ertan sena

saaaincha:Infobox F1 driver

ertan sena da silva, (jiska uchchaaran [aˈaaiɾaatõ ˈaasenɐ da ˈaasiɫaavɐ] ( sunein) hota hai; saao paaulo, 21 March 1960 - bologna Italy 1 May 1994) ek braajeeliyn resing driver the aur teen baar faurmoola van ke vishv champion rahe. ek durghatana mein unki tab mrutyu ho gayi jab ve 1994 ke sain merino graan priks mein sabse aage the aur formula van car chalaate hue mrutyu ko praapt karne vaale ve sabse haal ke grand priks driver hain.

sena ne apne motarasport ki shurooaat kaarting se ki aur 1983 mein british faurmoola 3 championship mein jeet haasil kar apne raink mein ijaafa kiya. 1984 mein tolamain ke saath usane apne formula van career ki shurooaat ki, ve agale hi varsh lotus-reenault mein sthaanaantarit hue aur agale teen season ke liye chhah grand priks mein jeet haasil ki. 1988 mein ve maikaleran-honda par freinchamain alen prost mein shaamil hue. unke beech, sena aur prost ne us saal mein hone vaale solah grand priks mein se pandrah mein jeet haasil ki, jismein sena ne apne career ka pehla vishv championship apne naam kiya aur yahi khitaab usane ek baar fir 1990 aur 1991 mein jeeta. varsh 1992 mein maikaleran ke pradarshan mein kaafi giraavat I, kyonki Williams - renolt ki jodi khel mein haavi hone lagi thi, haalaanki sena ne paanch race jeeti aur 1993 mein ranar-ap par samaapti ki. haalaanki 1994 mein ve Williams se aage nikal gaye the, lekin Italy mein season ke teesare race otodromo enjo A dino feraari mein ek ghaatak durghatana ke ve shikaar hue.

formula van ke itihaas mein sena ko sarvashreshth draaivaron mein se ek maana jaata hai.[1][2][3] 2009 mein, british patrika otosport dvaara aayojit ek sarvekshan mein vartamaan aur poorv ke 217 formula van draaivaron mein sena ko sabse mahaanatam formula van driver chuna gaya.[4][5] unhein ek laip mein kvaalifaaing gati aur 1989 se 2006 tak sabse jyaada pol pojishn banaae rakhane ke record ke liye pahachaana jaata hai. bheeshan varsha se prabhaavit vaataavaran mein driving karne vaale pratibhaashaali draaivaron mein unka naam shumaar hai, jaisa ki 1984 monaako grand priks, 1985 Portugal grand priks aur 1993 Europeeya grand priks mein unke pradarshan dvaara saabit hua. saath hi pratishthit monaako grand priks mein sabse adhik jeet (6) haasil karne ka unka record bhi hai aur race jeetne ke kram mein ve abhi tak ke teesare sabse safal driver hain. haalaanki, sena apne poore career mein vivaadit rahe, khaaskar alen prost ke saath vikshubdh pratidvandvita ke dauraan, jise 1989 aur 1990 ke Japani grand priks mein championship-nirdhaaran ke samay hue dhakkon se saaf tha.

anukram

praarambhik career

sena ka pehla kaart ek chhota 1HP go-kaart tha, jo ki ek aisa upahaar tha jise usaki badi bahan vivyaani ne asveekaar kar diya tha. sena ne 13 varsh ki umr mein kaarting ki pratiyogita mein pravesh kiya.[6] 1977 mein unhonne dakshin ameriki kaart championship apne naam kiya. unhonne 1978 se lekar 1982 tak pratyek varsh kaarting world championship mein bhaag liya aur varsh 1979 aur 1980 mein ranar-ap haasil kiya.[7]

1981 mein sena ekal-seat resing ke liye England sthaanaantarit hue aur us varsh ven deman team ke saath RAC aur taaunaseind- thoresan formula Ford 1600 championship jeeti. iske baavajood, sena ko shuroo mein yeh vishvaas naheen hua ki vah motarasport mein apne career ko jaari rakh paaenge aur season ke ant mein parivaarik dabaav ke chalte paarivaarik vyavasaaya mein haath bantaane ke liye ve Brazil vaapas aae. [8] England jaane se pehle, sena ko formula Ford 2000 team mein £a10,000 ke liye ek drive ki peshakash mili. unhonne is is prastaav ko sveekaar karne ka faisala kiya aur England mein rahane ke liye vaapas aae. choonki silva Brazil ka ek aam naam hai, iseeliye unhonne apni maan ke kumaari naam sena ko apnaaya.[9] sena ne apne isi upanaam ke tahat 1982 british aur yuropeeya formula Ford 2000 championship jeeti.

1983 mein unhonne vest sare resing team ke saath british faurmoola three championship mein bhaag liya. season ke pratham chhamaahi mein sena ne apne prabhutv ko jamaae rakha lekin Martin brandal jo Eddy Jordan resing ke liye samaan car chala raha tha, usane championship ke doosare bhaag mein doori ko samaapt kar diya. thraksatan mein hue ek kareebi mukaabale aur kabhi-kabhi katu yuddh ke baad sena ne antim round mein aakhirkaar khitaab par kabja kiya.[10] isi varsh November mein, tedi yip ke thiyodor resing team ke saath shurooaati makaau formula 3 grand priks mein ve vijayi hue.[11][12]

formula van career

1984: tolamain

doningatan grand priks sangrah ke disple mein sena ka tolamain TG184 se [21]

Williams, mekaleran, braabham aur tolamain jaise faurmoola van teemon ki taraf sena kaafi aakarshit hue aur unka pareekshan in chaaro teemon ke liye kiya ja chuka tha. 1984 season ke liye Williams aur maikaleran donon ke hi paas unke liye koi rikt sthaan naheen tha. unke naam ko braabham ki doosari seat ke liye joda gaya tha, lekin dohare vishv champion nelshan piket ne apne dost robarto moreno ko vareeyata di, jabki khitaabi praayojak paramaalat ek itaalavi driver chaahata tha. unke paas apekshaakrut ek nai team tolamain ke saath judne ka hi keval vikalp tha aur unhein derek vaarvik ke sthaan par bharti kiya gaya.[13][14] vineejveeliyn Johnny sekoto unka team sadasya tha.

sena ne apne kairiyr ki shuruaat Rio di Janeiro ke Brazil grand priks mein ki. unhonne apna pehla vishv championship ank dakshin Africa grand priks ke doosare race mein praapt kiya aur do saptaah ke baad Belgium grand priks mein is parinaam ko unhonne fir se doharaaya. tyre mudde ke saath milkar indhan dabaav samasya ne sain mairino grand priks mein unhein arhata praapt karne mein vifal kar diya jo unke career mein ek hi baar hua.[15] sena ka sarvashreshth season parinaam monaako grand priks mein dekha gaya, jo ki baarish ke dvaara kaafi prabhaavit tha. grid par ve 13vein number par kvaalifaai hue, unhonne field par sthir roop se aage badhte hue 19vein laip mein niki lauda ko peechhe karte hue doosare sthaan par pahunche. unhonne jaldi hi apne aur agrani chaalak alen prost ke antar ko kam karna shuroo kar diya, lekin prost se ve aage nikal paate usase pehle hi 31vein laip mein baarish ke adhik tej hone ke chalte suraksha kaaranon se race ko rok diya. jis samay race ko rok diya gaya tha sena prati laip 4 second mein prost ke sameep aa rahe the.[16] antat: sena 32vein laip ke dauraan prost se aage nikal gaye jahaan laal jhanda dikhaaya gaya. haalaanki niyamon ke anusaar, sthaanon ki ginti pratyek driver dvaara poorn kiye gaye aakhiri laip ke aadhaar par hoti hai, jo ki 31vaan laip tha aur uske anusaar prost abhi bhi sabse aage the.[17] jiske kaaran sena doosare sthaan par rahe aur unke formula van ka vah pehla podiym tha.

usi saal unhonne do aur podiym par samaapan kiya - british aur Portugal grand priks mein teesara sthaan - aur kul milaakar 13 ank ke saath draaivars championship mein 9vein sthaan par rahe. tolamain ke anubandh ka ullanghan karte hue aur use soochit kiye bina hi 1985 ke liye unhonne lotus ke saath hastaakshar kiya tha jiske baad tolamain dvaara sena ko nilambit kar diya gaya aur isi kaaran unhonne itaalavi grand priks mein bhaag naheen liya.[18]

sena ne 1984 mein do uchch profaail gair formula van race mein bhi bhaag liya: ADAC 1000 ki॰mee॰ nurburging jahaan ve henari pesakerelo aur Stefan johaanasan ke saath ek jost resing porshi 956 ke sah-chaalak the aur 8vein paayadaan par samaapan kiya, saath hi saath nurburging ke udghaatan ko manaane ke liye ek pradarshani race mein bhaag liya jismein kai formula 1 draaivaron ne bhaag liya tha, jismein sabhi ne samaan marsideej 190E 2.3-16 chalaai. niki lauda aur kaarlos rauyatamain se sena jeet gaye.[19][20] race ke baad sena ko yeh kehte uddhrut kiya gaya ki, "ab mujhe pata hai ki main yeh kar sakta hoon."[21]

1985-1987: lotus

1985

lotus-reenault mein sena ne apne pehle varsh mein itaalavi driver iliyo de Angeles ke saath bhaageedaari ki. season ke doosare daur mein, purtagaali grand priks mein sena ne apne faurmoola 1 career mein pehli baar pratham pol sthaan praapt kiya. ise unhonne race mein pratham jeet ke roop mein parivrtit kiya, jiska aayojan kaafi nami bhari paristhitiyon mein kiya gaya tha aur unhonne ek minute se adhik antaraal se michel albarto se jeet haasil ki. [22] madhya ke samay mein teen baar pol sthaan praapt karne ke baavajood ostriya grand priks mein doosare sthaan par aane tak ve fir se ank mein samaapan naheen kar sake. (monaako grand priks mein pol sthaan praapt karne ke drudh sankalp ne alboreto aur niki lauda ko kupit kar diya; sena ne praarambh mein tej samay set kiya aur un par aarop lagaaya gaya ki aavashyak laip ki bajaae atirikt laip chalaakar unhonne jaanboojhkar anya draaivaron ke saamane rookaavat daalne ki koshish ki, ek aisa aarop jiska unhonne khandan kiya.)[23] iske baad unhonne haulaind aur Italy mein do aur podiyem praapt kiye, lekin usase pehle Belgium mein sarkit de spa-frainkorachainps mein unhonne apne career ki doosari jeet haasil ki aur is baar bhi yeh nam paristhitiyon mein thi.[24] us season ke dauraan di enjiles aur sena ke rishte mein katuta aa gayi, kyonki donon hi draaivaron ki lotus mein sheersh chaalak star ki maang thi aur team mein chhah saal bitaane ke baad di enjiles varsh ke ant mein braabham ke liye ravaana hue, kyonki unhein yeh drudh vishvaas ho gaya tha ki lotus ka dhyaan ab keval braajiliyn par keindrit ho chuka hai.[25] sena aur di enjiles ne us season ke driver ranking mein kramash: chauthe aur paanchavein sthaan par samaapti ki, donon mein paanch ankon ki doori thi. yogyata ke maamale mein, haalaanki sena ne khud ko kshetr mein sabse tej ke roop mein sthaapit karna shuroo kiya: us season mein unke saat pol ki sankhya anya draaivaron se kaheen adhik thi.

1986
1986 british grand priks mein sena lotus ke liye driving karte hue.

sena ne derek vaarvik ko team mein shaamil karne se inkaar kar diya aur kaha ki lotus ek hi samay do sheersh draaivaron ke liye pratispardhi kaaron ko chalaane mein saksham naheen hai, jiske baad lotus mein di enjiles ke sthaan par skautish saathi Johnny damafraaij ko shaamil kiya gaya. haalaanki sena ne baad mein yeh maana ki "yeh galat tha, bahut galat. us samay tak derek ke saath mere sambandh achhe the."[26] sena ne season ki shurooaat achhi ki, Brazil mein ve doosare sthaan par aae aur nigel maanasel se keval 0.014s dvaara Spanish grand priks ke vijeta bane - jo ki formula van ke itihaas mein sabse kareebi samaapti thi - aur do race ke baad unhonne apne aap ko vishv chainpiyans mein sabse agrani paaya.[27] haalaanki, khaas taur par season ke doosare charan mein kharaab vishvasaneeyata ke chalte, ve Williams ke maanasel aur piket ki jodi ke aalaava antim roop se champion rahe alen prost se peechhe rah gaye. baharahaal, aath pol ke saath sena ek baar fir sheersh qualifier rahe aur chhah podiym ke saath season ko samaapt kiya, jismein detroet grand priks mein ek aur jeet shaamil hai aur 55 ank ke saath unhonne driver taalika mein chauthe sthaan par season ko samaapt kiya.

1987

1987 mein lotus ne ek nae engine ka sauda kiya aur vahi honda engine ka istemaal kiya jo Williams ne pichhle varsh kansatraktars championship jeetne ke liye kiya tha aur uske saath team mein ek nae saathi ko shaamil kiya, jo ki 34 varsheeya Japani driver satoro nikaajima tha. is season ki shurooaat mein sena ka pradarshan mila-jula raha; spa-frainkarachainps ki agali race mein sain mareeno grand priks par ek podiyem vivaadon se grast raha, jahaan sena ki bheednt maanasel se hui aur baad mein unka saamana pit mein garmaae agrejon se hua.[28] uske baad sena ne ek kram mein do race jeeti: aagaami monaako grand priks mein (us pradesh mein record chh: jeet mein pehli) aur detroet grand priks mein, vishv chainpiynasip mein leed lene ke liye michign street sarkit mein do varshon mein unki doosari jeet thi. jaise-jaise championship aage badhti gayi, yeh spasht ho gaya ki Williams ki kaarein field par laabh ki sthati mein hain, honda-engine teemon ke beech antar british grand priks mein sarvaadhik spasht ho gaya jahaan meinsal aur piket ne sena aur naakaajima ke lotus ko peechhe kar diya. sena, lotus par apne mauke se kaafi asantusht ho gaye aur monja mein yeh ghoshana ki gayi ki varsh 1998 ke liye ve maikaleran se judeinge.[29] sena ne kaafi majbooti ke saath season ko samaapt kiya aur Japan aur Australia mein aayojit antim do reson mein ve doosare sthaan par rahe, haalaanki race ke baad vaale parikshan mein paaya gaya ki antim race mein unke lotus ki break nalikaaen niyam ke viruddh kaafi chaudi thi aur unhein ayogya karaar diya gaya, jiske chalte lotus ke saath unka antim aur sabse safal season kadvaahat ke saath samaapt hua.[30] antim roop se sena, 57 ankon, ek pol sthaan aur chhah podiyem samaapti ke saath teesare sthaan par rahe. yeh season sena ke career mein ek mod lekar aaya, kyonki poore saal bhar unhonne honda ke saath ek gahre rishte ka nirmaan kiya, ek aisa rishta jisne unako ek bada laabhaansh pradaan kiya, kyonki maikaleran ne varsh 1988 ke liye Williams ke honda ki V6 tarbo engine aarakshit kar li thi.[31]

1988-1993: maikaleran

1988
[44] mein sena ne apna pehla vishv championship haasil kiya. unke haathon mein maikaleran MP4 / 4.

lotus ke saath sampoorn 1987 season mein rahate hue honda ke saath jis rishte ko unhonne kaayam kiya uske chalte aur maikaleran ke number van driver aur us vakt ke dohare vishv champion alen prost ke anumodan ke saath varsh 1988 mein sena ne maikaleran team mein padaarpan kiya.[32] sena aur prost ke beech bhayankar pratiyogita ki neenv rakhi gayi, in donon ke beech agale paanch varshon tak kai naatakeeya race ghatnaaen paraakaashtha tak pahunchi.[33] 1988 mein Portugal grand priks mein shurooaat mein prost, sena ke mukaabale thoda teji se aage nikal gaye lekin braajeeliyn jaldi se pehle kone se aage nikle. prost ne pratikriya dikhaate hue pehle laip ke ant mein sena se aage nikal gaye. sena, prost ko block karne ke liye jhatke se mude aur us frainchamain ko 180 meal/ghanta (290 kimi/ghanta) par pitvaal par chalne ke liye majaboor kiya. prost ne apne pairon ko neeche rakha aur jald hi pehle kone mein sena ko kinaare par kar diya aur teji se use baahar karne ke liye kheenchna shuroo kiya. haalaanki sena ki paintarebaaji se prost naaraaj the, is braajeeliyn ne FIA ki taraf se chetaavani najraandaaj kar diya. sena ne baad mein is ghatna ke liye prost se maafi bhi maangi. antat: is jodi ne 1988 mein maikaleren MP4/4 mein 16 mein se 15 race jeete, jismein sena sheersh sthaan par rahe aur prost ke 7 ank ke mukaabale 8 ank ke dvaara sena ne apna pehla faurmoola van chainpiyansaship khitaab haasil kiya (poore season ke dauraan prost ne adhik ank arjit kiye the lekin unhein teen dviteeya sthaan ko chhodna pada, kyonki keval 11 sarvashreshth score ko hi gina jaata hai). [34]

1989
[49] mein sena maikaleran MP4 /5 chalaate hue.

agale varsh, sena aur prost ke beech pratidvandvita track par ladaai aur ek manovaigyaanik yuddh ke roop mein aur teevr hui. [35] do chaalakon ke beech tanaav aur avishvaas badhta gaya jab sain mairino grand priks ke pun: aarambh hone ke baad sena, prost se teji se aage nikal gaye, ek aisa prayaas jise prost ne poorv-race samjhaute ka ullanghan karne ka daava kiya. pehli chaar daud mein se teen mein jeet ke saath sena ne pratiyogita mein shuruaati badhat le li thi, lekin ek saath Brazil aur Portugal mein takkar ke saath feeniks, Canada, France, Britain aur Italy mein avishvasaneeyata ke kaaran khitaab prost ke paksh mein chala gaya.

Japan ke sujuka sarkit mein sena ke saath takaraav ke baad prost ne 1989 ka vishv khitaab apne naam kiya, season ki aakhiri se pehle waali race jismein sena ko khitaabi daud mein apne ko banaae rakhane ke liye jeetna jaroori tha. sena ne ek androoni raaste se aage nikalne ka prayaas kiya jiske kaaran prost kone mein chale gaye aur sujuka shiken aakshep road mein tyre ke intaralauk ke saath donon mekaleren ne samaapti ki. uske baad sena ko maarshalon se push-staart praapt hua, apni kshatigrast car ko badalne ka mauka mila aur fir se ve daud mein shaamil hue. unhonne alesaandro naneeni ke benetan se leed liya aur pratham ho gaye, lekin takkar ke baad dohare mod se aage nikalne aur pit len pravesh (track ka hissa naheen hai) ke liye unhein FIA dvaara ayogya karaar diya gaya.[36] 1989 ki sardiyon mein ek vishaal jurmaana aur unke super license ko asthaayi roop se nilambit kiya gaya aur FIA aur tatkaaleen adhyaksh jeen-mairi belestre ke saath sena ne kadve shabdon mein baatcheet ki. [37] sena ne doosra season chhah jeet aur ek dviteeya sthaan ke saath samaapt kiya. nimnalikhit varsh ke liye prost ne feraari pratidvandviyon ke liye maikaleran ko chhod diya.

1990

1990 mein, chhah jeet, do dviteeya sthaan aur teen teesare sthaan ke saath pratiyogita mein sena ne ek prabhaavasheel badhat banaai. unki sabse yaadagaar jeet feeniks ke udghaatan satr mein hui, jahaan unhonne sheersh mein aane se pehle us samay ke aprasiddh jeen alesi ke saath kai laip ki badhat ke liye mukaabala kiya aur Germany mein jahaan unka mukaabala benetan driver alesaandro naneeni ke saath poore race ke dauraan hua. season ke apne final quarter mein pahunchane ke saath, alen prost apne feraari mein paanch jeet ke saath mukaabale mein aa gaye, jismein Spain ki mahatvapoorn jeet shaamil thi, jahaan ve aur team sadasya nigel manasel ne suderiya ke liye 1-2 par samaapti ki. sena ek kshatigrast rediyetar ke saath baahar ho gaye aur sena aur prost ke beech ka antar kam hokar 11 ank par aa gaya aur keval is samay tak do race hi baaki thi.

Japan ke sujuka (vahi sarkit jahaan sena aur prost ek saal pehle takaraae the) mein chainpiyansaship ke upaantim round mein sena ne prost se aage pol pojishn praapt ki. sujuka ka pol pojishn daaen taraf tha, jo ki track ke gande bhaag ki taraf aata hai. prost ki feraari ne ek behtar shurooaat ki aur sena ke maikaleren se aage nikal gayi. pehle mod mein sena ne aakraamak roop se apni line ko banaae rakha, jabki prost andar ki or aae aur maikaleren, prost ke feraari ke pichhle pahiye mein lagbhag 270 km/h (170 mph) par chalne laga, jisse donon ki kaarein track se utar gayi aur is baar sena formula 1 ke vishv champion ban gaye.[38] ek saal baad, apne teesare vishv championship ko lene ke baad, sena ne sujuka mein pichhle saal ki apni gatividhiyon ko press ke saamane abhivyakt kiya. sarvaadhik teji se kvaaleefaaing karne se pehle unhonne kaha ki, unhein race adhikaariyon se yeh aashvaasan mila tha ki pol pojishn ko track ke saaf vaale hisse ki taraf yaani baaen-haath ki taraf rakha jaaega, lekin unke pol pojishn praapt karne ke baad unhonne paaya ki is nirnaya ko jeen-meri belestre ke dvaara ulat diya gaya.[39] prost ke saath takaraav ki charcha karte hue sena ne kaha ki ve chaahate the ki yeh spasht ho jaae ki ve belestre ke dvaara liye gaye nirnaya ko sveekaar naheen kareinge, jise unhonne ek anuchit nirnaya maana tha, jismein 1989 mein unki ayogyata aur 1990 mein pol pojishn shaamil hai:

"mujhe lagta hai ki 1989 mein jo bhi hua vah akshamya tha aur main ise kabhi naheen bhool paaoonga. abhi bhi iske saath mukaabala karne ke liye main sangharsh kar raha hoon. aapko pata hai yahaan kya hua tha: prost aur main dohare mod mein aapas mein tab takara gaye, jab vah meri taraf muda. baad mein, main pun: race mein shaamil hua aur main jeet gaya, lekin unhonne mere khilaaf faisala kiya aur yeh nyaaya naheen tha. baad mein jo bhi hua... vah naatak tha, lekin jo mainne mahasoos kiya vah main naheen kah sakta tha. yadi aap kuchh karte hain to, aapko dand milta hai, aapko jurmaana milta hai, ho sakta hai aapko apna license hi khona pad jaae. kya yeh kaam karne ka uchit tareeka hai? yeh sahi naheen hai...sujuka mein pichhle saal mainne adhikaariyon se pol pojishn ko daaen haath se baane ki taraf karne ke liye kaha tha. yeh anuchit tha, kyonki daayaan hissa hamesha ganda hota hai aur vahaan grip bhi kam hoti hai - aap pol pojishn paane ke liye kaafi parishram karte hain aur paane ke baad iske liye aapko dand bhugatna padta hai. aur unhonne kaha, "haan, ham badal deinge, ismein koi samasya naheen hai". uske baad, aapko pata hai kya hua? belestre ne yeh aadesh diya ki ise badla naheen jaaega. main jaanta hoon ki system kaise kaam karta hai aur mainne mahasoos kiya ki sachmuch yeh anuchit tha. isliye mainne apne aap se kaha, "theek hai, chaahe jo bhi ho, main pehle corner ka pehla pojishn lene ja raha hoon - main us khilaadi (alen prost) ko us corner mein mujhse pehle aane dene ke liye taiyaar naheen tha. agar main uske kaafi kareeb hoon, vah kabhi bhi mere saamane se mud nahi sakta, use mujhe jaane dena hi padega." agar ham takara bhi jaate hain to iski paravaah mujhe naheen thi; main iske liye taiyaar tha. aur use ek mauka mila, vah meri taraf muda aur ham durghatanaagrast ho gaye. yeh kaafi badi aur aparihaarya durghatana thi. ise to hona hi tha. " to kisi ne kaha ki vaakai aisa aapke kaaran hua. "mere kaaran kaise aisa ho gaya?" sena ne pratikriya vyakt ki. "agar aapko system mein rahakar apna kaam behatareen roop se karne ke liye har baar saja bhugatani pade to aap kya karoge? peechhe khade rahakar, dhanyavaad kehna chaahiye? aisa naheen ho sakta. aap jise sahi maanate hain uske liye ladna chaahiye. yadi pol baain taraf hota, to main aasaani se badhat ke samay pehle corner mein tabadeel kar leta, koi samasya naheen hoti. pol ko daaen taraf rakhane ka faisala galat tha aur yeh nirnaya belestre se prabhaavit tha. aur jiska parinaam pehle corner ki ghatna thi. mainne ismein yogadaan diya hai, lekin yeh meri jimmedaari naheen hai.[40]

baad mein prost ne sena ki gatividhiyon ko "ghrunit" kaha aur kaha ki gambhir roop se is ghatna ke baad use khel se avakaash grahan karne par vichaar karna chaahiye. [32]

1991
sena apne maikaleran MP4/6 mein 1991 ke yoonaaited states grand priks ko jeeta.

sena ne 1991 mein apne teesare khitaab par kabja kiya, jismein saat jeet shaamil hain aur bade paimaane par spasht roop se vivaadon se mukt rahe. feraari par pradarshan mein giraavat ke kaaran prost ek gambhir pratiyogi naheen rahe the. sena ne pratham chaar race mein jeet haasil ki. season ke madhya tak aur adhik unnat Williams mein manasel chunauti dene mein saksham the. isse sambandhit kai yaadagaar pal rahe hain, jaise Spanish grand priks mein jab sena aur manasel seedhe track mein 320 km/h (200 mph) ki gati se keval seinteemeetar ke faasale ke saath vheel too vheel chunauti de rahe the, antat: is race ko briton ne jeeta tha. uske baad silvaraston par british grand priks mein manasel ki jeet ek alag pradarshan ki peshakash thi. sena ki car antim laip mein tham gayi thi lekin unhein sarkit par fanse hue naheen chhoda gaya, kyonki manasel ne apne parade laip ko kheencha aur unhein Williams ke side-pod par peechhe pit tak jaane diya. season ki shuruaat mein yadyapi sena ki sthirta aur Williams ki avishvasaneeyata ne sena ko shurooaati laabh pradaan kiya, sena ne jor dekar kaha ki isse pehle ki bahut der ho jaae, honda ko apne engine ke vikaas kaaryakram ko aage badhaana chaahiye aur kaaron ko aur adhik sudhaarana chaahiye. in sanshodhanon ke chalte season mein unhein safalta haasil karne mein deri hui aur championship surakshit karne ke liye teen anya race kisi tarah jeetne me safal hue, jiska Japan (ek baar fir) mein achha parinaam hua, jab manasel (jise jeet ki aavashyakta thi) teesare sthaan par race karte hue pehle corner mein chala gaya aur apne Williams-reenault ko kankad raaste ke kinaare mein le aaya. sena ne doosare sthaan par samaapti ki aur apne team sadasya gerahaard bargar ko poore season mein samarthan ke liye dhanyavaad svaroop antim corner par vijayi hone diya.

1992

1992 mein, vijayi hone ka sena ka drudh sankalp is roop mein pradarshit hua ki Williams ki sarv-vijeta FW14B car ko chunauti dene mein maikaleren aksham dikhe.[41] us season ke liye maikaleran ki nai car mein kai kamiyaan thi. nae model ke aane mein deri ho rahi thi (yeh season ki teesare race yaani braajeeliyn grand priks mein ise pehli baar pradarshit kiya gaya) aur sakriya sasapeinshan ki kami ke alaava nai car mein vishvasaneeyata ki samaasya bhi thi, tej corner mein yeh apratyaashit thi, jabki honda V12 engine sarkit mein ab sabse shaktishaali naheen tha.[42] sena ne usi varsh monaako, Hungary aur Italy mein safalta praapt ki. Belgium grand priks ke liye qualify ke dauraan French chaalak erik komaas bhaari roop se durghatanaagrast ho gaye aur sena us durghatana vaale sthaan mein pahunchane vaale pehle chaalak the. ve apni car se baahar nikle aur us fraichamain ki sahaayata ke liye track mein usaki taraf daude aur ek saathi chaalak ki sahaayata ke liye apni suraksha ko bhi najraandaaj kar diya. baad mein ve komaas se milne aspataal gaye. kulamilaakar sena championship mein chauthe sthaan par rahe aur manasel aur petrij ki Williams jodi aur benetan ke Michael shoomaakar se peechhe rahe. [43][44]

1993
1993 ke hokenahem mein aayojit jarman grand priks mein chauthe sthaan par samaapti ke liye sena maidaan ke peechhe se aae.

sampoorn 1992 mein varsh 1993 ke liye sena ke iraadon se sambandhit prashn ka koi uttar naheen tha, kyonki is varsh ke ant tak kisi bhi team ke saath unka koi anubandh naheen tha. unhonne mahasoos kiya ki maikaleran car pehle ki tulana mein kam pratiyogi thi (visheshakar honda ke 1992 season ke ant mein faurmoola 1 se baahar ho jaane ke baad). prost (jisne varsh 1993 ke liye team ke liye ek drive surakshit kar liya tha) ke saath Williams mein shaamil hona asambhav ho gaya tha, kyonki prost ke anubandh ke ek khand mein sena ke team-sadasya ke roop mein nishedhaadhikaar tha, fir bhi sena ne muft mein drive karne ki peshakash ki. krodhit sena ne estroel ke ek press sammelan mein prost ko kaayar kaha.[45][46] December mein sena, feeniks, erijona gaye aur emarasan fitteepaaldi ke peinske indeekaar ka pareekshan kiya.[47]

isi beech maikaleran boss raun denis 1993 ke liye reenault V10 engine ki aapoorti ko praapt karne ke liye koshish kar rahe the.[48] jab yeh samjhauta vifal ho gaya, to maikaleran ko graahakon ko saplaai hone wala Ford V8 engine ko lene par majaboor hona pada.[49] graahak team ke roop mein maikaleran ko jo engine praapt hua tha vah Ford ke factory team, benetan se do vishishtataaon se peechhe tha, lekin aasha thi ki vah yaantrik parishkaran ke bal par nimn horsapaavar ki kami ko poora kar sakega, jismein prabhaavi sakriya sasapeinshan pranaali shaamil thi.[50] denis ne antat: sena ko maikaleran mein vaapas lautane ki darakhvaast ki. haalaanki is braajeeliyn ne keval dakshin Africa mein aayojit pehle race ke liye hi hastaakshar kiya jahaan vah aakalan karega ki maikaleran ke upakaran uske season ko behtar banaane ke kram mein pratiyogita ke liye paryaapt hai ki naheen.

maikaleran ke 1993 ke car ki driving ke baad sena ne nishkarsh nikaala ki nai car mein ek aashcharyajanak saamarthya hai, yadyapi abhi bhi engine mein shakti thodi kam thi aur vah prost ke Williams reenault ke takkar mein naheen thi.[51] sena ne ek saal ke anubandh par hastaakshar karne se mana kar diya lekin race-dar-race ke aadhaar par drive karne ke liye taiyaar hue, antat: ve ek saal tak team mein bane rahe,[52] haalaanki kuchh sootron ke mutaabik yeh sena aur denis ke beech ek vipnan chaal thi. dakshin Africa mein pehle race mein doosare sthaan par samaapti ke baad,[53] sena ne lagaataar asthir paristhitiyon mein apne desh Brazil,[54] aur doningatan mein baarish vaale vaataavaran mein jeet haasil ki. uttaraarddh waali jeet ko aksar sena ki sabse badi jeet ke roop mein maana jaata hai.[55] unhonne chauthe sthaan par race shuroo ki lekin paanchavein sthaan par pehle corner mein khisak gaye, lekin pehle laip ke ant tak ve race mein sabse aage nikal gaye. unhonne ek aisi race mein sampoorn field ka chakkar lagaaya jise poora karne mein kuchh anya khilaadiyon ko paristhitiyon ke aadhaar par baarish aur slik tyres ke liye saat pit stop ki aavashyakta hoti hai.[56][57] sena ne Spain mein doosare sthaan par race ko samaapt kiya aur monaako mein ek record-break chhathe baar jeet haasil ki. [58] monaako ke baad season ke chhathe race mein sena chainpiyansaship mein agrani ho gaye aur maikaleren ke nimn engine ke baavajood Williams-reenault ke prost aur benetan ke Michael shoomaakar se aage rahe. [59] jaise-jaise season aage badhne laga prost aur demon hil ne Williams-reenault car ki shreshthata ko pradarshit kiya aur prost ne driver championship ko surakshit kiya jabki hil doosare paayadaan par sthaanaantarit hua. sena ne Japan aur Australia mein do jeet ke saath season aur maikaleren career ko samaapt kiya aur championship mein samagr roop se doosare sthaan ko praapt kiya.[50][60] upaantik race ko ek aisi ghatna ke liye jaana jaata hai jismein Jordan ke nae khilaadi Eddy irvin ne sena ke khilaaf laip ko poora naheen kiya. naaraaj sena baad mein jaurdan ke garaaj mein dikhaai diye aur ek lambi charcha ke baad, ve us aayalaindavaasi ko ghoonsa maarane ke liye aage badhe.[61]

1994: Williams

chitr:WilliamsFW161994.jpg
Williams FW16 mein sena.

varsh 1994 ke liye antat: sena ne Williams reenault team ke saath hastaakshar kiya. prost ke anubandh khand ke kaaran sena ko Williams mein shaamil hone ke liye jo manaahi thi vah 1994 tak vistaarit naheen hui aur prost apne sabse bade pratidvandi ke team sadasya ke roop mein rahane ki sambhaavnaaon ke bajaae apne anubandh ke khilaaf ek saal pehle hi team se sevaanivrut ho gaye.[62]

behad utkrushth kaaron ke saath Williams pichhle do vishv championship ko jeet chuke the aur doosare varsh ke chaalak demon hil ke saath, jisse sahaayak bhoomika ki ummeed ki ja rahi thi, sena ek praakrutik aur prakalpit poorv-season khitaab ke liye pasandeeda the. unke beech, prost, sena aur hil ne 1993 mein ek ko chhodkar sabhi race mein jeet haasil ki thi. benetan ke Michael shoomaakar ne shesh pratiyogita ko jeeta.

season ke poorv-pareekshan se pata chala ki Williams car mein gati thi, lekin drive karna mushkil tha. FIA ne khel ko adhik "maanaveeya" banaane ke liye driver electronic eds ko pratibandhit kar diya tha, jaise sakriya sasapeinshan, karshan niyantran aur ABS. 1994 ke shurooaat mein Williams ek achhi tarah se chalaane yogya car naheen thi, jaisa ki F1 ke anya draaivaron dvaara avlokan kiya gaya tha aur rear ko kaafi dheela paaya gaya tha. sena ne khud anginat (raajanaitik roop se soch-samajh kar) tippaniyaan ki thi ki Williams FW16 mein kuchh vichitrata hai jise baahar karna aavashyak hai. yeh spasht tha ki FW16 mein pratibandhit sakriya sasapeinshan aur karshan niyantran ko badalne ke baad FW15C aur FW14B kaaron se koi bhi shreshthata pradarshit naheen hui, jo isse pehle I theen. pareekshan ka aashcharya benetan team thi, jinki car kam taakatavar hone ke baavajood Williams ki car se adhik tej thi.

season ka pehla race Brazil mein tha, jaha sena ne pol pojishn praapt kiya. haalaanki race mein sena ne shuruaati badhat le li lekin shoomaakar ka benetan kabhi peechhe rahane wala naheen tha. shoomaakar, sena ko pit mein peechhe kar race mein sabse aage ho gaye. sena ko doosare sthaan par aana ganvaara naheen tha. aur jeetne ki koshish mein unhonne kaafi jor daala aur unki car spin karne lagi jisse car ka engine band ho gaya aur ve race se baahar ho gaye.

aeda mein pesifik grand priks doosari race thi jahaan ek baar fir sena ki car ko pol pojishn praapt hua. haalaanki, pehle corner ke Mike hakeenen dvaara unki car ko peechhe se dhakka laga aur unka race se baahar hona us samay nishchit hua jab nikola larini dvaara chaalit feraari bhi Williams ke saath durghatanaagrast ho gayi. hil bhi sancharan ki samasyaaon ke saath sevaanivrutt hue, jabki shoomaakar ne fir se jeet praapt ki.

sena ki F1 season ki yeh sabse kharaab shurooaat thi aur pehle do race mein pol pojishn praapt karne ke baavajood samaapan karne aur ank haasil karne mein ve vifal rahe. draaivars championship mein shoomaakar, sena se bees ankon ke saath agrani the.[63]

luka di montejemolo ne uddhrut karte hue kaha ki imola race se pehle sena mangalvaar ko uske paas aae the aur F1 mein electronics ke khilaaf ladaai ke liye feraari ki saraahana ki. montejemolo se sena ne bhi kaha ki ve apne career ka ant feraari ke saath karna chaaheinge.[64]

mrutyu

chitr:Senna accident.jpg
prabhaav ke kshan par sena ki ghaatak durghatana.

aimola ke sain merino grand priks mein is season ki teesari race mein pehli do shurooaati reson ko khatm na kar paane par, sena ne ghoshana ki ki yahi vah jagah hai jahaan solah reson ke bajaay chaudah reson ke saath unka season shuroo hoga, jismein ve title jeeteinge.[65] sena ne fir car ko 65veen aur antim baar pol par khada kiya, par ve do ghatnaaon se vishesh roop se khafa the. shukravaar ko, dopahar ke chayan satr ke dauraan sena ka sahaayak rooben bairreekelo ek gambhir durghatana mein shaamil tha jab vah vairiyeinte baassa ke dohare mod par khatarnaak roop se pahiyon se ja takaraaya, jismein usaki jeebh andar chali gayi aur naak aur ek baahan toot gayi, jisne use race mein hissa lene se rok diya. agale din chayan ke dauraan ostriyaai driver rolaind retajanabargar ek vidhvansak durghatana mein maara gaya jab uske simtek Ford ke aage ka break toot gaya aur seedhe vilenueve ke teekhe mod par ek pakki deevaar se ja takaraaya.

retajanabargar ki durghatana ke baad sena ne aakhiri subah apne saathi draaivaron ke saath baatcheet karte hue bitaai aur yeh nishchit karne ki koshish ki ki draaivaron ke suraksha samooh (arthaat grand priks draaivar sangh) ka punarnirmaan ho, taaki formula van mein suraksha badhaai ja sake. ek varishth draaivar hone ke naate, unhonne is prayaas mein aguaai karne ka prastaav rakha.

sena aur anya draaivar ne grand priks ko praarambh karne ka vikalp chuna, parantu yeh race aarambh rekha ke paas ek vidhvansak durghatana se baadhit ho gayi, jab J.J.leto ki benetan-Ford ka engine band ho gaya aur anbhigya pedro laimi apni poori gati se usaki lotus-mugen honda mein bhid gaya. ek pahiya nikal kar darshak deergha mein ja gira, jisse aath darshak aur ek police officer jakhmi ho gaya. suraksha car jo is varsh opel vektara thi, use kaam par laga diya gaya aur draaivaron ne race ke kai charanon tak usaka anusaran kiya. race ke dubaara shuroo hone par, race ke teesare sabse teevr laip ke saath sena ne sheegra hi tej gati ko pa liya, jiske baad shumaakar ka sthaan tha. jaise hi sena agale laip mein uchch gati vaale taimbarlo kone mein pravisht hue, to car ne track chhod diya aur badi tej gati se paas ki kaunkreet deevaar se ja takaraai 135 meal/ghanta (217 kimi/ghanta). sena ko sid vaatakins aur unke chikitseeya jatthe dvaara car se nikla gaya, car ke bagal mein unki thodi maraham-patti ki gayi jiske baad unhein bolaagna haspataal havaaijahaaj se le jaaya gaya, jahaan 34 saale ke sena ko mrut ghoshit kar diya gaya. hua yeh hoga ki aage ka daayaan pahiya gulel jaise prabhaav mein sanghaat ke kaaran oopar ki taraf uda aur cockpit ko tahas-nahas kar diya jahaan sena baithe hue the. vah unke helamet ke aage ke daayein hisse se ja takaraaya aur pahiye ke hinsak bal ne unke sar ko hedarest ke peechhe dhakel diya jiski vajah se khopadi mein ghaatak roop se haddiyaan toot gayeen. pahiye ke aage laga hua khada stambh aanshik roop se unki helamet ko cheerate hue unke maathe par ek gahra chhed kar gaya. iske atirikt, aisa prateet hua ki pahiye ke oopar ka ek nukeela hissa helamet se dekhne vaale sthaan ko cheerate hue usaki daayeen aankh se thode oopar hi ja ghusa.[krupaya uddharan jodein] track ke karmachaari jab uske race ke bhagnaavashesh ki jaanch-padtaal kar rahe the to unhonne ek lapata hua ek ostriyn jhanda paaya - ek vijayi jhanda jo ki vah retajenabargar ke sammaan mein faharaane wala tha.[66]

aajatak, durghatana ke kaaranon ko aaj tak poorn roop se sthaapit naheen kiya gaya, jahaan bahut se siddhaant gadh liye gaye jinmein se ek car ke stering ke fail hone ka hai jiski vajah se tainmburlo kinaare par rakhe gaye avarodhon se car aasaani se takara gayi. iske baad kai adaalati maamale chale, jismein Williams ke khilaaf maanavahatya ki tahakeekaat ki gayi, haalaanki in aaropon ko aage chalakar khaarij kar diya gaya.

antim sanskaar

sena ki kabr.

sena ki maut ko braajil ke prashansakon dvaara ek raashtreeya shok ke roop mein maana gaya aur braajeel sarkaar dvaara teen din ke raashtriya maatam ki ghoshana ki gayi. apne sammaan ko prakat karne ke liye lagbhag das lakh log sadkon par aa gaye. motor race ki bahut saari mahatvapoorn hastiyaan jaise Allen prost, daimon hil aur imarsan fitpaaladi aadi sena ke raajyeeya kriya-karm mein kafn dene aaye the. haalaanki sena ke parivaar ne FOM ke adhyaksh barni ekaleeston ko antyeshti mein aane naheen diya,[67] aur FIA ke adhyaksh maiks mosli retajenabargar ki antyeshti mein upasthit hue jo ki saalsbarg, ostriya mein 7 May 1994 ko sampann hua.[68] das saal baad ek samvaadadaata sammalen mein mosle ne kaha ki "main usaki antyeshti mein isliye gaya kyonki sabhi sena ki antyeshti mein gaye the. isliye mainne iske kriya-karm mein aana jruri samjha."[69]

unhonne apne sansaar bhar ke prashansako ko kis tarah prerit kiya tha is atiprem ka saakshya honda ke tokyo ke mukhyaalaya ke drushya ko dekh kar kaha ja sakta tha, jahaan har race ke baad aadarsh roop mein mekaleren ki kaaron ko pradarshit kiya jaata tha. unki mrutyu ke baad, shraddhaanjali ke roop mein itne foolon ko praapt kiya gaya ki vishaal pradarshan laubi usase bhar gayi.[70] iske vaabajood ki sena ab maikaleren naheen chalaate the aur maikaleran ne aane vaale season mein honda power ka istemaal karna chhod diya tha. company ke sansthaapak soichiro honda ke saath sena ke vishesh sambandh the[krupaya uddharan jodein] aur Japan mein vah priya the jahaan unhonne lagbhag ek mithkeeya pratishtha praapt kar li thi. apne ghareloo desh braajeel mein, antarraashtreeya havaai-adde se saao paaolo tak ki mukhya sadak aur shahar ke beech jaane waali sadak ke bagal se ja rahi surang ka naam unke sammaan mein rakha gaya hai. Rio di Janeiro ki ek mahatvapoorn sadak ka naam bhi sena ("evenida ertan sena") ke naam par rakha gaya. sena ko uske saao paaolo ke gruh-nagar ke morambi kabristaan mein dafnaaya gaya. unki kabr par "Nada pode me separar do amor de Deus" samaadhi lekh likha hua hai, jiska arth hai "mujhe ishvar ke prem se koi juda naheen kar sakta".

monaako mein agali race ke liye FIA ne yeh tay kiya ki ve pehle do grid ke sthaanon ko khaali chhod deinge aur us jagah ko unhonne sena aur retajanabargar ke sammaan mein Brazil aur ostriya ke jhandon se rang diya.

vyaktigat jeevan

sena ka janm santaana mein hua tha, jo saao paaolo nagar ka ek bairro tha (Brazil mein shahar ke nagareeya ilaakon ko bairro kaha jaata hai). school mein unhonne jimnaastik, kala evam rasaayanashaastr mein shreshthata praapt ki, par ganit, bhautik-vigyaan aur angreji ko mushkil paaya.[krupaya uddharan jodein] braajeel ke ek dhani jameendaar ke ladke ke roop mein, unhonne chhoti umr mein hi motor race mein ruchi lena shuroo kar diya tha.

sena ek aastik Catholic the. ek bahut hi dhaarmik aadmi, jo khulkar apne reson ki tulana apni aastha se karta tha jiski vajah se Allen prost tatha anya use khatarnaak kah kar usaki aalochna karte the. saao paaolo se Europe ke apne lambe havaai yaatra mein ve aksar baaibal padha karte the.[71][72]

sena ne braajeel bhar mein faili gareebi ke prati apni sahaanubhooti jataai thi aur unhonne vaiyaktik roop se vanchit bachchon ke liye apni niji sampatti se kai million ki sahaayata pradaan ki. [73] apni mrutya se kuchh pehle hi unhonne braajeel ke bachchon ko samarpit ek sanstha ka dhaancha taiyaar kiya tha, jo aage chalakar instityooto ertan sena bana. [74]

sena ko aksar chaalan ko aatm-anveshan ka maadhyam aur resing ko jeevan ke roop mein upama dene ke liye uddhrut kiya jaata tha: "main jitna jyaada apne aap ko aage dhakelata hoon, utana hi swayam ko khojata hoon. main hamesha agale charan ko dekhta hoon, ek doosare sansaar ko jahaan main ja sakta hoon, un kshetron mein jaane ki koshish karta hoon, jahaan main pehle kabhi naheen gaya. grand priks car ko chalaana akelepan ka kaam hai, par bahut hi dilchasp hai. mainne nayi sanvedanaaon ka anubhav kiya hai aur adhik anubhav karna chaahata hoon. yeh mera josh hai, yahi meri prerana hai."[75]

apni jeevan-vrutti ke ant mein sena apne peshe ke khataron ko lekar bahut hi chintaamagn ho gaye the. apni mrutyu ki subah unhonne GPDA suraksha sanstha ke punargathan ki pahal ki, jiska uddeshya us khel ki suraksha ko behtar banaana tha.

gerahaard se apne sambandhon ko lekar vah mashahoor the aur ve donon ek doosare se hamesha vyaavahaarik majaak kiya karte the.[76] bargar ko yeh uddhrut karte hue paaya gaya ki "unhonne mujhe is khel ke baare mein bahut kuchh sikhaaya aur mainne unhein hansana sikhaaya." 2004 mein bani the right too vin dokyumeintri film jo ki sena ke sammaan mein banaai gayi thi, usamein Frank Williams vishesh smaran karte hue kehte hain ki, sena ek behatareen draaivar the, moolaroop se "ve jitne mahaan car ke andar the usase badhkar ve car ke baahar ek mahaan insaan the."

formula van mein aane se pehle sena ne ek baar alp-samay ke liye liliyn de vaaskonaselos ke saath shaadi ki thi. jab vaaskonaselos ke saath sena ki shaadi khatm ho gayi to vah saao paaolo ke ek vyaapaari ki beti edariyaane yamin ke saath prem karne lage. jab unhonne 1985 mein apne rishte ki shuruaat ki tab vah keval pandrah saal ki aur jab bhi ve milte usaki maan sanrakshika ki tarah unke saath rahati thi. ve thode samay ke liye ek-doosare ke saath rahe, par 1988 ke ant tak unka rishta toot gaya.[77]

apni mrutya ke samay se pehle vah Brazil ki model edariyaane galistiu ke saath ishk kar rahe the, jiske saath sena ke parivaar ka aaj ki taareekh tak kabhi dostaana sambandh na raha. ise sena ke dafanaane ke dauraan dekha ja sakta tha, jahaan khule roop mein galistiu ko darakinaar kar diya gaya tha. Brazil tatha midiya dvaara "vidhva" ka darja braajeel ki icon juja ko diya gaya jo sena ki bahan viviyaane ka haath pakadte hue antyeshti mein I thi. usaki mrutyu ke baad gelistiu ne apne aur sena ke sambandhon ko lekar ek kitaab likhi. sena ke maranoparaant, edariyaana prasiddh ho gayi aur kai logon ka maanana hai ki sirf unki mrutyu ki vajah se hi vah prasiddh hui aur tabase ek TV kaaryakram ki mejabaani karte hue apni is prasiddhi ko banaaye rakha hai.

vah formula van draaivar bruno sena ke chaacha the, jiske baare mein unhonne vidit roop se kaha tha ki "agar aap mujhe tej samajhte hain, to us vakt ka intajaar keejiye jab aap mere bhateeje bruno ko dekheinge."[78]

viraasat

otodromo enjo E dino feraari mein smaarak, jahaan sena ki mrutyu hui thi.

sena aur retajenabarg ki mrutyu ke baad khel ki suraksha mein anek sudhaar kiye gaye. inmein unnat crash avarodhak, punaanirmit track aur pahiyon ke avarodhak, oonche durghatana suraksha ke star aur draaivar ke cockpit mein oonchi dahaleej shaamil thi.

1994 mein unki mrutyu ke theek baad, vishv cup jeetne waali braajeel ki football team ne is mahaan resar ko apni jeet samarpit ki taaki formula 1 mein unke yogadaan ko pahachaana ja sake.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

sena ki mrutyu ke uparaant yeh pata laga ki unhonne apni niji sampati (unki mrutyu ke samay anumaanit $400 million)[79] mein se laakhon dollar bachchon ke sangathanon ko daan mein diya hai, ek aisa tathya jise unhonne apne jeevanakaal mein gupt rakha. braajeel mein unke sansthaan institooyooto ertan sena, ne baarah saal ke antaraal mein lagbhag US$80 million ko vidyaalayon, sarkaar aur kai NGO aur niji sasthaaon ki saajhedaari se saamaajik kaaryakramon aur kaaryon mein nivesh kiya hai, jiska uddeshya nyoon aay waali prushthabhoomi se aa rahe bachchon aur kishoron ko aisi yogyataaen aur mauke pradaan karna tha jinse ve ek insaan, ek naagrik aur bhavishya ke peshevar ke roop mein apne saamarthya ka poorn vikaas kar sakein.[80]

2004 mein (jab sena ke jeevan par braajeel ki midiya ne unki mrutyu ke das saal baad punardrushti daali) tab ek kitaab "ertan: the hero reevild" (mool sheershak: "Ayrton: O Heróai Revelado"[81]) braajeel mein prakaashit hui. sena aaj bhi Brazil mein raashtranaayak ke roop mein bane hue hain aur unki samaadhi, John ef kenedi, marlin munaro aur elvis presle ki samaadhiyon ka darshan karne ke liye aane vaale logon ki kul sankhya se adhik logon ko aakarshit karti hai.[71]

iske atirikt, April 21, 2004 ko sena ki mrutyu ki dasveen barasi par aimola ke paas ke ek football stadium mein ek daan hetu khel khela gaya. khel ka aayojan sena ke Italy aur Canada ke anek aasthaavaan prashansakon dvaara kiya gaya, jismein 1994 ke FIFA vishv cup ko jeetne waali braajeel ki team (jisne 1994 ke FIFA vishv cup ki jeet ko sena ke naam par samarpit kiya tha) ka mukaabala "Nazionale Piloti", ek pradarshan hetu banaayi gayi team, jismein race ke sarvashreshth car draaivar samaavisht the, ke saath hona tha. sena khud 1985 mein is team ka hissa the. Michael shoomaakar, jaarno truli, roobens bereekelo, farnaando alonso aur kai anyon ne dunga, keresa, tafaarel aur us team ke doosare sadasyon se mukaabala liya jisne das saal pehle America mein vishv cup jeeta tha. khel 5-5 ki baraabari par khatm hua aur jama hui dhanaraashi ko instyooto ertan sena ko de diya gaya. sena ki bahan viviyaane sena, jo ki sanstha ki adhyaksh bhi thi (tatha bhavishya ke F1 draaivar bruno sena ki maata bhi) ne praarambhik kick kiya tha. usi saptaahaant mein barani ekleston ne yeh khulaasa kiya ki unka maanana hai ki aaj tak jitne bhi F1 draaivar unhonne dekhe hain unamein se sena sabse behatareen the aur abhi bhi hain.[67]

apni mrutyu ke baad se sena, Italy ke geetkaar-geetalekhak lusiyo dalla, jej piyaano bajaane vaale kim pensil, Japan ke jej-fyoojn gitaar bajaane vaale aur ti-skaiyar band ke aguaa masaahiro andoh evam kris riya ke kai geeton ka vishay bane rahe hain.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

maikaleran/honda F1 team ke #1 draaivar ke roop mein braajeel ke is vilkshan pratibhaashaali vyakti ke kaaryakaal ke dauraan honda ne unke saath apne najadeeki sambandhon ka laabh uthaane ke liye honda NSX ki saspeinsan vyavastha ko uske antim charanon ke vikaas ko faain-tyoon karne ke liye sena ko bulaaya. parikshan ka sanchaalan sujuka sarkit mein kiya gaya, jahaan mukhya NSX engineer shigeroo uhera aur unki engineering team sena ke pratyaksh sujhaavon ko sanchit karne ke liye haajir thi. saspeinsan ko tyoon karne ke parinaamasvaroop, sena ne aage chalakar paaya ki praarambh mein roodh praaroop NSX ke chesis mein us star ki majabooti naheen thi jis star ke ve aadi the, is kaaran antim utpaad ko unki santushti ke liye aur bhi majaboot kiya gaya. 1992 NSX Type-R ke naam se uddhrut yeh car ek seemit sanskaran hai, jiski bikri mukhya roop se Japan mein hi hoti hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

2002 mein, MV agasta F4 750 sena motarasaaikil ka nirmaan MV agasta ke adhyayaksh klaaudiyo kaistigliyeni dvaara sena ke sammaan mein kiya gaya, kyonki sena unke ek kareebi dost the. ise 300 baaikon tak simit kiya gaya aur bikri se praapt saara munaafa ertan sena sansthaan ko chala gaya. baaik ki chesij aur engine F4 750 SPR par aadhaarit hai jo ki F4 ka ek bahut hi vinirdisht sanskaran hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

2009 mein, yeh ghoshana ki gayi ki sena ka bhateeja bruno apne formula van ka shubhaarambh 2010 mein karega. [82]

Adelaide, Australia ke poorv grand priks sarkit ne dohare mod ka naam unki yaad mein "sena shiken" kar diya. F1 grand priks ke melaborn sthaanaantarit ho jaane ke baad bhi is track ka prayog abhi bhi sthaaneeya V8 suparakaaron ki reson ke liye hota hai. vingafeeld ke Adelaide unagar ke ek raste ka naam bhi unke naam par rakha gaya hai. kaha jaata hai ki Adelaide street sarkit sena ke priya sthaanon mein se ek tha aur yeh ki vah aanevaale Adelaide se melaborn ke sthaanaantaran ko lekar naakhush the.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

July 2010 mein Germany ki baaild M sonataig (Bild am Sonntag) samaachaar patrika dvaara yeh chhaapa gaya ki abhi ke draaivaron ke kiye gaye nirvaachan mein unhein abhi tak ke sarvashreshth draaivar ka mat praapt hua.[83]

25 July 2010 ko, prasiddh BBC subah ke sho, top giyr ne ek bhaavanaatmak shraddhaanjali sena ko arpit ki, jahaan britaanavi formula van draaivar, luis haimiltan ne sena ki apni pehli MP4/4 ko chalaaya.

formula van ka sampoorn parinaam

(ki) (bold mein race pol sthiti ko soochit karte hain; itailik mein race sarvaadhit tej laip ka sanket dete hain)

varsh team chesis engine 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 WDC ank[84]
1984 tolamain group motarasport tolamain TG183B heart S4 (t/c) BRA
Ret
RSA
6
BEL
6
SMR
DNQ
9vaan 13
tolamain TG184 S4 heart (t/c) FRA
Ret
MON
2
CAN
7
DET
Ret
DAL
Ret
GBR
3
GER
Ret
AUT
Ret
NED
Ret
ITA
EUR
Ret
POR
3
1985 John player special team lotus lotus 97T renolt

V6 (t/c)

BRA
Ret
POR
1
SMR
7
MON
Ret
CAN
16
DET
Ret
FRA
Ret
GBR
10
GER
Ret
AUT
2
NED
3
ITA
3
BEL
1
EUR
2
RSA
Ret
AUS
Ret
4 38
1986 John player special team lotus lotus 98T renolt V6 ((t/c) BRA
2
ESP
1
SMR
Ret
MON
3
BEL
2
CAN
5
DET
1
FRA
Ret
GBR
Ret
GER
2
HUN
2
AUT
Ret
ITA
Ret
POR
4
MEX
3
AUS
Ret
4 55
1987 kaimal team lotus honda lotus 99T honda V6 (t/c) BRA
Ret
SMR
2
BEL
Ret
MON
1
DET
1
FRA
4
GBR
3
GER
3
HUN
2
AUT
5
ITA
2
POR
7
ESP
5
MEX
Ret
JPN
2
AUS
DSQ
3 57
1988 honda maarlaboro maikaleran maikaleran MP4/4 honda V6 (t/c) BRA
DSQ
SMR
1
MON
Ret
MEX
2
CAN
1
DET
1
FRA
2
GBR
1
GER
1
HUN
1
BEL
1
ITA
10
POR
6
ESP
4
JPN
1
AUS
2
1 90 (94)
1989 honda maarlaboro maikaleran maikaleran MP4/5 honda V10 BRA
11
SMR
1
MON
1
MEX
1
USA
Ret
CAN
7
FRA
Ret
GBR
Ret
GER
1
HUN
2
BEL
1
ITA
Ret
POR
Ret
ESP
1
JPN
DSQ
AUS
Ret
dviteeya 60
1990 honda maarlaboro maikaleran maikaleran MP4/5B honda V10 USA
1
BRA
3
SMR
Ret
MON
1
CAN
1
MEX
20
FRA
3
GBR
3
GER
1
HUN
2
BEL
1
ITA
1
POR
2
ESP
Ret
JPN
Ret
AUS
Ret
pratham 78
1991 honda maarlaboro maikaleran maikaleran MP4/6 honda V12 USA
1
BRA
1
SMR
1
MON
1
CAN
Ret
MEX
3
FRA
3
GBR
4
GER
7
HUN
1
BEL
1
ITA
2
POR
2
ESP
5
JPN
2
AUS
1
pratham 96
1992 honda maarlaboro maikaleran maikaleran MP4/6B honda V12 RSA
3
MEX
Ret
4 50
maikaleran MP4/7A honda V12 BRA
Ret
ESP
9
SMR
3
MON
1
CAN
Ret
FRA
Ret
GBR
Ret
GER
2
HUN
1
BEL
5
ITA
1
POR
3
JPN
Ret
AUS
Ret
1993 maarlaboro maikaleran maikaleran MP4/8 Ford V8 RSA
2
BRA
1
EUR
1
SMR
Ret
ESP
2
MON
1
CAN
18
FRA
4
GBR
5
GER
4
HUN
Ret
BEL
4
ITA
Ret
POR
Ret
JPN
1
AUS
1
dviteeya 73
1994 rothamans renolt Williams Williams FW16 Renault V10 BRA
Ret
PAC
Ret
SMR
Ret
MON
ESP
CAN
FRA
GBR
GER
HUN
BEL
ITA
POR
EUR
JPN
AUS
NC 0
  • ‡ race ko 75% se kam laip poorn hone par rok diya gaya aur aadha ank pradaan kiya gaya.

sandarbh

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  2. "Alan Henry's Top 100 F1 Drivers". London: The Telegraph online.. fravari 27, 2008. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/2293034/Formula-One-Top-100-drivers.html. abhigman tithi: April 26, 2010.
  3. "F1 Racing's Fastest F1 Drivers". F1 Racing from formula1sport.net. http://formula1sport.net/formula-1/senna-named-fastest-formula-one-driver-of-all-time/.
  4. Straw, Edd (2009-12-10). "Drivers vote Senna the greatest ever". autosport.com (Haymarket Publications). http://www.autosport.com/news/report.php/id/80517. abhigman tithi: 2009-12-10.
  5. "Formula 1's Greatest Drivers: 1. AYRTON SENNA". autosport.com. Haymarket Publications. 2009-12-10. http://f1greatestdrivers.autosport.com/?driver=1. abhigman tithi: 2009-12-10.
  6. ertan sena: resing in maai blood, ofisiyel video baayograafi 1991, (kultur video, 1991).
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  8. Hilton 1999 pp.38-40
  9. Hilton (2005), pp.9, 33-43, 154.
  10. Hilton, Christopher, ertan sena - the kampleet story (2004), prushth 99 - 116.
  11. Hilton (2005), prushth 43-47, 154.
  12. Greg giraard, Ian lambot aur Phillip nyoojasom, makaau grand priks: the road too sakses (vautaramaark sarre, 1998).
  13. Hilton (2004), prushth 121-122
  14. Drackett, Phil (1985). Brabham : Story of a racing team. Arthur Barker. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0 213 16915 0. pp.134-135
  15. Hilton (2004), prushth 138.
  16. mark Hughes aur Simon Aaron), the kampseet vark of formula van (motaravuk international, 2003) prushth. 310.
  17. haimiltan, mauris (1984)) otokors 1984-85 p.141 haijlatan prakaashan ISBN 0-905138-32-5
  18. Hilton (2004), prushth 149 - 152.
  19. "FIA World Endurance Championship 1984". wsrp.ic.cz. http://wsrp.ic.cz/wsc1984.html#4. abhigman tithi: January 14, 2007.
  20. "Senna - Porsche 956K - Nurburgring". The Nostalgia Forum at AtlasF1. http://forums.autosport.com/showthread.php?s=&threadid=50415. abhigman tithi: January 14, 2007.
  21. Hilton (2004), prushth 140.
  22. teemuthi kolings aur saara edavardi, the formula van iyars: A season-vaae-season account of the world Premier motor resing champion fraum 1950 too the prejeint de (kaarlatan book, 2002), prushth. 208.
  23. haimiltan, mauris (ed.) (1985) otokors 1985 - 1986 haijlatan prakaashan pp.74 aur 104 ISBN 0-905138-38-4
  24. Hilton (2004), prushth 427
  25. Hilton (2004), prushth 163
  26. Hilton (2004), prushth 170
  27. Hilton (2004), prushth 428
  28. Hilton (2004), prushth 432
  29. Hilton (2004), prushth 186
  30. Hilton (2004), prushth 188
  31. "engine: honda motor company," jeepi vishvakosh, 2 June 2007 mein www.grandprix.com se mudrit.
  32. a aa prostfan.com - Allen prost dvaara ertan sena
  33. hyoos aur Aaron (2003), prushth. 340.
  34. Bruce jons, Ed. 50 iyars of the formula van world championship (kaarlatan. 1999) prushth. 221-222
  35. Christopher Hilton, Aaron sena: the vhol story (hens, 2004)
  36. jons, Ed. (1999), peepi. 227-228.
  37. ef van - Grandprix.com > feature > news feature > maikaleren banaam jeen-meri belestre
  38. menaard aur vasal (2003), prushth. 106-107.
  39. menaard aur vasal (2003), prushth. 107.
  40. "sena bloj hij top eight sujuka," 30 May 2007 ko www.autosport.com par mudrit
  41. menaard aur vasal (2003), prushth. 129-130.
  42. menaard aur vasal (2003), prushth. 128-129..
  43. jons (1999), peepi 253, 257.
  44. kollings aur edavardi (2002), peepi. 244-247.
  45. menaard aur vasal (2003), prushth. 129-132.
  46. kollings aur edavardi (2002), prushth. 239, 250.
  47. menaard aur vasal (2003), prushth. 132.
  48. menaard aur vasal (2003), prushth. 130.
  49. "kansatraktars: maikaleran international," jeepi vishvakosh, 30 May 2007 ko www.grandprix.com se chhapi thi.
  50. a aa "histari of maikaleran: time line - 1990 dashak." 30 May 2007 ko www.mclaren.com se chhapi.
  51. menaard aur vasal (2003), prushth. 133.
  52. kollings aur edavardi (2002), prushth. 250.
  53. "grand priks parinaam: dakshin Africa jeepi vishvakosh, 1993," 30 May 2007 ko www.grandprix.com se chhapi.
  54. "grand priks parinaam: Brazil jeepi, 1993," jeepi vishvakosh, 30 May 2007 ko www.grandprix.com se chhapi.
  55. kollings aur edavardi (2002), prushth. 250
  56. "grand priks parinaam: Europeeya jeepi, 1993," jeepi vishvakosh, 30 May se 2007 ko www.grandprix.com se chhapi.
  57. menaard aur vasal (2003), prushth. 134.
  58. Ian thomsen, "sena, hil the monaako: roring throo the ghost op e winner paast," international heraald tribyoon, somvaar 24 May 1993; 28 May 2007 ko http://www.iht.com se chhapi.
  59. menaard aur vasal (2003), peepi 134-135.
  60. kollings aur edavardi (2002), peepi 251-253.
  61. shodaaun eight sujuka www.themagicofsena.com 2 March 2008 ko liya gaya
  62. menaard aur vasal (2003), pi. 138.
  63. "Senna retrospective". BBC News. April 21, 2004. http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/motorsport/photo_galleries/3636399.stm. abhigman tithi: April 26, 2010.
  64. "Who's Who: Ayrton Senna". F1Fanatic.co.uk. 2007. http://www.f1fanatic.co.uk/f1-information/whos-who/whos-who-s/ayrton-senna/. abhigman tithi: 2007-08-09.
  65. "Interview with Ayrton Senna, 28 May 1994". http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iErwQ9Y0q-Y.
  66. Longmore, Andrew (1994-10-31). "Ayrton Senna: The Last Hours". The Times. p. 30. http://docs.newsbank.com/openurl?ctx_ver=z39.88-2004&rft_id=info:sid/iw.newsbank.com:UKNB:LTIB&rft_val_format=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:ctx&rft_dat=0F9242ED73BC537B&svc_dat=InfoWeb:aggregated4&req_dat=63FF7C9CECF24CA8828B27BFD2B2546B. "Back at the track, in the shattered remains of Senna's car, they discovered a furled Austrian flag Senna had intended to dedicate his 42nd grand prix victory to Ratzenberger's memory."
  67. a aa "'Senna would have beaten Schumacher in equal cars' - Motor Racing, Sport". London: The Independent. 2004-04-22. http://www.independent.co.uk/sport/motor-racing/senna-would-have-beaten-schumacher-in-equal-cars-560807.html. abhigman tithi: 2009-06-24.
  68. David Tremayne, Mark Skewis, Stuart Williams, Paul Fearnley (1994-04-05). "Track Topics". Motoring News (News Publications Ltd.).
  69. "Max went to Roland's funeral". www.f1racing.net. 2004-04-23. http://www.f1racing.net/en/news.php?newsID=48657. abhigman tithi: 2006-10-28.
  70. "アaaイaaルaaトaaンaa・aaセaaナaaのaa去aaっaaたaa夜" (Japanese mein). http://www.honda.co.jp/collection-hall/episodes_old/motor/mp44/index.html.
  71. a aa Philip, Robert (2007-10-17). "Spirit of Ayrton Senna is Lewis Hamilton's spur". The Daily Telegraph (Telegraph Media Group). http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/2323502/Spirit-of-Ayrton-Senna-is-Lewis-Hamiltons-spur.html. abhigman tithi: 2010-07-27.
  72. "Hamilton visits Senna's grave". ESPN.com (ESPN). 2009-10-16. http://sports.espn.go.com/rpm/racing/f1/news/story?id=4565293. abhigman tithi: 2010-07-27.
  73. "The Official Formula 1 Website". Formula1.com. http://www.formula1.com/teams_and_drivers/hall_of_fame/45/. abhigman tithi: 2009-06-24.
  74. Widdows, Rob (2008-02-02). "Instituto Ayrton Senna: Gone but not forgotten". London: Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/motoring/motorsport/2750524/Instituto-Ayrton-Senna-Gone-but-not-forgotten.html. abhigman tithi: 2009-06-24.
  75. kollings aur edavardi (2002), pi. 238.
  76. menaard aur vasal (2003), pi. 70.
  77. Rodrigues, Ernesto (2004) (Portuguese mein). Ayrton: o heróaai revelado. Objetiva. pp. 639. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 9788573026023.
  78. http://www.formula1.com/news/features/2009/11/10214.html
  79. formula van aadhikaarik website
  80. instyooto ertan sena
  81. ernesto rodrigyu dvaara likhit editoriya obajetiva ISBN 85-7302-602-2
  82. Noble, Jonathan (2009-10-31). "Campos honoured to give Senna F1 slot". autosport.com (Haymarket Publications). http://www.autosport.com/news/report.php/id/79887. abhigman tithi: 2009-10-31.
  83. "Alonso voted best driver". Sify (Sify Technologies Ltd.). 2010-07-23. http://sify.com/sports/alonso-voted-best-driver-news-news-khxqOjgjchi.html. abhigman tithi: 2010-07-27.
  84. 1990 tak oopar, unke vishv championship taili mein yogadaan karne ke liye chaalak dvaara sabhi ank score naheen kiye gaye hain (aur adhik jaankaari ke liye pvointaskorind system ki soochi ko dekhein). koshtak ke bina number championship ank hain; koshtak mein sankhya kul scoring ank hain.

baahari kadiyaaain

Sporting positions
poorvaadhikaari
Roberto Moreno
British Formula Ford Champion
1981
uttaraadhikaari
Julian Bailey
poorvaadhikaari
Tommy Byrne
British Formula Three Champion
1983
uttaraadhikaari
Johnny Dumfries
poorvaadhikaari
Roberto Moreno
Macau Grand Prix Winner
1983
uttaraadhikaari
John Nielsen
poorvaadhikaari
Nelson Piquet
Formula One World Champion
1988
uttaraadhikaari
Alain Prost
poorvaadhikaari
Alain Prost
Formula One World Champion
1990–1991
uttaraadhikaari
Nigel Mansell
poorvaadhikaari
Roland Ratzenberger
Formula One fatal accidents
May 1, 1994
uttaraadhikaari
Last F1 fatality to date
sammaan evam upalabdhiyaaain
poorvaadhikaari
Nigel Mansell
Autosport
International Racing Driver Award

1988
uttaraadhikaari
Jean Alesi
poorvaadhikaari
Jean Alesi
Autosport
International Racing Driver Award

1990–1991
uttaraadhikaari
Nigel Mansell