  35. F. Piechoski. "Shakespeare's Astrology". http://starcats.com/anima/shakespeare.html.
  36. kaarl ji. jang, "saamoohik achetan ke aadya roop," ka uddharan hai si.ji. jang ka mool lekhan (aadhunik pustkaalaya, repar. mein 1993), 362-363.
  37. Hooker, Richard. "The scientific revolution". http://www.wsu.edu:8001/~dee/ENLIGHT/SCIREV.HTM.
  38. jim testar, pashchimi jyotish ke vigyaan ka itihaas (baileintaain books, 1989), 24 of.
  39. Richard Dawkins. "The Real Romance in the Stars". The Independent, December 1995. http://www.simonyi.ox.ac.uk/dawkins/WorldOfDawkins-archive/Dawkins/Work/Articles/1995-12romance_in_stars.shtml.
  40. "British Physicist Debunks Astrology in Indian Lecture". Associated Press. http://www.beliefnet.com/story/63/story_6346_1.html.
  41. "Astronomical Pseudo-Science: A Skeptic's Resource List". Astronomical Society of the Pacific. http://www.astrosociety.org/education/resources/pseudobib.html.
  42. saigan, kaarl."patra."the hyumanist 36 (1976): 2
  43. Mariapaula Karadimas. "Astrology: What it is and what it isn't,". The Peak Publications Society. http://www.peak.sfu.ca/the-peak/2006-1/issue7/fe-astro.html.
  44. saigan, kaarl.shaitaani duniya: vigyaan, andhakaar mein roshini ki kiran ya the deman honted world: science ej a kaindal in the Dirk.(New York: baileintaain books, 1996), 303.
  45. ji. deen eight al, navajaat jyotish mein haal mein hui unnati: ek vivechanaatmak sameeksha 1900-1976.khagoleeya sangh (England 1977).
  46. a aa i Dean and Kelly. "Is Astrology Relevant to Consciousness and Psi?". http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:mXtoOvmpSHMJ:www.imprint.co.uk.
  47. Robert Matthews (2003-08-17). "Comprehensive study of 'time twins' debunks astrology". London Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 2007-05-22. http://web.archive.org/web/20070522093713/http://www.washtimes.com/world/20030817-105449-9384r.htm.
  48. Dean, Geoffery. "Artifacts in data often wrongly seen as evidence for astrology". http://www.rudolfhsmit.nl/d-arti2.htm.
  49. a aa Peter, Hartmann; Reuter, Martin; Nyborg, Helmut (2006). "The relationship between date of birth and individual differences in personality and intelligence: A large-scale study". Personality and Individual Differences 40: 1349–1362. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2005.11.017. ISSN 0191-8869. Lay summaryDiscovery News (2006-04-25).
  50. gaukuelin M., maanav vyavahaar par laukik prabhaav aurora press, santa fe N em (1994)
  51. benski, si. eight al.1996. "mangal prabhaav": 1000 khel vijetaaon par ek fraanseesi prayog.
  52. jelen, M. pi. kurtj aur ji abel .1997. kya yahaaain maars ifekt hai? ya kya yahaaain mangal prabhaav hai?the hayoomanist 37 (6): 36-39.
  53. sanshayi ya skepatikl -chhadm vigyaan aur apasaamaanyata ki ek pustika mein herbert nijler aur , Ed donaald lekokk (Donald Laycock), David vernon (David Vernon), kaulin groovs (Colin Groves), Simon brown (Simon Brown), imejakraaft, Canberra, 1989, I s bi na 0731657942, pa3
  54. Suitbert Ertel. "Raising the Hurdle for the Athletes' Mars Effect: Association Co-Varies With Eminence". Journal of Scientific Exploration. http://www.scientificexploration.org/jse/abstracts/v2n1a4.php.
  55. Ken Irving. "Discussion of Mars eminence effect". Planetos. http://www.planetos.info/mmf.html.
  56. a aa H. J. aaiseink aur di .ke .bi. nias, jyotish: vigyaan ya andhavishvaas?penguin books (1982) aaiऍsabeeऍn 0-14-022397-5
  57. a aa i E ji filipsan, shoonya varsh mein jyotish ya estrolaaji in the iyar jeero.flear prakaashan (London,2000) aaiऍsabeeऍn 0-9530261-9-1
  58. "School History". The Avalon School of Astrology. http://www.avalonastrology.com/History.htm.
  59. a aa i E M. Harding. "Prejudice in Astrological Research". Correlation, Vol 19(1). http://www.astrozero.co.uk/astroscience/harding.htm.
  60. K. Irving. "Science, Astrology and the Gauquelin Planetary Effects". http://www.planetos.info/sciast1.html.
  61. M. urban luriyn, bahuroopi vishleshan se parichay, jyotish anusandhaan paddhati, khand 1: ek I S A aar sankalan jyotish anusanadhaan ke liye antarraashtreeya samaaj (loss Angeles 1995) I S bi N 0-9646366-0-3
  62. ji peri, ham kaise jaane ki jo ham sochate hain vo ham jaante hai. jyotish anusandhaan mein udaaharan se paddhati tak, jyotish anusandhaan paddhati, khand 1 : I S A aar, sankalan jyotish anusandhaan ke liye antarraashtreeya samaaj ya international society for estronaamikl research (loss Angeles 1995) I S bi N 0-9646366-0-3
  63. Bob Marks. "Astrology for Skeptics". http://www.bobmarksastrologer.com/skeptics.htm.
  64. dau॰ pi. semur, jyotish: vigyaan ka saboot.penguin samooh (London, 1988) aaiऍsabeeऍn 0-14-019226-3
  65. Frank McGillion. "The Pineal Gland and the Ancient Art of Iatromathematica". http://www.astrology-research.net/researchlibrary/Iatr/pineal.htm.
  66. maggi haaid, jang aur jyotish.the ekveriyn press (London, 1992) pi.24-26
  67. jefari korniliys, jyotish ka pal.ek anya dhyaan visheshagya aur jyotish, utsav arora ka tark hai " agar 100% sateekata praapt karni hai to hamein sabhi aspataalon aur chikitsaalayon ko band kar dena chaahiye.vaigyaanik chikitsa upakaranon aur davaaon mein trutiyon aur glat ganana ka ek lamba itihaas hai. yahi haal computer aur ilektraanik donon ka bhi hai. ham bijli se chalne vaale upakaranon aur aujaaron ka khandan bas isliye naheen karte hain kyoonki ve safal naheen rahe hain balki isliye karte hain ki ham in glatiyon ke kaaranon ka pata lagaane ka kaam karte hain .the veseks estrolaujar (bornamaauth, 2003.)
  68. di . kokren, jyotish ke pramaan ki or: ganit yogyata ke liye ek jyotish hastaakshar ya tuvaards a proof of estrolaaji :N estrosignechar for maithemetikl ebiliti , antarraashtreeya jyotish I S A aar sheetakaaleen-vasant vigyapti 2005, ank 33 # 2
  69. em. poteingar (Ed), jyotish anusandhaan paddhatiyon ka sankalan, khand 1 : I S ai aar aintholauji.jyotish anusandhaan ka antarraashtreeya samaaj (loss enjels 1995) I S bi N 0-9646366-0-3

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain

jyotish aur vigyaan
jyotish aur dharm