esperaanto

esperaanto
Esperanto
Flag of Esperanto.svg
esperaanto ka jhanda
uchchaaran: [espeˈaaranto]
suroovaatakarta: ludavig laajr jaamenahof
suruvaat: 2004
Setting and usage antarraashtreeya sahaayak bhaasha
prayogakarta: mool esperaanto vakte: kareeb 1,000 parivaar jinmein 2,000 ke aas-paas bachche hain
Category (purpose)
aayojit bhaasha
  • antarraashtreeya sahaayak bhaasha
    • esperaanto
shaakha bhaasha: ido aur kuchh aur esperaanteedo bhaashaaeain
lipi laatini lipi (esperaanto varnamaala)
esperaanto brel
Category (sources) Vocabulary from Romance and Germanic languages, grammar from Slavic languages
raajabhaasha maanyata
aupachaarik maanyata: None
niyntrak sanstha: esperaanto academy
bhaasha code:
aaiesao 639-1 eo
aaiesao 639-2 epo
aaiesao 639-3 epo
bhaashaavid soochi epo
bhaashaavedhashaala 51-AAB-da

esperaanto (angreji : Esperanto) ek aasaan aur krutrim antararaashtreeya bhaasha hai. "doktoro esperaanto" ke upanaam se is bhaasha ke nirmaata ludavig laajr jaamenahof ne esperaanto ki pehli kitaab 1887 mein vaarasa (Poland, tab roos mein) mein prakaashit ki thi. unki chaahat thi ki esparaanto ek vaishvik bhaasha bane. is bhaasha mein "esperaanto" shabd ka arth hai "aasha rakhane wala".

yeh bhaasha Europe ki pramukh bhaashaaon ke madad se banaai gayi thi. iski lipi bhi dhvani siddhaanton par aadhaarit hai. lipi jaise padhi jaati hai, bhaasha ka vaise hi uchchaaran hota hai. alag-alag maatru bhaashaaeain bolne vaalon ke liye esperaanto ek saamoohik, aayojit, saral bhaasha hai. jaamenahof ka uddeshya tha ki ek aisi bhaasha ho jo seekhane mein aasaan ho, raajanaitik drushti se tatasth ho, jo raashtreeyata ke paar ho aur bhinn-bhinn praanteeya aur raashtreeya bhaashaaoain ke bolne vaalon ke beech shaanti aur antararaashtreeya sanchaar ka saadhan ban sake.

kaha jaata hai ki aaj duniya mein 1 lakh se 20 lakh ke beech log esperaanto bol sakte hain. is bhaasha ko bolne vaalon ki sabse badi sankhya Europe, poorvi Asia aur dakshin amreeka mein hai. pehla vishv esperaanto sammalen 1905 mein France mein aayojit kiya gaya tha. uske baad, donon mahaayuddhon ko chhodkar, har varsh alag-alag deshon mein vishv sammalen hote aa rahe hain.

esperaanto anya bhaashaaen seekhane ke liye prayog kiya jaata hai.

anukram

parichay

7veen esparaanto Congress, 1911, antavarp (Antwerp)

anek varshon se antarraashtreeya bhaasha ka prashn raajaneetijnyaon, vaigyaaniko aur bhaashaashaastriyon ka dhyaan aakarshit kar raha hai. vaigyaanik naap-taul ke liye duniya bhar mein ek se antarraashtreeya shabd vyavahaar mein laae ja rahe hain. antarraashtreeya vyavahaar ke paaribhaashik shabd bahut badi sankhya mein gadhe ja rahe hain aur maanyata praapt kar rahe hain. bhaasha shaastri is vishay par gambheerta se vichaar kar rahe hain ki thode se vyaakaran ke sarvasveekrut niyam bana lene se ek antarraashtreeya bhaasha taiyaar ho jaaegi.

san 1887 E. mein daaktar L. L. jaamenahof ne esperaanto ki rachana ki. aavishkaarta ke anusaar esperaanto mein antarraashtreeya bhaasha banane ki sab visheshataaeain maujood hain. usaki vaakyaavali tark aur vaigyaanik niyamon par aadhaarit hai. uske vyaakaran ko aadhe ghante mein samjha ja sakta hai. pratyek niyam apavaadarahit hai. shabdon ke hijje ka aadhaar dhvanyaatmak hai. usaka shabdakosh bahut chhota hai. fir bhi usamein saahityik shakti hai, shaileesaundarya hai aur vichaaron ko vyakt karne mein vah kaaainte ki taul utarati hai. lacheelaapan bhi usamein yathesht maatra mein hai. 20 varsh poorv ke aaainkadon ke anusaar esperaanto bhaasha mein us samay tak 4,000 se adhik maulik aur anoodit pustake prakaashit ho chuki theen aur 100 se adhik maasik patra niyamit roop se prakaashit hote the. doosare mahaayuddh ke poorv sansaar ke anek deshon mein bhaasha ke roop mein esperaanto vidyaalayon mein vidyaarthiyon ko padhaai jaati thi. peris ke cheinbar ov kaamars aur London ki County kaunsil kamarshal vidyaalayon mein esperaanto ki shiksha di jaati thi. san 1925 E. mein antarraashtreeya tailigraifik union ne esperaanto ko taar ki antarraashtreeya bhaasha ke roop mein sveekaar kiya. May, san 1927 mein antarraashtreeya rediyofonik union se use prasaar ke yogya bhaasha ke roop mein sveekaar kiya. usi varsh December maas tak vividh deshon mein 44 aakaashavaani kendra esperaanto mein prasaar karte the. 20 vaarshik antarraashtreeya esperaanto sammalen mein akhil vishv se 1,000 se lekar 4,000 pratinidhi tak sammilit hue the.

san 1887 mein esperaanto ka jo roop tha usamein san 1907 E. mein anek parivartan karke use aur adhik saral tatha vaigyaanik banaaya gaya. esperaanto ke is nae roop ka naam ido rakha gaya. antarraashtreeya bhaasha ke roop mein esperaanto se pratispardha karanevaali aaj aur bhi anek bhaashaaen kshetr mein hain.

esperaanto kaise seekhi ja sakti hai?

filhaal esperaanto seekhane ke 'aujaar' hindi mein uplabdh naheen hain. hindi bolne vaale kisi aur bhaasha ke dvaara hi esperaanto seekh sakte hain -- angreji aur anya videshi bhaashaaon ke dvaara to esperaanto intaranet par bhi (muft!) seekhi ja sakti hai. ek nazar in pannon par daaliye: (http: // www.lernu.net) aur (http: // www.ikurso.net).

esperaanto ki visheshataaeain

1) antarraashtreeya: esperaanto sabse zyaada kaam tab aati hai jab alag-alag maatru bhaashaaeain bolne vaale log milte hain. aaj duniya bhar mein esperaanto bolne vaalon ki sankhya laakhon mein hai.

2) samaanata: jab aap esperaanto bolte hain, to aap apne aap ko sabke samaan mahasoos karatein hain kyonki jinse aap bol rahe hain unhonne bhi aap hi ki tarah esperaanto seekhane ka prayaas kiya hai.

3) tatasth: esperaanto kisi ek jaati ya desh ki amaanat naheen hai. isliye yeh ek tatasth bhaasha ke roop mein kaam karti hai.

4) saralata: esperaanto is tarah taiyaar ki gayi hai ki yeh bhaasha seekhana baaki bhaashaaon ki tulana mein bahut aasaan hai. vyaakaran par (angreji mein) ek tippani: (http: // en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Esperanto_grammar)

5) jeevant bhaasha: anya bhaashaaon ki tarah hi esperaanto ka bhi vikaas hota aaya hai aur is jbaan mein hamaare sabhi vichaaron aur jajbaaton ko vyakt kiya ja sakta hai. intaranet par esperaanto saahitya ke kayi namoone hain aur (http: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Esperanto_culture) par esperaanto sanskruti ke baare mein (angreji mein) do shabd.

bhaashaagat visheshataaeain

esperaanto mein kai bhaashaaon se shabd liye gaye hain.

esperaanto ke varnamaala mein 28 akshar hain. kuchh aksharon par topi lagaate hain. esperaanto bhaasha mein Q, W, X, Y akshar naheen hain. harek akshar ka uchchaaran nishchit hai.. is kaaran esperaanto mein anya yuropeeya bhaashaaon jaisa speling ka jhanjhat naheen hai. ye bhaasha jaisi boli jaati hai vaisi hi likhi jaati hai.

akshar uchcharan tippani
A aa
B b
C ts
Ĉ ch topi laga hua C
D the
E A
F f
G g
Ĝ j topi laga hua G.
H h
Ĥ kh topi laga H
I E
J ya
Ĵ jh topi laga J. uchchaaran aङagreji pleasure ke s ya rusi Ж jaisa.
K k
L l
M m
N na (ya nya ya ङ)
O O
P p
R r
S s
Ŝ sh topi laga S
T t
U oo
Ǔ va ulti topi laga U
V bh
Z za aङagreji z

udaaharan ke liye, Mi lernas Esperanton ka uchchaaran mi lernaas esperaanton hai. iska arth hai " main esperaanto seekhata hooain " ya "main esperaanto seekh raha hooain". Esperanto estas pli facila ol la angla ka uchchaaran esperaanto estaas pli faatseela ol la aaङagla hai. iska arth hai, "esperaanto angreji se aasaan hai."

bolachaal ke vaakya

hindi esperaanto uchchaaran antarraashtreeya dhvanyaatmak varnamaala
namaste Saluton saaluton [sa.ˈaalu.ton]
haan Jes yes [ˈaajes]
naheen Ne ne [ˈaane]
subah achha Bonan matenon bonaan maatenon [ˈaabo.nan ma.ˈaate.non]
shaam achha Bonan vesperon bonaan vesaperon [ˈaabo.nan ves.ˈaape.ron]
shubh raatri Bonan nokton bonaan nokton [ˈaabo.nan ˈaanok.ton]
alvida Ĝaais revido jees reveedo [ˈaadʒaais re.ˈaavi.do]
aapka naam kya hai? Kio estas via nomo? keeyo estaas veeya nomo? [ˈaaki.o ˌaaes.tas ˌaavi.a ˈaano.mo]
mera naam mark hai. Mia nomo estas Marko. meeya nomo estaas maarako. [ˌaami.a ˈaano.mo ˌaaes.tas ˈaamar.ko]
aap kaise hain? Kiel vi fartas? keeyel vi faarataas? [ˈaaki.el vi ˈaafar.tas]
main theek hooain. Mi fartas bone. mi faarataas bone. [mi ˈaafar.tas ˈaabo.ne]
aap esperaanto bolte hain? Ĉau vi parolas Esperanton? chu vi paarolaas esperaanton? [ˈaatʃaau vi pa.ˈaaro.las ˌaaes.pe.ˈaaran.ton]
main naheen samjha. Mi ne komprenas vin. mi ne konprenaas veen. [mi ˌaane kom.ˈaapre.nas ˌaavin]
theek hai Bone bone [ˈaabo.ne]
oke Ĝaauste juste [ˈaadʒaaus.te]
shukriya Dankon daankon [ˈaadan.kon]
koi baat naheen Ne dankinde ne daankeende [ˌaane.dan.ˈaakin.de]
krupaya Bonvolu bonvolu [bon.ˈaavo.lu]
kshama karein Pardonu min paaradonu meen [par.ˈaado.nu ˈaamin]
Bhagwan kare tumhaara bhala ho! Sanon! saanon! [ˈaasa.non]
badhaai ho Gratulon graatulon [ɡaara.ˈaatu.lon]
main tumase pyaar karta hooain. Mi amas vin. mi aamaas veen. [mi ˈaaa.mas ˌaavin]
ek biyr, krupaya. Unu bieron, mi petas. unu beeyeron, mi petaas. [ˈaau.nu bi.ˈaae.ron, mi ˈaape.tas]
jahaan shauchaalaya hai? Kie estas la necesejo? keeye estaas la netseseyo? [ˈaaki.e ˈaaes.tas ˈaala ˌaane.tse.ˈaase.jo]
vah kya hai? Kio estas tio? keeyo estaas teeyo? [ˈaaki.o ˌaaes.tas ˈaati.o]
yeh ek kutta hai. Tio estas hundo. teeyo estaas hoondo. [ˈaati.o ˌaaes.tas ˈaahun.do]
shaanti! Pacon! paatson! [ˈaapa.tson]
main esperaanto mein ek shuruaat kar raha hooain. Mi estas komencanto de Esperanto. mi estaas komenatsaanto de esperaanto. [mi ˈaaes.tas ˌaako.men.ˈaatsan.to de ˌaaes.pe.ˈaaran.to]

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh granth

  • A.L. gyooraard : short history ov di intaranaishanal laingvej movement (1922)
  • oto jesparsan : intaranaishanal laingvej (1920)

baahari kadiyaaain