faarasi saahitya

faarasi bhaasha aur saahitya apni madhurata ke liye prasiddh hai. faarasi Iran desh ki bhaasha hai, parantu usaka naam faarasi is kaaran pada ki faaras, jo vastut: Iran ke ek praant ka naam hai, ke nivaasiyon ne sabse pehle raajaneetik unnati ki. is kaaran log sabse pehle isi praant ke nivaasiyon ke sampark mein aae at: unhonne saare desh ka naam 'parsis' rakh diya, jisse aajkal Europeeya bhaashaaon mein Iran ka naam parshiya, pers, prejiyn aadi pad gaya.

anukram

parichay

faarasi bhaasha ka sambandh bhaashaaon ke aarya parivaar se hai, jisse sanskrut, yoonaani, laitin, angreji, French, jarman aadi bhi sambaddh hain. 'Iran' shabd ka vaastavik roop "aaryaana" tha, jaisa yavan lekhak likhte hain. aaryaana se dheere-dheere Iran shabd ban gaya. yavan lekhakon ne aaryaana shabd ka aadhunik Iran tatha Afghanistan donon ke liye prayog kiya hai. faarasi, aarya bhaashaaon ki poorvi shaakhaaon se sambandh rakhati hai. iske praacheenatam namoone paarasiyon ki dhaarmik pustak avesta ki gaathaaon (mantron) mein milte hain. usase kuchh kam praacheen bhaasha vah hai jo Iran ke samraaton dvaara pahaadon, chattaanon par khudaae hue lekhon mein milti hai. parantu in donon ki bhaashaaon mein vishesh antar naheen hain. afaganistaan ki aadhunik bhaasha arthaat pashto bhi usi samay ki ek Irani bhaasha se nikli hai. yeh vah samay tha jab Iran aur Bhaarat ko alag hue adhik samay naheen hua tha. praacheen Irani bhaasha, jise Europeeya lekhak jeind kehte hain aur sanskrut ek-doosare se itni milti-julati tatha sameep hain ki avesta ki gaathaaon ka anuvaad vaidik sanskrut mein shabd-prati-shabd tatha chhand ho sakta hai. padhne mein yeh bhaasha poornaroopen sanskrut ke samaan gyaat hoti hai. udaaharanaarth Iran ke samraat daara pratham ke ek shilaalekh ke ek vaakya mein kaha gaya hai "uta naaham uta gaura frajaanam" arthaat mainne shatru ki naak va kaan donon katava diye. isi prakaar ek vaakya mein kehta hai ki "adam kaaram paarsam uta maadam faairaayam haya up maam aah" arthaat mainne paarasi tatha meedi senaaeain, jo mere paas theen, donon bhejeen. 'adam' vahi shabd hai jo sanskrut mein 'ahan' hai tatha jiska arth 'main' hai.

yeh parivaar, jismein daara pratham aadi the, 'hakhaamanishi' kahalaata hai aur iska raajya san 559 isa poorv ke pehle sthaapit hua aur san 326 isa poorv sikandar dvaara nasht hua. yavanon ka raajya bhi adhik samay tak Iran mein sthir naheen rah saka aur sheegra hi ek jaati ne, jise 'paarthiyn' kehte hain, apna adhikaar Iran par jama liya. inko Irani bhaasha, sanskruti, dharm aadi mein koi abhiruchi naheen thi pratyut ve yoonaani bhaasha tatha sanskruti ke premi the. inke samay mein Irani dhaarmik pustakein aadi bahut si nasht ho gain. inke raajya ke antim kaal mein Irani raashtra-dharm mein inki kuchh ruchi dikhlaai di aur dhaarmik granthon ko ekatrit karne ka kuchh prayaas hua par isi samay desh mein ek doosari kraanti utpann ho gayi. ek doosare vansh ka, jise 'saasaani' kehte hain, san 226-28 E. mein desh par adhikaar tatha raajya ho gaya. is vansh ka raajya san 642 E. tak raha aur musalmaanon dvaara nasht kar diya gaya. is yug ki faarasi bhaasha 'pahalavi' kahalaati hai, jo aajkal ke faarasi ke bahut sameep hai par poornat: ek si naheen hai. is yug mein paarasiyon ki dhaarmik pustakein pun: ekatrit ki gain tatha faarasi dharm fir jeevit ho utha. us yug ki faarasi pahalavi naam se vikhyaat thi par saath hi saath pahalavi ek prakaar ki lipi ka bhi naam hai. is lipi par surayaani arthaat praacheen Syria ki bhaasha ka bada prabhaav tha. bahut se shabd surayaani aksharon mein likhe jaate aur faarasi mein padhe jaate the. udaaharan ke liye surayaani aksharon mein "lakhama" likhte the aur use faarasi 'naan' arthaat roti padhte the. jaise angreji mein L. S. di. (L. S. D.) likhte hain aur pound, shiling, peins padhte hain, kyonki ve kramash: laitin bhaasha ke shabd libraai, saalidi tatha denaarii hain. is bhaasha mein jo saahityik kaarya hua hai usaka paryaapt bhaag abhi tak praapt hai.

dhaarmik kshetr mein avesta ki teeka 'jeind' ke naam se likhi gayi hai aur fir usaki teeka ki gayi, jiska naam 'pajed' hai. avesta ke aur bhi anuvaad pahalavi mein hue. inke atirikt dhaarmik vishay par "deenakart" naamak pustak rachi gayi, jismein paarasiyon ki prathaaon, itihaas, aadi par bahut kuchh likha hua hai. "bundahishn" bhi dhaarmik pustak hai jo 12veen shati isavi mein likhi gayi aur jiska adhikaansh kaafi puraana hai. "daatistaane deenik" athva dhaarmik upadesh teesara granth hai, jiske sambandh mein vest naamak vidvaan kehta hai ki iska anuvaad bahut kathin hai. "shinkad goomaanik veejaar" naveen shataabdi isavi ke ant mein likhi gayi. ismein isaai, yahoodi, musalmaan, dharmon ne jo aapattiyaaain paarasi dharm par ki hain unka uttar hai. "mainoe khird" mein paarasi dharm ke baare mein 62 prashnon ke uttar hain. "ardaviraaf" naamak ek badi aakarshak pusatak hai, jismein granthakarta ke baijnth, narak aadi mein sair karne ka varnan hai, jaisa musalmaanon mein paingabar saab ke aakaash par svarg narak ka bhraman karne ka vishvaas hai. itaaliyn mein daante naamak kavi ki inafarano tatha paradaaijo rachanaaeain hain, jinmein kavi varnan karta hai ki kis prakaar usane aakaash par jaakar svarg tatha narak ki sair ki hai. "maatigaane gujastak abaalish" ko fraanseesi vidvaan ne parakajeind, uske paarasiyon dvaara kiye gaye faarasi anuvaad tatha French anuvaad ke saath san 1883 E. mein chhaapa hai.

ye sab to dhaarmik pustakein theen. saansaarik vishyon par likhi prasiddh pustakon mein "jaamaaspanaamak" ka naam liya ja sakta hai. ismein praacheen Iran ke baadashaahon ki kathaaeain aadi hain. "andaraje khusarave kavaataan" mein un aadeshon ki charcha hai, jo Iran ke prasiddh samraat nausheravaaain ne marate samay diye the. "khudaai naamak" arthaat baadashaahon ki kitaab musalmaanon ke samay tak thi. iska anuvaad arabi mein bhi hua hai. "yaatkaare jreeraan" ko "shaahanaamae gastaashp" bhi kehte hain. "kaaranaamake aratakhshatre paapakaan" mein saasaani vansh ke sansthaapak ardashir ki kathaaeain hain. khusarave kavaataan aur uske gulaam ki kahaani par bhi ek pustak hai. yahaaain tak pahalavi saahitya ki vishisht pustakon ka ullekh hua. inke atirikt kuchh aur chhoti chhoti rachanaaeain hain jinka vivran naheen diya ja raha hai.

musalmaanon ne san 642 E. mein Iran vijay kiya tha aur uske 200 varsh baad tak jo kavi ya lekhak hue ve sab arabi mein likhte rahe, par iske anantar raajaneetik paristhiti badli. iraaniyon ki sahaayata se abbaasiyon ne, jo paiganbar saahab ke chaacha Abbas ki santaanon mein se the, bani ammiya ko paraast kar apna raajya sthaapit kiya to iraaniyon ko pun: panapane ka avsar mila. aarambh mein abbaasiyon ke mantri Irani hi hote the. abbaasiyon ke chhathe khaleefa maamooain ki maata Irani thi, jisse svabhaavat: use Iran se prem tha aur iraaniyon ke prati sahaanubhooti bhi thi. usane ek Irani ko bukhaara, khuraasaan aad ka praantaadhyaksh niyat kiya. yahi saamaani vansh ka sansthaapak hua. inheen saamaaniyon ke kaal mein faarasi bhaasha tatha saahitya ko punarjeevan mila. ek or saamaani vansh sthaapit hua aur doosari or arab shakti ksheen hone lagi tatha Irani apni khoi hui svatantrata ko praapt karne ka pun: prayatn karne lage. inke saath saath faarasi bhaasha tatha saahitya ki bhi unnati hone lagi. saamaani yug se bhi pehle kuchh kavi Iran mein hue par unki kavitaaeain bahut kam praapt hain. isliye ham unhein chhodkar faarasi saahitya ka aarambh saamaani yug se hi maaneinge. is yug tak faarasi bhaasha bahut kuchh badal chuki thi tatha usapar arabi bhaasha evam saahitya ka gambhir prabhaav pad chuka tha aur faarasi arabi lipi mein likhi jaane lagi thi. jaise jaise Irani musalmaan hote gaye vaise vaise puraani bhaasha chhodte gaye. isi faarasi ko isalaam ke baad ki faarasi, isalaamottar kaal ki faarasi, kaha jaata hai aur vaastav mein yahi vah faarasi hai jo apni madhurata tatha saushthav ke liye prasiddh hai.

saamaani yug (san 874-999 E.)

yug faarasi bhaasha ke saahitya ki vaastavik unnati ka samay hai. vastut: isi yug mein faarasi ke bade bade saahityakaar utpann hue, jinhonne aanevaali peedhiyon ke kaviyon tatha lekhakon ke liye maarg prashast kiya tha. abhi tak jo faarasi saahitya tha vah kavita arthaat padya tak seemit tha. parantu is yug mein faarasi gadya ne bhi unnati ki.

saamaaniyon ke samay ka ek prasiddh kavi Abu shukoor balakhi hai. isne rubaai naamak chhand nikaala, jisne baad mein vishesh unnati ki. kintu is kaal ka sarvashreshth kavi roodaki ya roodagi hai, jo Iran ka pratham mahaakavi hai. iska naam Abu abdulla jaafar bin muhammad hai. iska upanaam roodaki hai, jo uske gram ke naam se liya gaya hai. kaha jaata hai ki vah andha tha parantu is dosh ke rahate par bhi vah saamaani baadshah nasar bin Ahmad ko pasand tha. usaki shaili saral tatha sugam hai, fir bhi kuchh seema tak usamein "takalluf" (sankoch, aadanbar) paaya jaata hai, jo baad ki faarasi kavita ka vishisht gun ho gaya. roodaki gaayan kala mein bhi praveenata rakhata tha. isne gajalein tatha kaseede likhe hain aur vaamik evam ejra naamak ek aakhyaanak kaavya bhi likha hai, jiska mool pahalavi ka hai. roodaki ki mrutya san 954 E. mein hui. saamaani yug ka ek anya ullekhaneeya kavi "dakeeki" hai jiske baare mein kaha jaata hai ki usane pehle shaahanaama kavitaabaddh karna aarambh kiya tha kintu use poora karne ke pehle hi apne das ke haathon maara gaya. dharm ki drusht se dakeeki jraayustri arthaat agnipoojak tha. madira tatha jarayustri dharm ki prashansa mein usaki kavita prasiddh hai.

gadya mein likhit pustakon mein se kuchh ka vivran is prakaar hai :

kitaab ajaayabul al barro al bahar ya ajaayabul buldaan mein iraan ke vibhinn praanton ka moolyavaan vivran praapt hai. kitaab hudoodul aalsaramin almasharik va almagarib ke rachayita ka naam gyaat naheen, jaisa usaki bhoomika se prakat hai. yeh san 372 hi. ki rachana hai. kitaabulabiniya an hakaayakul adaviya pustak oshadhiyon par hai. yeh Abu mansoor muvaffik haravi ki rachana kahi jaati hai. tarjuma taareekh tabari ke mool arabi granth ka lekhak muhammad bin jareer tabari hai, jiska anuvaad faarasi mein kai vidvaanon ne mansoor bin nooh ke aadesh se kiya tha. tarjuma takseer tabari ka bhi mool lekhak muhammad bin jareer tabari hai aur iska bhi faarasi anuvaad mansoor bin nooh ke aadesh se kai vidvaanon ne milkar kiya tha.

gjanavi yug

saamaani vansh ka ant gajanaviyon ke dvaara hua. gajanavi vansh ka sansthaapak alpatagi naamak ek Turkey das tha. uske baad usaka das subuktageen gaddi par baitha. iske baad iska beta Mehmood gajanavi sinhaasan par aaroodh hua. yeh vidya tatha saahitya ka aashrayadaata tha. iske darbaar mein bade bade kavi tatha vidvaan ekatr the. is kaal mein kaseeda kehne ki pratha ne badi unnati ki. baadshah ke darabaari kaviyon mein unsuri, farrukhi tatha asujdi bahut prasiddh hain, jinhein kaseeda kehne mein shreya praapt hai. sulataan Mehmood ke hi samay mein firdausi ne shaahanaama likha, jismein saath sahasr sher hain aur jo sansaar ke bade yuddhakaavyon mein parignit hain.

is yug mein gadya ki bhi badi unnati hui. is kaal ke prasiddh vidvaan alaberuni ne "altaffaheem laavaayel sinaayatul tannajeem" naamak faarasi granth jyotish (najoom) par likha. is granth ki visheshata yeh hai ki najoom ki sooktiyaaain arabi ke badle faarasi mein hain. prasiddh hakeem tatha tatvavetta hakeem ibr seena ne daanishnaama alaai ya hikmat alaai faarasi mein likha aur poora prayatn kiya ki aadhyaatmik siddhaant faarasi mein banaaeain. ivne seena ki anya rachanaaeain bhi hain. isi yug ka prasiddh itihaasakaar abulfjl baihiki hai jiski prasiddh rachana taareekhe baiheeki hai. iski shaili sugam tatha prasaadapoorn hai. faarasi gadya ki achhi se achhi rachanaaon mein iski ginti hai. "kashaful mahajoob" faarasi mein soofi mat ki pehli pusatak hai. iska lekhak Ali bin usamaan hujveeri gajnavi hai, jise daata ganjabakhsh bhi kehte hain. inki kabr Lahore mein hai.

sulataan Mehmood san 1030 E. mein mara. iske anantar iska putr masaood gaddi par baitha. iske samay mein ek turk kabeele ne, jiska naam seljuk tha, baadshah ko paraast kar apna shaasan khuraasaan tatha iraak mein sthaapit kiya aur kramash: bahut utkarsh ko pahuaincha. ab is kaal mein gajanavi tatha selajuki yug saath saath chale. faarasi bhaasha tatha saahitya ki unnati baraabar hoti rahi, pratyat gajanaviyon tatha seljukayon ki faarasi anya deshon mein bhi failane lagi. is yug ke gadyalekhakon mein se nijaamulmulak toosi vishesh roop se ullekhaneeya hai kyonki yeh do selajuki baadashaahon aspaarsalaaain tatha malik shaah ke 30 varsh tak mantri rahe. saasatanaam: inki prasiddh rachana hai, jiski bhaasha tatha lekhanashaili saral tatha sugam hai. is yug ka ek doosra gadyalekhak unsurul maaali kaikaaoos hai, jo tabaristaan ka shaah tha. isne apne putr geelaanashaah ke liye ek pustak prastut ki. bade manoranjak dhang se chhoti kahaaniyon dvaara isne sadvyavahaar ko samajhaane ka prayatn kiya hai. ek anya ullekhaneeya pustak "tajakirtul auliya" hai, jiska praneta prasiddh soofi vidvaan fareeduddeen attaar hai. yeh pusatak janasaadhaaran mein soofi mat ke prachaar ki drushti se likhi gayi thi. ismein prasiddh musalmaan soofiyon ke jeevanacharitr tatha unke upadesh diye gaye hain. sthaan sthaan par kahaaniyaaain bhi di gayi hain. bhaasha tatha lekhanashaili aakarshak hai.

heraat se praapt kaleel: va daman: ki faarasi paandulipi (san 1429) mein sher ko moorkh banaane ki koshish karte hue shiyaar

prasiddh pustak "kaleel: va daman:" ka, jiska mool sanskrut mein hai (panchatantr), isi kaal mein arabi se faarasi mein masarulla gajanavi ne anuvaad kiya, par yeh saral evam subodh naheen hai. is yug ki ek shreshth rachana "chahaar makaala" hai, jiska rachayita nijaami aroojje samarakandi hai. yeh san 551-52 hi. ki rachana hai. bhaasha tatha shaili atyant saral hai. ismein hakeemon, kaviyon, jyotirvidon tatha lekhakon ke liye upadesh hain. granth ke vishyon ko kismon ke dvaara spasht kiya gaya hai. is kaal ki prasiddh saahityik pustak "mukaamaat hameedi" hai, jiska lekhak kaaji hameeduddeen balakhi hai. yeh arabi ke do vikhyaat granthon arthaat mukaamaat abulfajl hamadaani tatha mukaamaat hareeri ki nakal hai. bhaasha atyant klisht tatha durooh hai. sthaan sthaan par arabi ke shabd tatha sher adhikta se aae hain.

is yug mein padya ki bad unnati hui kintu aadanbar adhik badh gaya. kaseedon mein visheshakar klishtata tatha durooh kalpanaaeain drushtigochar hoti hain. kaseeda kahanevaale kaviyon mein khaakaani ka naam hi kaafi hai, jiski mrutyu san 494 hi. mein hui. iske kaseedon mein oj tatha tadk bhadak bahut hai par saath hi saath klishtata tatha kalpana ka aadanbar bhi adhik hai. iski prasiddh rachana "tuhafatuleraakeen" hai. khaakaani ke siva is yug ke prasiddh kaseedagi kavi anavari, muijji tatha faarayaabi hain. isi samay umar khayyaam bhi hue jinki ruvaaiyaaain prasiddh hain aur jinka anuvaad praaya: sabhi bhaashaaon mein ho chuka hai. umar khayyaam kavi naheen, pratyat jyotishi tatha ganitjnya tha jo kabhi kabhi kavita kar leta tha. naasir khusaro is yug ka prasiddh saahityakaar tha, jisne gadya padya donon likha hai aur achha likha hai. dharm ki drushti se yeh isamaaili tha, jo sheeon ki ek shaakha hai. isne apni saahityik shakti ko apne dhaarmik vichaaron ka prachaar karne mein vishesh lagaaya. padya mein iska deevaan rooshanaainaama tatha saaadatanaama prasiddh hain. gadya mein jaadulmusaafireen tatha safaranaama ne vishesh prasiddhi praapt ki. seljuki yug ki pramukh visheshata soofi dhang ki kavita ka utkarsh hai. soofi kaviyon mein fareeduddeen attaar ka vishisht sthaan hai, jinka ullekh gadya lekhakon mein pehle kiya ja chuka hai. unki padya rachanaaon mein mantikultair, isaraaranaama, museebatanaama, ilaaheenaama aadi hain. yeh san 627 h. ke lagbhag mugalon dvaara maare gaye. is yug ke khyaatilbdh kavi nijaami ganjavi hain, jinhonne sikandaranaama naamak prastut ki hai. ismein sikandar ki kalpit tatha avaastavik kahaaniyaaain hain. inhonne paaainch masanaviyaaain khamsa ke naam se likhi hain jinke naam makhjanul isaraar, khusaroo va sheereen, laili va majanoon, haftapaikar ya baharaamanaama hain. nijaaainmi ko kahaaniyon ko padyabaddh karne mein badi nipunata praapt thi. inhonne anek prakaar ki nai nai upamaaon aadi ka prayog kiya hai. nijaami ka paravarti kaal ke kaviyon par vishesh prabhaav pada, jinhonne inke samarthan mein rachanaaeain keen. nijaami ki mrutyu san 1203 E. mein hui.

mugal yug (mangol yug)

changej khaaain turkistaan ke samraat jalaaluddeen ka peechha karta hua sindh tak aaya. us samay Hindustan mein musalmaanon ka raajya sthaapit ho chuka tha. mugal musalmaan naheen the. Hindustan ke musalamaani raajya ka saubhaagya tha ki hiraat nagar mein, jo aajkal Afghanistan ke antargat hai, vidroh mach gaya aur changej khaaain use dafan karne ke liye vahaaain chala gaya. mugalon (mangolon) ne ant mein san 1257 E. mein Baghdad bhi vijay kar liya aur abbaasi khaleefon ka raajya samaapt ho gaya. Hindustan ka musalamaani raajya mugalon ke hatyaakaand se bacha hua tha. is kaaran har sthaan ke kavi tatha vidvaan Hindustan aakar sharan lene lage. is prakaar Hindustan faarasi bhaasha tatha saahitya ka ek prabhaavashaali kendra ban gaya. bhaarateeya faarasi saahitya ka apna ek alag itihaas hai. faarasi ke hindustaani kaviyon mein se keval ameer khusaro ka naam kaafi hai. gadyalekhakon mein kaaji minh siraaj ne tabakaate naasiri likhi, jo itihaas ka ek granth hai. Hindustan mein likhe gaye lubaabullalubaab granth ka, jo faarasi ke kaviyon ka mahatvapoorn tajkira (kavi charcha) hai, rachayita nooruddeen muhammad aufi yahaaain naasiruddadeen kubacha tatha uske anantar sulataan shamsuddeen eltutmish ke darbaar mein rahata tha.

Iran mein jo kavi tatha saahityakaar ho gaye hain unamein se kuchh prasiddh ye hain : alaauddeen al malik juveeni, jiski mrutyu san 681 hi. mein hui, is yug ka prasiddh lekhak hai. inki pustak taareekh jahaaainkusha vishd granth hai. ismein mugalon ke vyavahaar, svabhaav, shaasanapaddhati aadi par poora prakaash daala gaya hai. ismein bhaugolik vruttaant bhi aaya hai par is granth ki lekhanashaili mein aadanbar bhara hua hai. arabi shabdon, kahaavaton tatha Quraan ki aayaton ka sthaan sthaan par prayog hone se jo log arabi bhaasha naheen jaante ve is pustak ko saralata se padh naheen sakte aur na isse poora aanand praapt kar sakte hain. gulistaaain tatha bostaaain ke praneta shekh saadi bhi isi yug mein hue. inki lekhan shaili atyant sugam tatha aakarshak hai. gulistaaain gadya mein aur bostaaain padya mein hai. gulistaaain ke siva gadya mein inki anya rachanaaeain bhi hain aur padya mein bostaaain ke siva inka deevaan bhi hai, jismein kaseede, gajalein tatha anya prakaar ki kavitaaon ke namoone bhi hain. shekh saadi ki ganana achhe gajal kahanevaale kaviyon mein ki jaati hai. taareekh jahaaainkusha ke samaan ek anya pustak taareekh vassaaf hai, jiska lekhak shihaabuddeen abdalla hai. yeh san 663 hi. mein sheeraaj mein paida hua aur aathaveen shati hijri ke madhya tak jeevit raha. taareekh vassaaf ki shaili aadanbar tatha atyuktiyon se bhari hai kintu aitihaasik praamaanikta ki drushti se achhi pustak hai. taareekhe jahaaainkusha ke baad ki sabhi ghatanaaeain ismein aa gayi hain. is yug ka doosra lekhak rasheeduddeen fajalullaah jaameuttavaareekh ka granthakarta hai. iski mrutyu san 718 hi. mein hui. hamdullaah mustaufi kajveeni is yug ka ek itihaasakaar hai, iski pustak ka naam nujhatulkuloob hai. prasiddh soofi kavi jalaaluddeen roomi ne bhi gadya mein pustakein likhi hain, jinmein se kuchh hain-"kitaab vajeeya maafiya," "majaalis" tatha "makatoobaat". naseeruddeen toosi is kaal ka prasiddh vidvaan tatha saahityakaar hai. iski shreshth rachanaaon mein tarkashaastr sambandhi "esaasul iktabaas" hain. "maiyaarul ashaaar" chhandashaastr par hai. iski vishisht pustak "ikhlaake naasiri" bahut prasiddh hai. iski lekhanashaili kathin hai.

is yug mein soofiyaana kavita ki badi vruddhi hui, jiska kaaran mugalon ke aakramanon se har or faili hui barabaadi thi. isse sansaar ki asthirta sabse hrudayon par jam gayi. soofi mat mein sansaar ki nashvarata par bada bal diya jaata hai. is kaal ke saamaajik jeevan mein bahut si buraaiyaaain aa gayi theen, jinpar is samay ke kaviyon ne bahut likha hai. is kaal ke bade kaviyon mein se jalaaluddeen roomi ullekhya hain. ye san 1207 E. mein balkh mein paida hue aur san 1273 E. mein konain: mein, jo Turkey mein hai, mare. inki prasiddh masanavi ki soofi sansaar mein badi pratishtha hai aur ise faarasi ka 'Quraan' kaha jaata hai. masanavi ke siva inka deevaan bhi hai, jo "deevaan shams tabrej" ke naam se prasiddh hai.

is yug ka prasiddh hainsod kavi ubed jaakaani hai. kavita ki ot mein apne samay ki saamaajik kureetiyon ka achha varnan isne kiya hai aur turkon tatha mugalon ke aakramanon se utpann buraaiyon ka vivran diya hai. Salman saavaji is yug ka vikhyaat kaseeda kahanevaala kavi hai, jo Baghdad ke mugal baadashaahon ki prashansa kiya karta tha. is yug ke sabse bade tatha antim kavi haafij hain. haafij ne soofi vichaaron tatha prem ki achhi kalpanaaeain ki hain. shabdachayan atyant sushthu tatha madhur hai.

temoori yug

mugalon (mangolon) ke anantar taimoor tatha uske anuyaayi yadyapi musalmaan the tathaapi atyaachaar tatha naash ke kaaryon mein mugalon se kam naheen the. taimoor ka samay 14veen shati isavi se aarambh hota hai aur safavi yug (san 1499 E.) ke praarambh tak chalta hai. is kaal mein Turkey bhaasha thi. faarasi ki pratishtha ghati tatha saahitya ka bhi star gir gaya. Baghdad ke mugalon ke adhikaar mein chale jaane se abbaasi khaleefon ka ant ho gaya aur arabi ka bacha bachaaya sammaan bhi samaapt ho gaya. faarasi bhaasha mein rachanaaeain hone lageen. yeh kaarya taimoori yug mein hota raha aur is drushti se avashya faarasi ki unnati hui. is yug ke lekhakon ne itihaasarachana par vishesh bal diya. haafij aabaroo is yug ka prasiddhatam itihaasakaar kaha ja sakta hai. inhonne sansaar ke saadhaaran itihaas par "jubdatuttavaareekh" naamak ek bada granth likha hai. isi kaal mein do anya itihaasakaar nijaami shaami tatha sharafuddeen Ali yajdi hain. in donon ki kitaab ka naam jafaranaama hai. abdurrajjaak ne matalaul saadainn likha jismein sulataan ab Saeed ke samay se san 1470 E. tak ko ghatanaaeain di gayi hain. meer khod ne aijtussafa likha. sansaar ke aarambh se sulataan Abu Saeed ki mrutyu (san 1470 E.) tak saare islaami sansaar ka itihaas ismein diya gaya hai.

taimoori yug ke kaviyon mein ye ullekhaneeya hain-kamaal khujandi, jiski mrutyu san 1400 E. mein hui, tatha mulla muhammad seereen magaribi tabreji, kaatibi naishaapuri, muinuddeen kaasim Anwar (jo sambhavat: san 1434 E. mein mara) is yug ke do aakarshak kavi Abu isahak tatha Mehmood kaari hain.

gadya ki drushti se daulatashaah samarakandi ki pustak "tajkirtushshoara" mahatvapoorn hai. lekhak ne yeh granth us samay ke prasiddh vidyaapremi mantri meer sher Ali navaai ke naam se likhaahai. meer sher Ali navaai, swayam kavi tha. Turkey mein usane "majaajalisusnafaayas" naam se kaviyon ka ek vruttasangrah likha hai, jiska faarasi mein lataayafanaama ke naam se anuvaad hua hai. meer sher Ali ke aashriton mein se husen vaaej kaashifi hai, jisne prasiddh pustak saheli likhi hai. iski nakal mein hindusataan mein shaahajahaaain ke samay mein "bahaare daanish" likhi gayi, jo bahut samay tak madarason mein chalti rahi. isi lekhak ki ek aur rachana "ikhalaake muhasini" hai, jiski lekhanashaili saral tatha saadi hai. vaastav mein yeh pustak, "ikhalaake jalaali" ke aadarsh tatha dhang par likhi gayi hai, jiska lekhak muhammad vin asad davvaani hai. davvaani san 1406 E. mein mara, isse iska bhi ullekh isi kaal ke lekhakon mein kiya ja sakta hai.

meer sher Ali ne jinhein aashray diya, unamein mulla abdurrahamaan jaami the, jo is yug ke sabse bade kavi the. yeh khuraasaan ke jaam naamak gram mein san 1414 E. mein paida hue the. inhonne teen deevaan gjlon ke prastut kiye hain, jinmein bahut se haafij ke dhang par hain. nijaami ke khamasa ki chaal par 'hapt aurang' naamak saat masanaviyaaain inhonne likhi hain. inmein vibhinn prakaar ke vishay hain jismein sadaachaar, tasavvuf, prem aadi par tark vitrk hai. gadya mein inki prasiddh rachanaaon mein se "nafhaatuluns" hai, jismein maanya soofiyon ke vrutt sangruheet hain. tasavvuf ki mahatvapoorn pustakon mein se yeh ek hai. jaami ki ek anya pustak 'baharistaaain' hai, jo shekh saadi ke gulistaaain ke dhang par likhi gayi hai. inhonne arabi vyaakaran par "sharahe jaami" naamak pustak bhi likhi hai.

safavi yug

taimoor san 1405 E. mein mara aur uske baad usaka vistrut saamraajya vibhinn saradaaron mein baint gaya, jo aapas mein yuddh karte rahate the. aisi paristhiti ek shati tak rahi, jiske anantar safavi vansh ka udaya hua. safaviyon ne poore Iran par shaasan kiya. inse pehle poore Iran par kisi vansh ne shaasan naheen kiya tha. inke kaal mein Iran ne badi unnati ki aur inheen ke samay se sheeaa dharm Iran mein ab tak chala aata hai.

is yug ke kaviyon mein haatifi jaami hai, jo prasiddh kavi jaami ka bhaanja tha. usane 'laili va majanooain' tatha 'khusaroo va sheereen' naamak masanaviyaaain tatha ek anya yuddh kaavya 'taimooranaama' bhi likha hai, jismein taimoor ki vijyon ka varnan hai. firdausi ki bahuton ne nakal ki hai par un sab mein taimooranaama ko achhi safalta mili. haatifi ka samakaaleen kavi figaani tha. yeh pehle sulataan husen ke darbaar mein tha, par dveshiyon ke kaaran tavrej chala gaya, jahaaain iska sammaan hua aur ise "baabaae shuara" (kaviyon ka pitaamah) ki padavi mili. figaani ki visheshata yeh hai ki isse apne sheron mein nai nai upamaaeain tatha shailiyaaain prayukt keen. gjl mein bhi achhi kushalata rakhata tha, jisse yeh 'chhota haafij' kahalaata tha. san 1516 ya 19 E. mein iski mrutya hui.

jaami ka shishya aasifi achha kaseedaago kavi tha. iske samasaamayik pehli sheeraaji ne shaah ismaail safavi ki prashansa mein bade bhavya kaseede kahe hain. iski khyaati ka aadhaar masanavi "sehare jalaal" hai. isne ek masanavi "shamaa va paravaana" bhi likhi hai, jisse usaki soofi ruchi prakat hoti hai. ahali ka sakaaleen hilaali tha, jisne ek deevaan, ek masanavi "shaaho gada" aur ek kaavya "sifaatul" smaarak roop mein chhodi hai. san 1522 E. mein yeh ujabak turk baadshah ke haathon, jo sheeaa dharm ka virodhi tha, maara gaya. isi samay ka doosra kavi kaasimi tha, jisne ek shaahanaama prastut kiya. ismein isne shaah ismaail ki vijyon ka varnan kiya hai. muhataashim kaashi is kaal ka sabse bada marsiya kahanevaala kavi hai.

shaah Abbas pratham, safavi vansh ka sabse bada shaasak hua jo san 1587 E. mein gaddi par baitha. vah kaviyon tatha saahityakaaron ka, aashrayadaata tha. inmein shaani teharaani tha, jise usane sone se taulava diya tha. inmein shaani teharaani tha, jise usane sone se taulava diya tha. shaah Abbas ke hakeem "shifaai" ne masanaviyaaain tatha kaseede likhe hain. "julaali khvaanasaari" san 1615 ya 16 mein mara. yeh shaah Abbas ke kaal ka prasiddh masanavi rachayita tha. isne saat masanaviyaaain likheen, jinhein "subaa saiyaara" (saat nakshatr) kehte hain.

safavi shaahon ne sheeaa mat ke prachaar mein bahut dhyaan diya tha jisse anya deshon ke sheeaa vidvaan inke samay mein Iran aakar bas gaye. inmein bahaauddeen aamili ka naam vishesh roop se ullekhaneeya hai. isne shaah Abbas ke aadesh par sheeaa niyamon par "jaamae abbaasi" naamak pusatak likhi. shaah Abbas ki vijyon ke varnan mein "kamaali sabjvaari" ne ek shaahanaama likha. isankadar beg munshi ne shaah Abbas ki jeevani "taareekhe jahaaainaaraae abbaasi" mein likhi hai.

is yug mein Hindustan faarasi saahitya ka achha kendra ban gaya tha. jab Iran mein safavi vansh shaasan kar raha tha, Hindustan mein mugal vansh ka saamraajya tha, jo vidya tatha saahitya ka bada aashrayadaata tha. mugalon ke paas jo aishvarya tatha dhan tha vah Iran ke safaviron ke paas naheen tha, isse Iran ke bahut se kavi apna desh tyaag kar Bhaarat chale aae. baabar ne prasiddh itihaasakaar meer khod ke pautr khod meer ko Hindustan bulavaaya, jahaaain isne apna prasiddh itihaas "habeebusiyr" prastut kiya. ismein praacheenatam kaal se aarambh kar shaah ismaail ki mrutyu arthaat san 1524 E. tak ka sansaar ka itihaas diya gaya hai. iski anya rachanaaeain "khulaasatul akhbaar", "dastoohal vajraar" tatha "humaayooainnaama" hain.

Akbar ki aajnyaa se "taareekhe alafi" likhi gayi, jismein isalaam ke paingabar ki mrutyu ke anantar ek sahasr varsh tak ka itihaas aaya hai. Akbar kaviyon ka bada satkaar karta tha. sushfiki bukhaaraai, jo san 1588 E. mein mara, gajal ka sukavi tha. husen sanaai mashahadi masanavi lekhak tha. ye donon Akbar ke darbaar mein the, kintu akabari darbaar ka sabse bada kavi jamaaluddeen oorfi tha. yeh sheeraaj mein paida hua tha par Hindustan chala aaya tha. urfi ke kaseede prasiddh hain, jinmein kalpana ki samarth udaanein hain. urfi san 1590 E. mara. faiji ne nijaami ke "laili va majanooain" ki chaal par ek hindi premagaatha ko "naladaman" ke naam se kavitaabaddh kiya hai. naladaman moolat: sanskrut mein naladayamanti hai. isi kaal mein juhoori teharaani ne haafij ke dhang par saakeenaama masanavi likhi hai, jiski achhi prasiddhi hai.

Akbar ka putr jahaaaingeer bhi vidvaanon tatha guniyon ka aashrayadaata tha aur isne prasiddh Irani kavi kaleem aamili ko apne darbaar ka milikushshoara (kaviyon ka raaja) niyat kiya tha. taalib ki kavita ka gun "nujarate tashbeeh" tatha "lutfe isteaar" arthaat upama tatha utpreksha se prakat hai. "saayub" jo vastut: tabrej ke ek parivaar se sambandhit tha Hindustan tatha Iran donon deshon ke saahityetihaas se sambaddh hai. saayab, jaami ke baad Iran ka sarvashreshth kavi hai. yeh shaahajahaaain ke darbaar ka kavi tha. Hindustan se lautakar Iran chala gaya, jahaaain shaah Abbas dviteeya ne use malikushshuara ki padavi di. saayab saar 1677 E. mein mara. "faiyaaji" usaka samakaaleen tha. usane apne kaseedon dvaara sheeaa imaamon ki prashansa ki aur hajrat hasan va husen ka marasiya kaha hai. safavi yug ke antakaal mein abadul alnajaat isfahaani hua hai, jiski mrutyu san 1714 E. mein hui thi. iski lekhanashaili ghatiya tatha baajaaroo hai parantu iski masanavi "gule kushti" is dosh se mukt hai aur yeh atyant lokapriya hui. praaya: isi kaal mein shekh Ali hajeen kavi hue, jo Iran se Hindustan chale aae the. praacheen paripaati ke samarth kaviyon mein inki ganana hai. inhonne saat masanaviyaaain tatha chaar deevaan likhe aur gadya mein "tajakirtul muaasireen" likhi. ismein apne samay ke kaviyon tatha vidvaanon ka vrutt diya hai aur is kaaran yeh ek mahatvapoorn granth hai. apne vyaktagat vruttaant ko "tajakiraatulahavaal" mein likha hai. yeh banaaras mein san 1766 E. mein mare.

safaviyon ke yug ki samaapti par jab tak kaachaar vansh ka prabhutv achhi prakaar sthaapit naheen hua, Iran mein shaasan ki asthirta ka kaal raha. is kaal mein ek bade saahityik vyaktitv ka darshan hota hai, jo lutf Ali aajr hai. aajr Turkey kbeela shaamaloo mein se the aur isfahaan mein paida hue. inki sabse prasiddh rachana "aatishkada" hai, jo san 1860-66 E. mein likhi gayi. ismein aath sau se adhik kaviyon ka vrutt diya gaya hai. aajr ka ek deevaan bhi hai tatha ek masanavi "yoosufo julekha" bhi inhonne likhi hai.

kaachaar yug

safaviyon ke anantar afshaaron ne, jinke raajya ka sansthaapak naadirshaah afshaar tha, tatha jind vansh ne san 1761 E. tak raajya kiya. inke baad kaachaariyon ka samay aaya jo san 1925 E. tak rahe. fath Ali shaah kaachaar ne san 1797 se san 1816 E. tak shaasan kiya. vah kaviyon tatha saahityakaaron ka aashrayadaata tha. fath Ali "saba" usaka malikushshoara tha, jisne firdaunsi ki shaili par shahanshaahanaama racha. fath Ali shaah ka mantri khaaraj: abdulvahaab nishaat" achha kavi tha aur usane ek deevaan prastut kiya. nishaat patralekhan mein atyant kushal tha. is yug ka shreshthatam kavi mirja habeebulla "kaaaani" tha. isne prashansaatmak kaseede tatha hajoeain achhi kahi hain.

kaachaariyon ke yug mein shaah naasiruddeen (san 1848-1896 E.) ka vishesh mahatva hai. yeh swayam kavi tatha gadyalekhak tha. iska safranaama bahut prasiddh hai, jismein isne apni Europe ki yaatra ka vruttaant tatha anubhavon ka vivran diya hai. iski lekhan shaili saral tatha rochak hai. naasiruddeen ke raajyakaal ka prasiddh saahityakaar rijaakuli khaaain laal:baashi hai, jo shreshth kavi tha. isne "majamaul fusaha" aur "riyaajulaarifeen" naamak do vruttasangrah prastut kar faarasi saahitya ki bahumoolya seva ki hai. in donon sangrahon mein aarambh se lekar apne samay tak ke kaviyon ke vrutt sankalit kiye gaye hain aur is drushti se ye bade mahatvapoorn hain. rijaakuli khaaain kheeva (turkistaan) mein apne desh ki or se raajadoot tha aur isan apne safaaratanaama naamak pustak mein kheeva ki apni yaatra ka varnan kiya hai.

kaachaariyon ke raajyakaal mein Europeeya jaatiyon ka aavaagaman achhi prakaar aarambh ho gaya tha aur Europe ki sanskruti ka prabhaav Iran par padne laga tha. is kaaran shaibaani kaashaani ki kavita mein niraashaavaad tatha poorn yathaarthavaad ka, jo us samay ke Europeeya saahityakaaron mein vishesh priya vishay ho rahe the, poora prabhaav hai. isi kaal mein faarasi bhaasha mein naatak (drama) likhne ki pratha aarambh hui. mirja jaafr karaach: daagi ne Turkey se kai naatakon ka faarasi mein anuvaad kiya. nai shaili ke naatakon ke prachaar ke pehle Iran mein ek prakaar ke dhaarmik khel khele jaate the, jinhein taajiaa kehte the, jismein karbala ke shaheedon ke kashton ka abhinya kiya jaata tha. ab sushikshit log ise pasand naheen karte.

isi kaal mein Europeeya shiksha ke prachaar se baadashaahon ke shaasan ki nirbalata ke kaaran vaidhaanik shaasan ka aandolan aarambh hua. janta mein nae vichaaron ke prasaar ke liye samaachaarapatron ka khoob prachaar hua. kaviyon ne jaateeya tatha shaasakeeya kavitaaeain likhna aarambh kiya. is kaal mein gadya ki badi unnati hui tatha iski lekhan shaili itni saral ho gayi ki janta use sahaj mein samajh sake, yahaaain tak ki kavita ki shaili bhi badal gayi. usamein aadanbar tatha banaavat ka sthaan saralata ne le liya. janta ko shaasan ki buraaiyon se saavdhaan karne ke liye haaji jainul aabadeen ne ek kalpit yaatraavivran "siyaahatanaama" "ibraaheem beg" ke naam se likha, jo san 1910 mein prakaashit hua. usi saal mein lekhak ki mrutyu hui. is kaal ke prasiddh kavi poore Dawood, asharafuddeen rushti, malikushshoara Ali Akbar dehakhuda, ishki aadi hain. is kaal mein mahilaaon ne bhi kavita tatha saahitya mein bahut bhaag liya, jinmein paraveen, etasaami, pareevash, duniya aadi ko badi khyaati mili.

pahalavi yug

yeh yug san 1925 E. mein aarambh hua. pahalavi vansh ka sansthaapak rija khaaain tha, jisne baadshah ho jaane par rijaashaah pahalavi ki upaadhi grahan ki. yeh kaal Iran mein jaateeya archana ka hai. Europeeya aachaar vichaar ka prabhaav bahut badh gaya. kaviyon ne kavita mein Europeeya shaili ki nakal karne ka prayatn kiya. saadagi ki prabalata hui. jaateeya prem ke kaaran faarasi se arabi shabdon ko nikaalne ka prayatn hone laga, yahaaain tak ki arabi lipi tyaagane ka aandolan khada hua par vah abhi tak safal naheen hua. is yur ke kaviyon mein poor Dawood, Ali asagr hikmat, rasheed yaasimi, aarif kjveeni, abdul ajeem aadi hain, jinmein jaateeyata tatha saadagi ka bal spasht hai.