faarasi bhaasha

faarasi
فaaاaaرaaسaaی
arabi-faarasi lipi ke nastaaleek lahaje mein naam Farsi.svg
uchchaaran [faarasi]
boli jaati hai Iran, afgaanistaan, taajikistaan, ujbekistaan aur bahareen.

Bhaarat, Pakistan, Turkmenistan, Kuwait, bahareen, ktar, Turkey, ijraail, sanyukt arab ameeraat, America, Canada, roos, Germany, fraans, Spain, sveedan aur braajeel mein basane vaale Irani, afgaan, taajiki aur ujbeki samudaayon mein bhi.

kshetr madhya poorv, madhya Asia
kul bolne vaale ca. 5,60,00,000 maatrubhaasha (2006 ka anumaan)
bhaasha parivaar
aadhikaarik star
aadhikaarik bhaasha ghoshit Flag of Iran.svg Iran
Flag of Afghanistan.svg afgaanistaan
Flag of Tajikistan.svg taajikistaan
niyaamak faarasi bhaasha aur saahitya akaademi
afgaanistaan vigyaan akaademi
bhaasha koot
ISO 639-1 fa
ISO 639-2 per (B) fas (T)
ISO 639-3 variously:
fasPersian
prs – poorvi faarasi
pes – pashchimi faarasi
tgkTajik
aiq – Aimaq
bhh – Bukharic
deh – Dehwari
drw – Darwazi
haz – Hazaragi
jpr – Dzhidi
phv – Pahlavani
Persian Language Location Map1.png

faarasi ko maatrubhaasha ke roop mein prayog karne vaale kshetr

faarasi (فaaاaaرaaسaaی), ek bhaasha hai jo Iran, taajikistaan, afgaanistaan aur ujbekistaan mein boli jaati hai. yeh Iran, afgaanistaan, taajikistaan ki raajabhaasha hai aur ise 7.5 karod log bolte hain. bhaashaai parivaar ke lihaaj se yeh hind Europeeya parivaar ki hind Irani (indo iraaniyn) shaakha ki Irani upashaakha ka sadasya hai aur hindi ki tarah ismein kriya vaakya ke ant mein aati hai. faarasi sanskrut se kaafi milti-julati hai aur urdoo (aur hindi) mein iske kai shabd prayukt hote hain. ye arabi-faarasi lipi mein likhi jaati hai. angrejon ke aagaman se pehle bhaarateeya upamahaadveep mein faarasi bhaasha ka prayog darabaari kaamon tatha lekhan ki bhaasha ke roop mein hota hai. darbaar mein prayukt hone ke kaaran hi afgaanistaan mein is daari kaha jaata hai.

anukram

vargeekaran

ise hind-Europeeya bhaasha parivaar ki hind-Irani shaakha ki Irani bhaashaaon ki upashaakha ke pashchimi vibhaag mein vargeekrut kiya jaata hai. haalaanki bhaarateeya upamahaadveep mein faarasi ko glati se arabi bhaasha ke sameep samjha jaata hai, bhaashaavaijnyaaanik drushti se yeh arabi se bahut bhinn aur sanskrut ke bahut sameep hai. sanskrut aur faarasi mein kai hajaaron milte-julate sajaateeya shabd milte hain jo donon bhaashaaoain ki saanjhi dharohar hain, jaise ki saptaah/hafta, nar/nar (purush), door/door, hast/dast (haath), shat/sad (sau), aap/aab (paani), har/jr (faarasi mein peela-sunehara, sanskrut mein peela-hara), maya/mad/madhu (sharaab/shahad), asti/ast (hai), rochan/roshan (chamakeela), ek/yek, kapi/kapi (vaanar), dant/dand (daant), maatru/maadar, pitru/pidr, bhraatru/biraadar (bhaai), duhitru/dukhtar (beti), vansh/bach/bachcha, shukar/khook (sooar), ashv/asb (ghoda), gau/gaoo (gaaya), jan/jaan (sanskrut mein vyakti/jeev, faarasi mein jeevan), bhoot/bood (tha, ateet), dadaami/daadan (dena), yuvan/javaan, nav/nav (naya) aur sam/ham (baraabar).[1][2]

naam

Bhaarat mein ise faarasi kaha jaata hai. iska mool naam 'paarasi' hai par arab log, jinhonne faaras par saataveen sadi ke ant tak adhikaar kar liya tha, ki varnamaala mein 'p' ka shabd naheen hota hai. is kaaran se ve ise faarasi kehte the aur yahi naam Bhaarat mein bhi prayukt hota hai. yoonaani log faars ko parsiya (puraani greek mein parsis, Πaaέaaρaaσaaιaaς) kehte the. jiske kaaran yahaaain ki bhaasha parsiyn (Persian) kahalaai. yahi naam angreji sahit anya Europeeya bhaashaaon mein prayukt hota hai.

itihaas

faarasi ek Irani bhaasha hain jo hind-Europeeya bhaasha parivaar ki hind-Irani shaakha mein aati hain. saamaanya taur par, Irani bhaashaaon teen avadhiyon se jaani jaati hai, aamtaur par is roop mein ise aise sandarbhit kiya jaata hain: puraani, madhya aur nai (aadhunik) avadhi. ye Irani itihaas mein teen yugon ke anuroop hain; puraana yug hakhaamani saamraajya se kuchh pehle ka samay hain, hakhaamani yug aur hakhaamani ke kuchh baad wala samay (400-300 isa poorv) hai, madhya yug saasaani yug aur saasaani ke kuchh baad wala samay aur naya yug vartamaan din tak ki avadhi hain.[3]

upalabdh dastaavejon ke anusaar, faarasi bhaasha "keval akeli Irani bhaasha" hai, jiske liye iske teenon charanon ke najdeeki bhaashaavijnyaaan-sambandhi rishte sthaapit kiye gaye hain to puraani, madhya aur nai faarasi ek hi faarasi bhaasha ka pratinidhitv karte hain, ki nai faarasi madhya aur puraani faarasi ki ek pratyaksh vanshaj hai.[3]

dakshin Asia mein prayog

faarasi bhaasha ne pashchim Asia, Europe, madhya Asia aur dakshin Asiaee kshetr ki kai aadhunik bhaashaaon ke nirmaan ko prabhaavit kiya. dakshin Asia mein turkon-faarasi gajnavi vijay ke baad, faarasi sabse pehle is kshetr mein samaavisht ki gayi thi. british upanivesh ki sthaapana ke paanch sadiyon poorv tak, faarasi vyaapak roop se bhaarateeya upamahaadveep mein ek doosari bhaasha ke roop mein istemaal ki jaati thi. isne upamahaadveep par kai muslim darabaaron mein sanskruti aur shiksha ki bhaasha ke roop mein pramukhata le li. haalaanki 1843 ke shuroo se, angreji aur hindustaani ne dheere dheere upamahaadveep par mahatva mein faarasi ko badal diya. faarasi ke aitihaasik prabhaav ke saakshya bhaarateeya upamahaadveep ki kuchh bhaashaaon par iske prabhaav ki seema mein dekha ja sakta hai. faarasi se udhaar liye shabd abhi bhi aamtaur par kuchh hind aarya bhaashaaon mein upayog kiye jaate hai. kuchh mukhya dakshin Asiaee saamraajya jinki raajabhaasha faarasi thi:-

uttar Bhaarat

  1. gulaam vansh
  2. khilji vansh
  3. tuglak vansh
  4. sayyad vansh
  5. lodhi vansh

dakshin Bhaarat

kismein

  • pashchimi faarasi (faarasi, Irani faarasi, ya faarasi) Iran mein boli jaati hain aur Iraq aur faaras ki khaadi raajyon mein alpasankhyakon dvaara.
  • poorvi faarasi (dari faarasi, Afghan faarasi, ya dari) Afghanistan mein boli jaati hai.
  • taajiki (taajik faarasi) taajikistaan aur Uzbekistan mein boli jaati hai. yeh sirilik lipi mein likhi jaati hai.

nimnalikhit faarasi se sambandhit kuchh bhaashaaen hain:

  • loori, (ya lori), dakshin pashchimi Iran ke praanton mein mukhya roop se boli jaati hain jaise, looristaan, kogiluye aur boyar-akhmad praant, faars praant ke kuchh pashchimi bhaag aur khoojstaan ke kuchh bhaag.
  • laari, (dakshini Iran mein)
  • taat, ajarabaijaan, roos, aadi ke kuchh hisson mein boli jaati hain.

svar vigyaan

Irani faarasi mein chhah svar aur baais vyanjan hai.

vyaakaran

  • faarasi ek abhishleshani bhaasha hain.[4][5][6][7]
  • faarasi ke padavijnyaaan mein pratyaya prabal hain, haalaanki upasargon ki ek chhoti sankhya hai.[8] kriya kaal aur pahaloo vyakt kar sakte hain aur ve vyakti aur sankhya mein vishay ke saath sahamat hain. faarasi mein koi vyaakaranik ling naheen hai aur na hi sarvanaam praakrutik ling ke liye chihnit hain.

shabd sangrah

faarasi ne arabi bhaasha par kam prabhaav daala hain aur saath hi mesopotaamiya ki anya bhaashaaon par aur iski mool shabdaavali madhya faarasi mool ki hain, par nai faarasi mein arabi shaabdik madon ki kaafi maatra hain, jinka faaraseekaran ho gaya hain. arabi mool ke faarasi shabdon mein vishesh roop se islaami shabd shaamil hain. anya Irani, Turkey aur bhaarateeya bhaashaaon mein arabi shabdaavali aam taur par nai faarasi se nakal ki gayi hain.

vartani

aadhunik Irani faarasi aur daari mein paath vishaal bahumat se arabi lipi ke saath likha jaata hai. taajik, jo madhya Asia ki roosi aur Turkey bhaashaaon se prabhaavit hain ko kuchh bhaashaavidon dvaara faarasi boli maana jaata hai, jise taajikistaan mein sirilik lipi ke saath likha jaata hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain

sandarbh

  1. The eastern origin of the Celtic nations proved by a comparison of their dialects with the Sanskrit, Greek, Latin and Teutonic languages, James Cowles Prichard
  2. Aryans and British India, Thomas R. Trautmann, Yoda Press, 2004, ISBN 978-81-902272-1-6, ... that Persian is closely related to Sanskrit, and that it is not closely related to Arabic, loanwords apart. Having twice read Firdausi, whose Shahnameh is almost devoid of Arabic words, he tells us, he finds that hundreds of Persian nounds are pure Sanskrit with no more change than one finds in the modern languages of India, that very many Persian imperatives are the roots of Sanskrit verbs, and that even the moods and tenses of the Persian verb substantive are deducible from the Sanskrit by an easy and clear analogy ...
  3. a aa (Skjaervo 2006) vi(2). Documentation.
  4. http://195.178.225.22/CSmsl/msl/Kshanovski.pdf
  5. Janse, Mark (1 January 2009). "Watkins' Law and the Development of Agglutinative Inflections in Asia Minor Greek | Mark Janse". Academia.edu. http://www.academia.edu/695480/Watkins_Law_and_the_Development_of_Agglutinative_Inflections_in_Asia_Minor_Greek. abhigman tithi: 18 December 2012.
  6. Haspelmath, Martin; KШanig, Ekkehard; Oesterreicher, Wulf; Raible, Wolfgang ... – Martin Haspelmath – Google Livres. Books.google.fr. http://books.google.fr/books?id=7FMONqu1TX4C&pg=PA673&lpg=PA673&dq=persian+agglutinative&source=bl&ots=7G0A0xnux2&sig=IUq-9IQ3d-k3dmubTFsP4B5GTC4&hl=fr&sa=X&ei=hJSiUOC2NMed0QWN14DABw&ved=0CB8Q6AEwADgU#v=onepage&q&f=false. abhigman tithi: 18 December 2012.
  7. "Transcription of the Persian Language in Electronic Format". Docstoc.com. 22 April 2009. http://www.docstoc.com/docs/5597755/Transcription-of-the-Persian-Language-in-Electronic-Format. abhigman tithi: 18 December 2012.
  8. Megerdoomian, Karine (2000). "Persian computational morphology: A unification-based approach". Memoranda in Computer and Cognitive Science: MCCS-00-320. pp. 1. http://www.zoorna.org/papers/MCCS320.pdf.