fafoond

"aarmileriya ostoyi" naamak kavak

fafoond ya kavak ek prakaar ke paudhe hain jo apna bhojan sade gale mrrut kaarbanik padaarthon se praapt karte hain. ye sansaar ke praarambh se hi jagat mein upasthit hain. inka sabse bada laabh inka sansaar me apamaarjak ke roop mein kaarya karna hai. inke dvaara jagat mein se kachara hata diya jaata hai.

kavak (fangas, Fungus) jeevon ka ek vishaal samudaaya hai jise saadhaaranataya vanaspatiyon mein vargeekrut kiya jaata hai. is varg ke sadasya parnaharim (chlorophyll) rahit hote hain aur inmein prajanan beejaanuon (spore) dvaara hota hai. ye sabhi sookaaya (thalloid) vanaspatiyaaain hain, arthaat inke shareer ke ootakon (tissues) mein koi bhedakaran naheen hota; doosare shabdon mein, inmein jad, tana aur pattiyaaain naheen hoteen tatha inmein adhik pragatisheel paudhon ki bhaaainti sanvahaneeyatantr (vascular system) naheen hota. pehle is prakaar ke sabhi jeev ek hi varg kavak ke antargat parigaanit hote the, parantu ab vanaspati vijnyaaanavidon ne kavak varg ke atirikt do anya vargon ki sthaapana ki hai jinmein kramaanusaar jeevaanu (bacteria) aur shleshmornika (slime mold) hain. jeevaanu ekakosheeya hote hain jinmein praaroopik naabhik (typical nucleus) naheen hota tatha shleshmornik ki banaavat aur poshaahaar (, nutrition) jantuon ki bhaaainti hota hai. kavak adhyayan ke vigyaan ko kavak vigyaan (mycology) kehte hain.

kuchh logon ka mat hai ki kavak ki utpatti shaivaal (algae) mein parnaharim ki haani hone se hui hai. yadi vaastav mein aisa hua hai to kavak ko paadap srushti (Plant kingdom) mein rakhana uchit hi hai. doosare logon ka vishvaas hai ki inki utpatti rangaheen kashaabh (flagellata) ya prajeeva (protozoa) se hui hai jo sada se hi parnaharim rahit the. is vichaaradhaara ke anusaar inhein vaanaspatik srushti mein na rakhakar ek pruthak srushti mein vargeekrut kiya jaana chaahiye.

vaastavik kavak ke antargat kuchh aisi parichit vastueain aati hain, jaise guaindhe hue aate (dough) se paavaroti banaane mein sahaayak ekakosheeya khameer (yeast), baasi rotiyon par rooi ki bhaaainti uga fafooaind, charm ko malin karanevaale daad ke keetaanu, fasal ke naashakaari ratuaa tatha kanduva (rust and smut) aur khaane yogya ev vishaili kukuramutte ya khunbhiyaaain (mushrooms).

anukram

rahan-sahan aur vitran

kavak ki ek prajaati

kavak ki jaatiyon ki sankhya lagbhag 80 se 90 hajaar tak hai. sambhavat: kavak sabse adhik vyaapak hain. jaleeya kavak mein ekalaaya (Achlaya), saiprolegniya (Saprolegnia), mitti mein paae jaanevaale myookar (Mucor), penisiliym (Penicillium), esparajils (Aspergillus), fyoojeriym (Fusarium) aadi; lakdi par paae jaanevaale merooliys laikrimains (Merulius lachrymans); gobar par uganevaale paailobolas (Pilobolus) tatha sauraderiya (Sordaria); vasa mein uganevaale yoorotiym (Eurotium) aur penisiliym ki jaatiyaaain hain. ye vaayu tatha anya jeevon ke shareer ke bheetar ya unke oopar bhi paae jaate hain. vaastav mein vishv ke un sabhi sthaanon mein kavak ki utpatti ho sakti hai jahaaain kaheen bhi inhein kaarbanik yaugik ki praapti ho sake. kuchh kavak to laaiken (lichen) ki sanrachana mein bhaag lete hain jo kadi chattaanon par, sookhe sthaan mein tatha paryaapt ooainche taap mein ugate hain, jahaaain saadhaaranataya koi bhi anya jeev naheen rah sakta.

kavak ki adhikaadhik vruddhi vishesh roop se aardr paristhitiyon mein, aaindhere mein ya mandaprakaash mein hoti hai. iseeliye chhatrak adhik sankhya mein aardr aur ushn taapavaale jangalon mein ugate hain.

vaanaspatik shareer ki sanrachana

kuchh ekakoshikeeya jaatiyon, udaaharanaarth khameer, ke atirikt anya sabhi jaatiyon ka shareer koshikaamaya hota hai, jo sookshmadarsheeya ((maaikroskopik)) reshon se nirmit hota hai aur jisse pratyek disha mein shaakhaaeain nikalkar jeevaadhaar (substratum) ke oopar ya bheetar faili rahati hain. pratyek reshe ko kavakatantu (hypha) kaha jaata hai aur in kavakatantuon ke samooh ko kavakajaal (mycelium) kehte hain. pratyek kavakatantu ek patali, paaradarshi naleeya deevaar ka bana hota hai jismein jeevadravya ka ek star hota hai ya jo jeevadravya se poornataya bhara hota hai. ye shaakhi ya ashaakhi rahate hain aur inki motaai 0.5 maaikraan se lekar 100 maaikraan tak hoti hai (1 maaikraan = ek mileemeetar ka hajaaravaaain bhaag).

jeevadravya ya to atoot poore kavakatantu mein faila rahata hai jismein naabhik (nucleus) bina kisi nishchit vyavastha ke bikhre rahate hain, anyatha kavakatantu deevaaron ka pat (septum) dvaara vibhaajit rahate hain jisse sanrachana bahukoshikeeya hoti hai. pehli avastha ko bahunaabhik (coenocytic) tatha doosari ko patayukt (septate) avastha kehte hain. pratyek koshika mein ek, do ya adhik naabhik ho sakte hain.

adhikaansh kavak ke tantu rangaheen hote hain, kintu kuchh mein ye vibhinn rangon se rainge hote hain.

saadhaaran kavak ka shareer dheele kavakatantuon se nirmit hota hai kintu kuchh uchch kavakon ke jeevanavrutt ki kuchh avasthaaon mein unase kavakajaal ghane hokar saghan ootak banaate hain jise sanjeevitk (plectenchyma) aur kootajeevitk (preudoparenchyma).

deerghitk dheela ootak hota hai, jismein pratyek kavakatantu apna apanatv banaae rakhata hai. kootajeevitk mein sootr kaafi ghane hote hain tatha ve apna aikaatmya kho baithate hain aur kaatne par uchchavargeeya paudhon ke jeevitk koshon (Parenchyma cells) ke samaan dikhaai padte hain. in ootakon se vibhinn prakaar ke vaanaspatik aur prajanan vinyaas (reproductive structure) ka nirmaan hota hai.

kavak ki banaavat chaahe kitni hi jatil kyon na ho, par ve sabhi kavakatantuon dvaara hi nirmit hote hain. ye tantu itne saghan hote hain ki ve ootak ke roop mein prateet hote hain, kintu kavakon mein kabhi bhi vaastavik ootak naheen hota.

koshikaabhitti (cell wall) ki raasaayanik sanrachana evam koshika vigyaan (cytology)

kuchh jaatiyon ko chhodkar kavakon ki koshikaabhittiyon ki raasaayanik vyaakrutiyaaain (chemical composition) vibhinn jaatiyon mein bhinn-bhinn hoti hain. kuchh jaatiyon ki koshikaabhittiyon mein selulos ya ek vishesh prakaar ka kavak selyoolos paaya jaata hai tatha anya jaatiyon mein kaaitin (chitin) koshikaabhitti ke nirmaan ke liye mukhya roop se uttaradaayi hota hain. kai kavakon mein kailos (callose) tatha anya kaarbanik padaarth bhi koshikaabhitti mein paae gaye hain.

kavakatantu mein naabhik ke atirikt koshikaadravya (cytoplasm) tailavindu tatha anya padaarth upasthit rahate hain, udaaharanaarth kailsiym oksalet, (calcium oxalate) ke rave, proteen kan ityaadi. pratyek jaati mein protoplaast (protoplast) harimkanak (chloroplast) rahit hota hai. yadyapi koshikaaon mein staarch ka abhaav hota hai, tathaapi ek doosra jatil paulisaikeraaid glaaikojan (polysaccharide glycogen) paaya jaata hai.

poshaahaar (nutrition)

parnaharim ki anupasthiti ke kaaran kavak kaarban daai-oksaaid aur jal dvaara carbohydrate nirmit karne mein asamarth hote hain. at: apne bhojya padaartho ki praapti ke liye anya vanaspatiyon, jantuon tatha unke mrut shareer par hi aashrit rahate hain. inki jeevanavidhi aur sanrachana isi par aashrit hain. yadyapi kavak kaarban daai-oksaaid se sharkara nirmit karne mein poornataya asamarth hote hain tathaapi ye saadhaaran vileya sharkara se jatil carbohydrate ka sanshleshan kar lete hain, jisse inki koshikaabhitti (cell wall) ka nirmaan hota hai. yadi inhein saadhaaran carbohydrate aur naaitrojan yaugik (nitrogenous compound) diye jaaeain to kavak inse proteen aur antat: (protoplasm) nirmit kar lete hain.

mrutopajeevi (saprophyte) ke roop mein kavak ya to kaarbanik padaarthon, utsarjit padaarth (waste product) ya mrut ootakon ko vishleshit karke bhojan praapt karte hain. parajeevi (parasite) ke roop mein kavak jeevit koshon par aashrit rahate hain. sahajeevi (symbiont) ke roop mein ye apna sambandh kisi anya jeev se sthaapit kar lete hain, jiske falasvaroop is maitri ka laabh donon ko hi mil jaata hai. in dinon prakaar ki bhojanareetiyon ke madhya mein kuchh kavak aate hain jo paristhiti ke anusaar apni bhojanapranaali badalate rahate hain.

vibhinn kavakon ke liye vibhinn khaadya saamagri ki aavashyakta hoti hai. kuchh kavak sarvabhoji hote hain tatha kisi bhi kaarbanik padaarth se apna bhojan praapt kar sakte hain, jaise aisparajils (Aspergillus) aur penisiliym. anya kavak apne bhojan mein vishesh dustoshya hote hain. kuchh sada paraashrayi ke poshan ke liye jeevit protoplaajm ki hi naheen varan kisi vishesh jaati ke aadhaar ki bhi aavashyakta hoti hain.

mrutopajeevi (saprophyte) kavak ke kavakatantu aadhaar ke nikat sansparsh mein aakar apna bhojan apne reshon ki deevaar se visran (diffusion) dvaara praapt karte hain.

paraashrayi (parasite) kavak jantuon aur vanaspatiyon ki koshikaaon se poshit hote hain aur is prakaar ye apne poshak ko haani pahuainchaane hain, jiske kaaran vanaspatiyon evam jantuon mein vyaadhiyaaain utpann hoti hain. kavakajaal praaya: poshakon ke dharaatal par athva poshakon ke bheetari sthaanon mein ant: koshika (intercellular) ya poshakon ke koshon ko chhedakar (intracellular) ugate hain kavakatantu ke agrabhaag se ek prakaar ke enjaaim (enzyme) ka sraav hota hai jisse inhein koshakaabhitti ke bedhan tatha vightan mein sahaayata praapt hoti hai. ant: koshiktantu ek vishesh prakar ki shaakhaaon ko poshak koshikaaon mein bhejate hain jinhein aashoshaang (haustoria) kehte hain. ye aashoshaang ati sookshm chhidron dvaara koshikaabhitti (cell wall) mein pravesh karte hain. ye visheshit avashoshak ang (absorbing organs) hote hain, jo vibhinn jaatiyon mein vibhinn prakaar ke hote hain. jantuon mein paae jaanevaale paraashrayi kavakon mein avashoshakaang naheen paae gaye hain.

sada paraashrayi (obligate parasite) apna bhojan koshikaaon ke jeevit jeevadravya se hi praapt karte hain, kintu vaikalpik paraashrayi (facultative parasite) adhiktar paraashrayi jeevan vyateet karte hain parantu kabhi-kabhi mrutopajeevi roop se bhi apna bhojan praapt karte hain.

keeton dvaara kavak ki kheti

dakshini Africa mein kuchh cheentiyaaain tatha deemakein kavakon ka keval aahaar hi naheen karateen varan unako ugaati bhi hain. ye jeev vishesh prakaar ke kaarbanik padaartho ko ikattha kar apne ghosalon mein bichhaate hain jinpar kavak achhi tarah ug sakein. kuchh dashaaon mein ye kavakon ka ropan karte hain. vidvaanon ka aisa vichaar hai ki ek jaati ki cheenti apna vishesh kavak utpann karti hain.

inhein bhi dekhein