eyarabas

Airbus SAS
prakaar Subsidiary
udmog Aerospace
sthaapana 1970 (Airbus Industrie)
2001 (Airbus SAS)
mukhyaalaya Blagnac, France
pramukh vyakti Thomas Enders, CEO
Harald Wilhelm, CFO
John Leahy, Chief Commercial Officer
Fabrice Bréagier, COO
utpaad Commercial airliners (list)
raajasv Green Arrow Up Darker.svg €a27.45 billion (FY 2008)[1]
nivl aay Green Arrow Up Darker.svg €a1.597 billion (FY 2008)
karmachaari 57,000[2]
maatru company EADS
sahaayak kanpaniyaaain Airbus Military
website www.airbus.com
A 330-200 Air Seychelles 2013

eyarabas SAS (angreji meinLtspkr.png uchchaarit/ˈaaɛaaəaarbʌaas/, fraanseesi mein /ɛaaʁaabys/ aur jarman mein /ˈaaɛaaːaaɐaabʊaas/) ek Europeeya antariksh praudyogiki company EADS ki ek vaayuyaan nirmaan sahaayak company hai. blaiganaik, fraans mein tyulaauj ke paas sthit[3][4] aur poore Europe mein mahatvapoorn gatividhi waali yeh company samast vishv ke jet vimaanon ki kul sankhya ke lagbhag aadhe ka utpaadan karti hai.

eyarabas ki shuruaat antariksh praudyogiki utpaadakon ke ek sangh ke roop mein hui. sadi ke ant ke dauraan Europeeya sainya aur antariksh anusandhaan companyon ke ekeekaran ne 2001 mein saraleekrut sanyukt stock company ki sthaapana ki anumati di, jiska svaamitv EADS (80%) aur BAE sistams (20%) ke paas tha. ek lambi vikraya prakriya ke baad 13 October 2006 ko BAE ne apni hissedaari EADS ko bech di.[5]

Europeeya sangh ke chaar deshon: Germany, fraans, United kingadam aur Spain, ke solah sthaanon par eyarabas ke lagbhag 57,000 karmachaari kaarya karte hain. antim assembly utpaadan tyulaauj (fraans), Hamburg (Germany), sevil (Spain) aur, 2009 se, tiyaanjin (cheen) mein hota hai.[6] sanyukt raajya amareeka, Japan, cheen aur Bhaarat mein eyarabas ki sahaayak companiyaan kaaryarat hain.

yeh company vaanijyik roop se vyavahaarya pehle flaai-baai-wire (fly-by-wire) vaayuyaanon ke utpaadan aur vipnan ke liye jaani jaati hai.[7][8]

anukram

itihaas

udgam

eyarabas industry ka praarambh Boeing, maikdonel daglas aur laukaheed jaisi Amreeki companyon se pratispardha karne ke liye Europeeya vaimaaniki pratishthaanon ke ek sangh ke roop mein hua.[9]

haalaanki anek Europeeya vaayuyaan unnat the, fir bhi sarvaadhik safal vaayuyaanon ki utpaadan khapat bhi kam thi.[10] 1991 mein, eyarabas industry ke tatkaaleen CEO aur prabandh nideshak jeen piyrsan ne Amreeki vimaan utpaadakon ke varchasv ki vyaakhya karanevaale anek kaarakon ka varnan kiya: sanyukt raajya amareeka ke bhaugolik vistaar ne havaai-parivhan ko yaatra ka pasandeeda vikalp bana diya; 1942 ke englo-Amreeki samjhaute ne parivhan vimaanon ka utpaadan US ko saunp diya; aur dviteeya vishv yuddh ne amareeka ko ek "laabhakaari, balavaan, shaktishaali aur sanrachanaayukt vaimaaniki udyog" pradaan kiya.[10]

"For the purpose of strengthening European co-operation in the field of aviation technology and thereby promoting economic and technological progress in Europe, to take appropriate measures for the joint development and production of an airbus."

Airbus Mission Statement

1960 ke dashak ke madhya mein, Europeeya sahayogapoorn prastaav ke sandarbh mein praayogik baatcheet ki shurooaat hui. ekal vimaan companiyaan pehle hi aisi aavashyakta par vichaar kar chuki theen; 1959 mein haukar sidli ne Armstrong vhitvarth AW.660 aargoji[11] ke "eyarabas" sanskaran ka ek vigyaapan diya tha, jo "atyant chhote maargon par 2d. prati seat meal ki pratyaksh sanchaalan laagat par 126 yaatriyon tak ko dhone mein saksham hota."[12] haalaanki Europeeya vaayuyaan utpaadak aise jokhimon ke vikaas ke prati sajag the aur unhonne, apni sarkaaron ke saath, yeh sveekaar karna praarambh kar diya tha ki aise kisi vaayuyaan ka vikaas karne aur adhik shaktishaali US utpaadakon ke saath pratispardha karne ke liye sahayog aavashyak tha. 1965 ke peris air sho mein pramukh Europeeya eyaralaainon ne kam laagat par chhoti se madhyam dooriyon tak 100 ya adhik yaatriyon ka parivhan kar paane mein saksham ek naye "eyarabas" ki unki aavashyakataaon par anaupachaarik roop se charcha ki.[13] usi varsh eyarabas dijaainon ka adhyayan karne ke liye haukar sidli ne (UK sarkaar ke aagrah par) bregvet aur naurd ke saath milkar ek dal banaaya. haukar sidli/bregvet/naurd samooh HBN 100 is pariyojana ko jaari rakhane ka aadhaar bana. 1966 tak sud eviyeshan, baad mein erospeshiyel (fraans), aarbitsgemeenshaaft eyarabas, baad mein dyush eyarabas (Germany) aur haukar sidli iske saajhedaar the.[13] October 1966 mein teenon sarkaaron se vitteeya sahaayata ki maang ki gayi.[13] 25 July 1967 ko teenon sarkaarein prastaav par aage badhne ko raaji huin.

is samjhaute ke do varshon baad, british aur fraanseesi donon sarkaaron ne pariyojana ke baare mein aashankaaen vyakt keen. MoU (sahamati-patra) mein kaha gaya tha ki 31 July 1968 tak 75 order anivaarya roop se praapt kar liye jaane chaahiye. fraanseesi sarkaar ne eyarabas A300, kaunkaurd aur dasault markyur ke vikaas ko ek hi samay par vitteeya sahaayata diye jaane ke prati apni chintaaon ke chalte is pariyojana se baahar aa jaane ki dhamaki di, lekin use mana liya gaya.[14] December 1968 mein A300B prastaav par apni chintaaon ki ghoshana karne aur is bhaya ke kaaran ki vikraya ki kami ke kaaran apne nivesh ki bharpaai naheen ki ja sakegi, british sarkaar ne 10 April 1969 ko pariyojana chhodne ki ghoshana ki.[13][15] Germany ne is pariyojana mein apni hissedaari 50% tak badhaane ke liye is avsar ka laabh uthaaya.[14] us bindu tak haukar sidli ki sahabhaagita ko dekhte hue, fraans aur Germany iski pankh rachana ka bhaar grahan karne ke prati anichhuk the. is prakaar british company ko ek visheshaadhikaar praapt up-sanvidaakaar ke roop mein kaarya karte rahane ki anumati mil gayi.[10] haukar sidli ne upakaranon mein GB£35 million ka nivesh kiya aur adhik dhan ki aavashyakta ke chalte jarman sarkaar se GB£a35 million ka karj liya.[14]

eyarabas industry ka nirmaan

eyarabas A300, eyarabas dvaara shuroo kiya hua pehla vimaan eyarabas model.

aupachaarik roop se 18 December 1970 ko eyarabas industry ki sthaapana ek Groupement d'Interet Economique (vitteeya abhiruchi samooh ya GIE) ke roop mein ki gayi.[14] iska nirmaan 1967 mein fraans, Germany aur UK ke beech shuru hui ek shaasakeeya pahal ke dvaara hua tha. "eyarabas" naam ek vishisht aakaar aur shreni ke vaanijyik vimaan ka ullekh karne ke liye 1960 ke dashak mein airline udyog dvaara prayukt ek gair-maalikaana shabdaavali se liya gaya tha. erospeshiyl aur dyush eyarabas mein se pratyek ne utpaadan kaarya ka 36.5%, haukar sidli ne 20% aur faukar-VFW ne 7% hissa liya.[13] pratyek company ko apne purje poornat: susajjit, udaan-ko-taiyaar tatvon ke roop mein saunpane the. October 1971 mein, erospeshiyl aur dyush eyarabas dvaara apni hissedaari 47.9% par ghataae jaane ke baad speni company CASA ne eyarabas industry ki 4.2% hissedaari haasil kar li.[13] January 1979 mein, british erospes, jisne 1977 mein haukar sidli ko adhigrahit liya tha, ne eyarabas industry ki 20% hissedaari khareed li.[16] mukhya sheyaradhaarakon ne apni hissedaari ghataakar 37.9% kar di, jabki CASA ne apna 4.2% hissa kaayam rakha.[17]

eyarabas A300 ka vikaas

ek ameriki airlines A300B4-605R

eyarabas dvaara viksit, utpaadit aur vipnan kiya jaane wala pehla vaayuyaan eyarabas A300 tha. 1967 ke praarambh tak "A300" naam ka prayog 320 seaton vaale, dohare engine vaale prastaavit vaayuyaan ke liye kiya jaane laga.[13] 1967 mein tri-shaasakeeya samjhaute ke baad, Roger betili ko A300 vikaas pariyojana ka takaneeki nideshak niyukt kiya gaya.[18] betili ne ek shram-vibhaajan viksit kiya, jo aane vaale varshon mein eyarabas ke utpaadan ke liye aadhaar banane ja raha tha: fraans ko cockpit, udaan niyantran aur vimaanakabandh ke nimn keindreeya bhaag ka utpaadan karna tha; haukar sidli, jiski traaideint praudyogiki ne unhein prabhaavit kiya, ko pankhon ka vikaas karna tha;[19] Germany ko vimaanakabandh ke agale aur pichhle bhaag aur saath hi oopari keindreeya bhaag ka vikaas karna chaahiye; flaip aur spauilar ka nirmaan dach karanevaale the; antat: Spain (jo abhi poorn bhaageedaar naheen bana tha) ko vaayuyaan ki kshaitij poonchh ka nirmaan karna tha.[18] 26 September 1967 ko jarman, fraanseesi aur british sarkaaron ne London mein ek sahamati patra par hastaakshar kiye, jisne vikaas adhyayanon ko jaari rakhane ki anumati di. isne "netrutv company" ke roop mein sud eviyeshan ki bhoomika ki pushti bhi kar di ki fraans aur UK mein se pratyek ke paas 37.5% kaarya-bhaageedaari hogi, Germany 25% lega aur engine ka utpaadan rauls-rauyas dvaara kiya jaaega.[10][18]

300+ seaton vaale eyarabas A300 ke prati eyaralaainon ke mishrit samarthan ko dekhte hue bhaageedaaron ne A250 prastaav diya, jo baad mein A300B bana, jo ki poorv-upalabdh injinon dvaara sanchaalit 250 seaton wala vaayuyaan tha.[13] isne vikaas laagat naatakeeya roop se ghata di kyonki A300 mein prayog kiya jaane wala rauls-rauyas RB207 laagat ke bade bhaag ka pratinidhitv karta tha. RB207 ne bhi kathinaaiyon aur deri ka saamana kiya tha kyonki rauls-rauyas ne apna dhyaan laukaheed L-1011[14] ke liye ek anya jet engine, RB211, par keindrit kar rakha tha aur 1971 mein divaaliyepan ke kaaran rauls-rauyas ka prashaasan mein pravesh hua.[20][21] A300B apne teen injanavaale Amreeki pratiyogiyon se chhota, lekin halka aur adhik kifaayati tha.[22][23]

"We showed the world we were not sitting on a nine-day wonder, and that we wanted to realise a family of planes…aawe won over customers we wouldn't otherwise have won...now we had two planes that had a great deal in common as far as systems and cockpits were concerned."

Jean Roeder, chief engineer of Deutsche Airbus, speaking of the A310[17]

1972 mein, A300 ne apni pehli udaan bhari aur pehla utpaadan model, A300B2, 1974 mein seva mein aaya;[24] haalaanki A300 ke vimochan ko usi samay prastut kiye gaye paraadhvanik vimaan kaunkaurd dvaara paraast kar diya gaya.[25] sangh ki safalta praarambh mein buri thi,[26] lekin, kuchh had tak amareeka aur Asia ki eyaralaainon ko lakshya banaakar eyarabas ke CEO barnaard laithiyer dvaara prayukt vipnan kaushal ke kaaran,[27] vaayuyaanon ke liye aane vaale ordaron ki sankhya badhti gayi.[28][29] 1979 tak sangh ke paas A300 ke liye 256 order the,[25] aur pichhle varsh eyarabas ne ek adhik unnat vaayuyaan, A310, ka vimochan kiya tha.[17] 1981 mein A320 ke vimochan ne vaayuyaan baajaar mein ek bade khilaadi ke roop mein eyarabas ki pratishtha ki guaranty di[30]- 1972 mein A300 ke liye praapt 15 ordaron ki tulana mein is vaayuyaan ki pehli udaan ke poorv hi iske liye 400 order aa chuke the.

eyarabas SAS ki or sankraman

prabhaavi saajhedaar companyon dvaara utpaadan aur engineering parisampattiyon ko rok liye jaane ke kaaran eyarabas industry ek vikraya aur vipnan company ban gayi.[31] is vyavastha se akshamataaen utpann huin kyonki chaaron saajhedaar companyon ko ismein antarnihit laabh ke takaraavon ka saamana karna pada; ve sangh ki up-sanvidaakaar aur GIE ki sheyaradhaarak, donon theen. companyon ne eyarabas shreni ke vikaas ke liye gathajod kiya, lekin apni swayam ki utpaadan gatividhiyon ke vitteeya vivranon ki raksha ki aur apni up-aseinbaliyon ke sthaanaantaran moolyon ko adhiktam karne ka prayaas kiya.[32] yeh spasht hota ja raha tha ki eyarabas ab keval kisi ek vaayuyaan ke utpaadan ke liye kiya gaya koi asthaai gathabandhan naheen rah gaya tha, jaisa ki iske mool mission dastaavej mein ullikhit tha, balki ab yeh bhaavi vaayuyaanon ke vikaas ke liye lambi avadhi ka ek brand ban chuka tha. 1980 ke dashak ke ant tak madhyam-aakaar ke naye vaayuyaanon ke jode, eyarabas A330 aur eyarabas A340 par kaarya shuru ho chuka tha, jo us samay eyarabas naam se utpaadit honevaale sabse bade havaai jahaaj the.[33][34]

eyarabas A330, 1994 mein ek naya vimaan shuroo hua

1990 ke dashak ke praarambh mein, eyarabas ke tatkaaleen CEO jeen piyrsan ne tark diya ki GIE ko samaapt kar diya jaana chaahiye aur ek paaramparik company ke roop mein eyarabas ki sthaapana ki jaani chaahiye.[35] haalaanki, chaar companyon ki parisampattiyon ke ekeekaran aur moolyaankan ki kathinaai aur saath hi kaanooni muddon ne is pahal ko vilanbit kar diya. December 1998 mein, jab yeh khabar I ki british erospes aur DASA vilay ke kareeb hain,[36] to erospeshiyl ne eyarabas ke roopaantaran par chal rahi baatcheet ko pangu bana diya; is fraanseesi company ko bhaya tha ki sanyukt BAe/DASA, jiska eyarabas mein 57.9% svaamitv ho jaaega, company par varchasv bana legi aur isne 50/50 vibhaajan ka aagrah kiya.[37] haalaanki, jab maarkoni electronic sistams ke saath vilay karke BAE sistams ke nirmaan ko praathamikta dete hue BAe ne DASA ke saath January 1999 mein apni baatcheet rok di, to yeh mudda sulajh gaya.[38][39][40] iske baad 2000 mein chaar saajhedaar companyon mein se teen (daimlarakrislar erospes, dyush eyarabas ki uttaraadhikaari, erospeshiyl-maatra, sud-eviyeshan ki uttaraadhikaari; aur CASA) ka vilay karke EADS ka nirmaan ho jaane se is prakriya ka saraleekaran hua. EADS ke paas ab eyarabas fraans, eyarabas dyushalaind aur eyarabas espaana ka svaamitv aur is prakaar eyarabas industry ka 80%, svaamitv hai.[32][41] BAE sistams aur EADS ne apni parisampattiyaan ek nai company, eyarabas SAS, mein us company mein hissedaari ke badle sthaanaantarit kar Dean.[32][42]

A380 ka vikaas

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skelamaainar = ikaank:varsh vruddhi:5 praarambh:1992

plautadaata=

rang:peela nishaan:(rekha, kaala) sanrekhan:baaen fauntasaaij:M 
shift:(0,-3) # vishay ko baar ke daayeen or tabadeel kar dein
# there is no automatic collision detection, fontsize:XS 
# so shift texts up or down manually to avoid overlap shift:(25,-10) 
at:2007 shift:15,-6 text: eyarabas delivrs first A380-800 
at:2006 shift:15,-6 text: pramaaneekaran aur vilamb 
at:2005 shift:15,-6 text: meden flight
at:2004 shift:15,-6 text: pehla engine pahuncha
at:2002 shift:15,-6 text: aanshik-utpaadan shuroo
at:2001 shift:15,-6 text: eyarabas sangh doob gaya
at:2000 shift:15,-6 text: A3XX ki vyaapaarik prakshepan
at:1996 shift:15,-6 text: laarj eyarakraaft divijn formed
at:1993 shift:15,-6 text: boing samaan pariyojana ko radd kar dete hain
at:1991 shift:15,-6 text: market demand ka anusandhaan

</ghatnaakram>

1980 ki garmiyon mein eyarabas abhiyantaaon ke ek samooh ne apni swayam ki utpaad shreni ko poorn karne aur Boeing dvaara 1970 ke dashak se apne 747 ke saath baajaar ke is bhaag par banaae gaye prabhutv ko todne ke liye jeen roder ke netrutv mein gupt roop se ek ultra-haai-kaipesiti airliner (UHCA) ke vikaas par kaarya karna shuru kiya.[43] is pariyojana ki ghoshana 1990 ke faarnabro air sho mein hui, jismein 747-400 ki tulana mein 15% kal sanchaalan laagat ka lakshya bataaya gaya.[44] bhaavi vaayuyaanon ke dijaainon ke liye praudyogikiyaan prastaavit karne hetu pratyek EADS saajhedaar (erospeshiyl, daimlarakrislar erospes, british erospes, EADS CASA) se ek dal ka nirmaan karke eyarabas ne dijaainaron ke chaar dal banaae. June 1994 mein eyarabas ne apne swayam ke bahut bade airliner ka vikaas praarambh kiya, jise us samay A3XX naam diya gaya.[25][45][46] eyarabas ne anek dijaainon par vichaar kiya, jinmein eyarabas A340, jo us samay eyarabas ka sabse bada jet tha, se do vimaanakabandhon ka ek ajeeb samaanaantar sanyojan bhi shaamil tha.[47] prachalit Boeing 747-400 ki tulana mein sanchaalan laagat mein 15-20% ki kami ka lakshya rakhate hue eyarabas ne apne dijaain ko parishkrut kiya. A3XX ka dijaain ek double-dekar abhinyaas ki or abhimukh hua jisne singal-dek vaale paaramparik dijaain ki tulana mein adhik yaatri ghanatv pradaan kiya.

pareekshan aur pradarshan ke liye paanch A380 banaae gaye.[48] pehle A380 ka anaavaran 18 January 2005 ko tyulaauj mein ek samaaroh mein kiya gaya aur iski pehli udaan 27 April 2005 ko hui. teen ghanton aur 54 minton baad safalataapoorvak utarane par mukhya pareekshan paailat jaiks rose ne kaha ki A380 ko udaana "cycle ko niyantrit karne jaisa" tha.[49] 1 December 2005 ko, A380 ne maik 0.96 ki apni adhiktam dijaain gati praapt ki.[48] 10 January 2006 ko, A380 ne Columbia sthit medelin ki or apni pehli atalaantik-paar udaan bhari.[50]

eyarabas A380, duniya ka sabse bada yaatri jet vimaan, ka 2007 mein vyaavasaayik seva mein pravesh.

3 October 2006 ko, CEO kristiyn streef ne ghoshana ki ki vaayuyaan ko banaane mein prayukt ek asangat software ka prayog eyarabas A380 mein deri ka kaaran tha. praathamik roop se, tyulaauj assembly sanyantr ne CATIA ke naveenatam sanskaran 5 (desault dvaara nirmit) ka prayog kiya tha, jabki Hamburg kaarkhaane ka dijaain kendra puraane aur asangat sanskaran 4 ka prayog kar raha tha.[51] nateeja yeh hua ki poore vaayuyaan mein 530 kimi ki kebal vaayaring ki poornat: punarrachana karni padi.[52] haalaanki koi bhi order nirast naheen karna pada tha, lekin fir bhi vilanbit-supurdagi dandon ke roop mein eyarabas ko laakhon ka bhugataan karna pada.[51]

saunpa gaya pehla havaai jahaaj 15 October 2007 ko Singapore airlines ko diya gaya tha aur yeh 25 October 2007 ko Singapore se Sydney ke beech udaghaatan udaan ke dvaara seva mein shaamil hua.[53][54] do maah baad Singapore airline ke CEO chyu choong seing ne kaha ki airline ke tatkaaleen 747-400 bede ki tulana mein prati yaatri 20% kam indhan jalaate hue A380 airline aur eyarabas donon ki ummeed se behtar pradarshan kar raha tha.[55] 28 July 2008 ko Emirates A380 ki supurdagi sveekaar karanevaali doosari airline bani aur isne dubai aur new yaurk ke beech[56] 1 August 2008 ko udaan ki shuruaat ki.[57] iske baad kvaantaas ne 19 September 2008 ko anupaalan kiya aur 20 October 2008 ko melabaurn aur loss enjals ke beech udaanein shuru keen.[58]

BAE hissedaari ki bikri

6 April 2006 ko is yojana ki ghoshana ki gayi ki BAE sistams eyarabas mein apni 20% hissedaari ko bechanevaali hai, jiska "satarkataapoorvak moolya" us samay €3.5 billion (US$ 4.17 billion) aanka gaya.[59] vishleshakon ne ise aarthik aur raajanaitik, donon prakaar se adhik vyavahaarya Amreeki pratishthaanon ke saath saajhedaari karne ke ek kadam ke roop mein dekha.[60] mool roop se BAE ne ek anaupachaarik prakriya ke dvaara EADS ke saath kisi moolya par sahamat hone ka prayaas kiya. lambi baatcheet aur keemat par asahamati ke kaaran, BAE ne apne neelaami vikalp ka prayog kiya, jiske liye nivesh bank rothasheeld ko ek svatantr moolyaankan pradaan karne hetu niyukt kiya gaya.

Singapore airlines A380 London ke heethro havaai adde se ravaana

June 2006 mein iske A380 mein aur deri ki ghoshana kiye jaane ke kaaran eyarabas gambhir antarraashtreeya vivaad mein ulajh gayi. is ghoshana ke baad kuchh hi donon mein sambandhit stock ke moolya mein 25% tak ki giraavat I, haalaanki baad mein yeh bahut jald Uber gaya. iske turant baad iske mukhya kaurporet abhibhaavak EADS ke CEO noel forgeeyard par aantarik vyaapaar ke aarop lage. sambandhit moolya ki haani BAE ke liye badi chinta thi, press ne BAE aur EADS ke beech "ugr vivaad" ka varnan kiya, jiske anusaar BAE ka vishvaas tha ki yeh ghoshana iske sheyaron ka moolya giraane ke liye rachi gayi thi.[61] ek fraanseesi sheyaradhaarak samooh ne niveshakon ko A380 ke vilamb ke aarthik nihitaarthon ki soochana dene mein vifal rahane ke liye EADS ke khilaaf ek shreni kaarya mukdama (class action lawsuit) daayar kiya, jabki supurdagi ki prateeksha kar rahi eyaralaainon ne muaavaje ki maang ki.[62] parinaamasvaroop EADS pramukh noel forgeeyard aur eyarabas ke CEO gustaav hambart ne 2 July 2006 ko apne tyaagapatron ki ghoshana ki.[63]

2 July 2006 ko rothasheeld ne BAE ke hisse ka moolyaankan £a1.9 billion (€a2.75 billion) kiya, jo ki BAE ke vishleshakon aur yahaan tak ki EADS ki ummeed se bhi bahut kam tha.[64] 5 July ko BAE ne is baat ki jaanch karne ke liye svatantr lekhaakaaron ki niyukti ki ki eyarabas mein iske share ka moolya rothasheeld ke mool aakalanon se kam kaise ho gaya; haalaanki September 2006 mein BAE ne eyarabas mein apne hissedaari £a1.87 billion (€a2.75 billion, $3.53 billion) mein EADS ko bechne par sahamati vyakt ki, jiske liye BAE ke sheyaradhaarakon ki anumodan ka intajaar tha.[65] 4 October ko sheyaradhaarakon ne bikri ke samarthan mein matadaan kiya,[66] jisse EADS ko eyarabas ka poorn svaamitv mil gaya.

2007 punargathan

9 October 2006 ko kristiyn streef, hambart ke uttaraadhikaari, ne eyarabas ke punargathan ki unki yojana ko kriyaanvit karne ke liye unhein pradaan ki jaane waali svatantrata ki maatra ko lekar abhibhaavak company EADS ke saath matabhedon ke kaaran isteefa de diya.[67] unka sthaan EADS ke sah-CEO luis gailois dvaara liya jaaega, jisse eyarabas apni abhibhaavak company ke adhik pratyaksh niyantran mein aa jaaegi.

28 fravari 2007 ko CEO luis gailois ne company ki punargathan yojanaaon ki ghoshana ki. power8 naamak is yojana ke dvaara agale chaar varshon mein 10,000 naukariyon mein katauti hongi; fraans mein 4,300, Germany mein 3,700, UK mein 1,600 aur Spain mein 400. 10,000 mein se 5,000 up-sanvidaakaaron ke star par hongi. seint najaayar, vairel aur laufeem ke sanyantr beche ya band kar diye jaaenge, jabki meeolte, naurdenahaim aur filtan ke sanyantr "niveshakon ke liye khule" hain.[68] 16 September 2008 tak ki jaankaari ke anusaar laifeem sanyantr daahyal eyarospes ke nirmaan ke liye ek thels-daahyal sangh ko becha ja chuka hai aur filtan ke kaaryakalaap United kingadam ke GKN ko beche gaye hain.[69] ghoshanaaon ka parinaam yeh hua hai ki fraans mein eyarabas unionein hadtaal ki taiyaari kar raheen hain aur sanbhavat: Germany ke eyarabas karmachaari bhi unka paalan kareinge.[70]

naagrik utpaad

A318, A319, A320 aur A321 vimaanon ke range mein pehli eyarabas A320 model
eyarabas A340-600, ek lambi dooreevaala chaar-injanayukt chauda vimaan

eyarabas utpaad shreni ki shuruaat do-galiyaaron aur do-injanon vaale vishv ke pratham vaayuyaan A300 ke saath hui. A300 ke ek chhote, nae pankhon aur nae injanon vaale sanskaran ko A310 ke roop mein jaana jaata hai. apni safalta ko jaari rakhate hue eyarabas ne A320 ko apne maulik flaai-baai-wire niyantran tantr ke saath jaari kiya. A320 ek mahaan vaanijyik safalta raha hai, jo aaj bhi barakraar hai. A318 aur A319 chhote vyutpann hain, jinmein se baad vaale ka kuchh bhaag kaurporet bij-jet baajaar (eyarabas kaurporet jet) ke liye nirmaanaadheen hai. ek vistaarit sanskaran A321 ke roop mein jaana jaata hai aur yeh baad vaale Boeing 737 modelon ka pratiyogi saabit ho raha hai.[71]

lambi-shreni ke chaude dhaanche vaale utpaad, judva-jet A330 aur chaar-injanon vaale A340 mein vingalet dvaara badhaae gaye daksh pankh hain. eyarabas A340-500 ki sanchaalan seema 16 700 kilometer (9000 samudri meal) ki hai, jo ki Boeing 777-200LR (17 446 kimi ya 9420 samudri meal ki seema) ke baad kisi vaanijyik jet ki doosari sabse badi seema hai.[72] company ko vishisht roop se apni flaai-baai-wire praudyogiki ke prayog aur sampoorn eyarakraaft parivaar mein samaan cockpit ke prayog, jisse chaalak dal ko prashikshit karna bahut saral ho jaata hai, par garv hai.

eyarabas "nae chhoti-doori ke eyarakraaft" ke liye A320 shrrunkhala ke pratisthaapan ka adhyayan kar rahi hai, jise pareekshan ke taur par NSR naam diya gaya hai.[73][74] un adhyayanon ne NSR ke liye adhiktam 9-10% indhan dakshata laabh ka sanket diya hai. haalaanki eyarabas ne nae vingalet ka prayog karke aur vaayugatikeeya vruddhi par kaarya karke apne vartamaan A320 ke dijaain mein sudhaar karne ka vikalp chuna.[75] is "sanvardhit A320" ki indhan dakshata mein lagbhag 4-5% ka sudhaar anumaanit hai, jisne A320 ke pratisthaapan ke vimochan ko 2017-2018 tak aage badha diya hai.

24 September 2009 ko COO faibraais bregiyr ne le figaaro ko bataaya ki naye vaayuyaanon ke nirmaan ko viksit karne aur 2015-2020 se sanchaalan ke liye nirdhaarit C919[76] jaise nae pratiyogiyon ki tulana mein praudyogik roop se company ki badhat ko bachaae rakhane ke liye agale chh: varshon mein company ko € 800 million se € 1 billion tak ki aavashyakta hogi.[77]

July 2007 mein, eyarabas ne fedaeks (FedEx) ko apna antim A300 saunpa, jo A300/A310 utpaadan shreni ke ant ka soochak tha. poorv-CEO kristiyn streef ke maargadarshan mein shuru hui apni pauvara8 yojana ke ek bhaag ke roop mein eyarabas ka iraada tyulaauj sthit A320 antim assembly gatividhi ko Hamburg mein punarsthaapit karne aur A350/A380 utpaadan ko vipreet disha mein rakhane ka hai.[78]

eyarabas ne 2003 mein iske sanyaas tak kaunkaurd ko pratisthaapan purje aur sevaayein pradaan ki.[79][80]

utpaad soochi aur vivran (eyarabas se taareekh ki jaankaari)
vimaan varnan seatein adhiktam launch taareekh 1 udaan 1 delivery utpaadan sthagan
A300 2 engine, tvin aail 228-254 361 May 1969 28 October 1972 May 1974
air France
27 March 2007
A310 2 engine, tvin aail, A300 sanshodhit 187 279 July 1978 3 April 1982 December 1985
air ailjeereea
27 March 2007
A318 2 engine, ek aail, A320 se 6.17 meter chhota 107 117 April 1999 15 January 2002 October 2003
seemaant airlines
A319 2 engine, ek aail, A320 se 3.77 meter chhota 124 156 June 1993 25 August 1995 April 1996
svissair
A320 2 engine, ek aail 150 180 March 1984 22 fravari 1987 March 1988
air intar
A321 2 engine, ek aail, A320 se 6.94 meter lamba 185 220 November 1989 11 March 1993 January 1994
Lufthansa
A330 2 engine, tvin aail 253-295 406-440 June 1987 2 November 1992 December 1993
air intar
A340 4 engine, tvin aail 239-380 420-440 June 1987 25 October 1991 January 1993
air France
A340-200 & 300: sitmbar 2008
A350 2 engine, tvin aail 270-350 align="center" December 2006 2011 ki ummeed madhya 2013
ktar
A380 4 engine, double dek, tvin aail 555 853 2002 27 April 2005 15 October 2007
Singapore airlines

sainya utpaad

1990 ke dashak ke ant mein sainya vimaanan baajaar mein vikaas aur vikraya karne mein eyarabas ki ruchi badh gayi. sainya vaayuyaan baajaar mein vistaar vaanchhit hai kyonki aisa karna naagrik vimaanan udyog mein giraavat ke prati eyarabas ke rin jokhim ko kam kar deta hai. isne vikaas ke do mukhya kshetron mein kaarya praarambh kiya: eyarabas A310 MRTT aur eyarabas A330 MRTT ke saath hava mein hi indhan bharna aur A400M ke saath saamarik havaai parivhan.

26 June 2008 ko sevila mein pehli A400M.

January 1999 mein eyarabas ne tarbopraup-chaalit ek saamarik parivhan vimaan, eyarabas militri A400M, ka vikaas aur utpaadan praarambh karne ke liye eyarabas militri SAS naamak ek pruthak company ki sthaapana ki.[81][82] A400M ka vikaas vibhinn NATO sadasyon, Belgium, fraans, Germany, lakjembarg, Spain, Turkey aur UK dvaara saamarik havaai parivhan kshamata ke liye yookreni entonov An-124[83] aur Amreeki C-130 harkyoolas jaise videshi vimaanon par aashrit rahane ke vikalp ke roop mein kiya ja raha hai.[84][85] A400M pariyojana mein kai baar vilamb hua hai;[86][87] eyarabas ne sarkaari anudaan na diye jaane par vikaas ko radd karne ki dhamaki di hai.[88][89]

2008 mein Pakistan ne eyarabas A310 MRTT ke liye ek order diya hai, jo ek vartamaan havaai dhaanche ka roopaantaran hoga kyonki buniyaadi model A310 ka utpaadan ab band kar diya gaya hai.[90] 25 fravari 2008 ko yeh ghoshana ki gayi ki eyarabas ne sanyukt arab ameeraat se hava mein indhan bharanevaale teen malti-rol tanker transport (MRTT) vaayuyaanon, jo A330 yaatri jeton se anukoolit kiye gaye hain, ka order jeeta hai.[91] lekin 1 March 2008 ko yeh ghoshit kiya gaya ki eyarabas aur naurthrop gruman ke ek sangh ne USAF ke liye udaan ke dauraan indhan bharanevaale ek vimaan KC-45A, MRTT ka amareeka mein nirmit sanskaran, ke nirmaan ki $35 billion ka anubandh praapt kiya hai.[92] is nirnaya ke kaaran Boeing ne ek aupachaarik shikaayat darj karaai,[93][94] aur nae sire se neelaami praarambh karne ke liye KC-X anubandh nirast kar diya.[95][96]

Boeing ke saath pratiyogita

vaayuyaanon ke liye order paane hetu har saal eyarabas ki Boeing se kadi pratiyogita hoti hai. haalaanki donon utpaadakon ke paas ekal-galiyaare se lekar vyaapak dhaanche tak vibhinn khandon mein vyaapak utpaad shreni hai, lekin unke vaayuyaan sadaiv hi pratyaksh pratispardha naheen karte. iski bajaay ve maang mein kisi chhidr ka laabh uthaane aur behtar badhat paane ke liye ek doosare se thode bade ya thode chhote model prastut karke pratikiya dete hai. udaaharan ke liye, A380 ko 747 se bhi bada banaaya gaya hai. A350 XWB ka mukaabala 787 ke uchch sansakaran aur 777 ke nimn sanskaran se hai. A320, 737-700 se bada, lekin 737-800 se chhota hai. A321, 737-900 se bada hai, lekin pichhle 757-200 se chhota hai. eyaralaainein ise ek laabh ke roop mein dekhti hain kyonki unhein 100 seaton se lekar 500 seaton tak ek adhik poorn utpaad shreni praapt hoti hai, jo ki na mili hoti, yadi donon companyon dvaara ek samaan havaai jahaaj banaae jaate.

etihaad eyaravej liveri par eyarabas A350 XWB avadhaarana.

haal ke varshon mein Boeing 777 ki bikri eyarabas ke samakakshon, jinmein A340 parivaar aur saath hi A330-300 shaamil hain, se zyaada hui hai. chhote A330-200 ki pratispardha 767 se hai, jiski bikri haal ke varshon mein apne Boeing samakaksh se zyaada hui hai. aisa anumaan hai ki bahut bade vaayuyaanon ke baajaar mein eyarabas ki hissedaari ko badhaate hue A380 aage Boeing 747 ki bikri mein aur kami laaega, haalaanki A830 kaaryakram mein baar-baar hone vaale vilanbon ne anek upabhoktaaon ko punarnirmit 747-8 ke baare mein vichaar karne par baadhya kar diya hai.[97] teji se bik rahe Boeing 787 ka mukaabala karne ke liye ek pratispardhi model ka utpaadan karne hetu eyaralaainon ki or se badhte dabaav ke kaaran eyarabas ne A350 XWB ka prastaav bhi diya hai.[98][99]

haal ke varshon mein vaayuyaanon ke 50 pratishat se adhik order eyarabas dvaara praapt kiye jaane ke saath hi vartamaan mein lagbhag 5,102 eyarabas havaai jahaaj seva mein hain. abhi bhi sevaarat Boeing vimaanon ki sankhya eyarabas ki tulana mein teen guna adhik hai (akele Boeing 737 sevaarat vimaanon ki sankhya hi 4,500 se adhik hai). haalaanki yeh aitihaasik safalta ka soochak hai- eyarabas ne aadhunik eyaralaainas baajaar mein der se pravesh kiya tha (1972 banaam Boeing ke liye 1958).

2003 aur 2004 mein eyarabas ne ordaron ka ek bada bhaag jeeta. 2005 mein, eyarabas ne 1111 (shuddh 1055)[100] order praapt kiye, jiski tulana mein pratispardhi Boeing ko 1029 (shuddh roop se 1002) order mile.[101] haalaanki, Boeing ne moolya ke anupaat mein 2005 ke 55% order jeete; aur agale saal Boeing ne donon hi maapadandon ke anusaar adhik order jeete. 2006 mein eyarabas ne praapt ordaron ki sankhya, 824, ke sandarbh mein apne poore 35 varshon ke itihaas mein doosra sarvashreshth varsh praapt kiya, jo keval pichhle varsh ki tulana mein doosra tha.[102]

order aur vitran

Competition between Airbus and Boeing

anudaan panktiyaan

eyarabas ko "praarambhik sahaayata" aur anya prakaar ki sarkaari sahaayata diye jaane ka Boeing ne lagaataar virodh kiya hai, jabki eyarabas ka tark hai ki Boeing ko sainya aur anusandhaan anubandhon evam kar-chori ke dvaara avaidh anudaan praapt hota hai.[103]

July 2004 mein Boeing ke CEO Harry stonasifr ne eyarabas par sarkaaron se bade naagrik vaayuyaan samarthan ke liye anushaasan pradaan karanevaale 1992 ke dwipaksheeya EU-US samjhaute ka ullanghan karne ka aarop lagaaya. eyarabas ko Amreeki aur Europeeya sarkaaron dvaara pratipoorti praarambh nivesh (RLI) pradaan kiya jaata hai, jise "praarambhik sahaayata" kaha jaata hai, jismein dhan ko byaaj aur anishchitkaaleen rauyalti ke saath lautaaya jaata hai, lekin keval tabhi, jab vaayuyaan vaanijyik roop se safal hua hai.[101] eyarabas ka daava hai ki yeh pranaali 1992 ke samjhaute aur WTO niyamon ka poori tarah paalan karti hai. yeh samjhauta kaaryakram ki laagat ke 33 pratishat tak ki poorti sarkaari karjon ke dvaara karne ki anumati deta hai, jinhein byaaj aur rauyalti ke saath 17 varshon ke bheetar poori tarah lautaaya jaana aavashyak hai. ye karj nyoonatam byaaj dar par liye jaate hain, jo ki sarkaar se karj lene ki laagat aur 0.25% hoti hai, jo eyarabas dvaara sarkaar ke samarthan ke bina upalabdh baajaar daron se kam hai.[101] eyarabas ka daava hai ki 1992 mein EU-US samjhaute par hastaakshar kiye jaane ke baad se, isne Europeeya sarkaaron ko U.S.$6.7 billion se adhik chuka diye hain aur yeh ise praapt hue karj ka 40% se adhik hai.

eyarabas ka tark hai ki doosare sabse bade Amreeki raksha sanvidaakaar, Boeing, ko diye gaye pork barrel sainya anubandh, jaise Boeing KC-767 sainya anubandh samjhaute se juda vivaad, bhi anudaan ka hi ek prabhaavi roop hai. Boeing ko di jaane waali badi kar-raahaton, jise kuchh log 1992 ke samjhaute aur WTO niyamon ka ullanghan maanate hain, ke saath hi NASA ke maadhyam se Amreeki sarkaar ka mahatvapoorn praudyogiki vikaas samarthan bhi Boeing ko mahatvapoorn samarthan pradaan karta hai. apne haaliya utpaadon, jaise 787, mein Boeing ko sthaaneeya aur raajya sarkaaron dvaara pratyaksh aarthik samarthan bhi pradaan kiya gaya hai.[104]

January 2005 mein, yooropiyn union aur sanyukt raajya amareeka ke vyaapaar pratinidhi, kramash: Peter maindelsan aur Robert joelik, badhte hue tanaavon ko sulajhaane par lakshyit vaarta ke liye sahamat hue hain.[105][106] ye vaarta safal naheen rahi, jisse vivaad kisi samjhaute par pahunchane ki bajaay adhik ugr hota ja raha hai.[107]

antararaashtreeya utpaadan upasthiti

tyulaauj ke paas eyarabas ka kaarkhaana aur blaiganaik mein pradhaan kaaryaalaya, jo tyulaauj-blaiganaik havaai adde ke paas sthit hain. ([245])
Hamburg/Germany mein eyarabas ka mukhya kaarkhaana

eyarabas dvaara eyarabas A400M shrrunkhala ke liye prayog ki jaane waali antim assembly panktiyaan tyulaauj, fraans, Hamburg, Germany, sevil, Spain mein aur A320 shrrunkhala ke liye tiyaanjin, cheen mein hain.

haalaanki Europe ke vibhinn sthaanon par Boeing ke anek anya sanyantr hain, jo ek sangh ke roop mein iski sthaapana ko pratibimbit karte hain. eyarabas havaai jahaaj ke vimaanakabandh ke sabhi bhaagon ke parivhan mein saksham hone ke liye vishesh roop se vistaarit jet vimaanon "beluga" ka prayog karna vibhinn kaarkhaanon aur assembly sanyantron ke beech havaai jahaaj ke bhaagon ke aavaagaman ki samasya ka mool samaadhaan hai.[108] yeh samaadhaan Boeing dvaara bhi khoja ja raha hai, jisne 787 ke ghatakon ke parivhan ke liye apne 747 vimaanon mein se 3 ko punarrachit kiya hai. is yojana ka ek apavaad A380 hai, jiske vimaanakabandh aur pankh itne zyaada bade hain[109] ki beluga dvaara unka parivhan naheen kiya ja sakta. A380 ke bade bhaag jahaaj ke dvaara bordoks tak laae jaate hain aur yahaan se unka parivhan vishesh roop se chaudi ki gayi ek sadak dvaara tyulaauj assembly sanyantr tak kiya jaata hai.

havaai jahaajon ki bikri aur aapoorti donon ke sandarbh mein uttari amareeka eyarabas ke liye ek mahatvapoorn kshetr hai. sampoorn vishv mein eyarabas dvaara beche gaye kul lagbhag 5,300 jet vimaanon mein se 2,000, jinmein 107 seaton vaale A318 se lekar 565-yaatriyon vaale A380 tak eyarabas ki utpaad pankti se pratyek vaayuyaan shaamil hai, ke liye order uttari amareeka ke upabhoktaaon ne diye hain. eyarabas ke anusaar, Amreeki nividaakaaron ne, anumaanit 120,000 naukariyon ko samarthan dete hue, lagbhag $5.5 billion (2003) ka vyaapaar kiya.p udaaharan ke liye, A380 ke ek sanskaran ke paas kaarya bhaag moolya ke sandarbh mein Amreeki saamagri ka 51% bhaag hai. KC-45A, A330-200MRTT aur A330-200F ke utpaadan ke liye mobile, albaama mein ek sanyantr ka nirmaan kiya jaaega.[110]

apni A320 shrrunkhala ke vimaanon ke liye eyarabas ne 2009 mein tiyaanjin, janavaadi cheen ganaraajya mein ek assembly sanyantr ki shuruaat ki.[111][112][113] julaai 2009 mein eyarabas ne purjon ke utpaadan ke liye harbin, cheen mein $350 million ke ek sanyantr ka nirmaan kaarya praarambh kiya, jismein 1,000 logon ko rojgaar diya jaaega.[114][115][116] 2010 ke ant mein sanchaalit hone ke liye anusoochit 30,000 vargameetar ka yeh sanyantr sanyojit purjon ka utpaadan aur A350 XWB, A320 shreniyon aur bhaavi eyarabas kaaryakramon ke liye sanyojit kaarya-sankulon ko ekatrit karega. haarbin eyarakraaft industry group kaurporeshan, haafei eviyeshan industry company limited, evichaaina industry end technology company aur anya cheeni saajhedaaron ke paas is sanyantr ki 80 pratishat hissedaari hai, jabki eyarabas dvaara shesh 20% ka niyantran kiya jaata hai.[117]

paryaavaraneeya record

tel par nirbharata aur pradooshan ko ghataane ke ek prayaas mein eyarabas haneevel aur jetablyoo eyaravej ke saath haath milaaya hai. saath milkar ve ek jaiv-indhan ko viksit karne ka prayaas kar rahe hain, jiska prayog 2030 se kiya ja sakega. in companyon ka anumaan hai ke ve vishv mein havaai indhan ki kul aavashyakta ke lagbhag ek tihaai ki poorti kar sakte hain. ek aise jaiv-indhan ka nirmaan karna prastaavit hai, jo khaadya sansaadhanon ko prabhaavit naheen karega. shaivaal ek sambhaavit vikalp ho sakta hai kyonki yeh kaarban daai oksaaid ko avashoshit karta hai aur yeh khaadya utpaadan ko prabhaavit naheen karega. haalaanki, shaivaal aur anya vanaspatiyon par abhi keval prayog kiya ja raha hai aur shaivaal ka vikaas karna kharcheela hai.[118] eyarabas ne haal hi mein vaikalpik indhan ke saath apni pehli udaan bhari thi. ise ek engine mein 60 pratishat kerosene aur 40 pratishat gas-se-drav (GTL) indhan par chalaaya gaya. isne kaarban ke utsarjan mein kami naheen ki, lekin yeh salfr ke utsarjan se mukt tha.[119] vaikalpik indhan eyarabas havaai jahaaj ke engine mein achhi tarah kaarya kar paane mein saksham tha, at: vaikalpik indhan ke prayog ke liye ek nae vaayuyaan engine ki aavashyakta ki sambhaavana naheen hai. is udaan aur company ke lambi avadhi ke prayaason ko vaataavaran ke prati maitreepoorn vaayuyaanon ki or ek badi chhalaang maana jaata hai.[119]

rojagaar ke aankade

saaiton ke karmachaari

eyarabas saaita¹ desh karmachaari
tyulaauj
(tyulaauj, kolomiyers, blaiganaik)
fraans 16,992
Hamburg
(finkeinvardar, sted, bukstehud)
Germany 13,420
braughtan, flintashaayar, vels