ernet

ernet (shikshan evam anusandhaan network) ne desh mein network ki suvidha laane mein mahatvapoorn yogadaan diya hai. yeh vyaavahaarik rup se Bhaarat mein Internet lekar aaya aur isne networking, vishesh rup se protaakaul software injeeriyring ke kshetr mein raashtreeya kshamataaon ka nirmaan kiya hai. yeh na keval aisa bada network banaane mein safal hua hai, jo bhaarateeya samaaj ke buddhijeevi varg (anusandhaan aur shaikshik samudaaya) ko vibhinn suvidhaaen pradaan karta hai, balki varsh beetane ke saath networking ke kshetr mein parampara ka sootradhaar ban gaya hai. UNDP ne apne dvaara vittaposhit ek sabse safal kaaryakram ke rup mein ernet ki prashansa ki hai. Bhaarat sarkaar ne nauveen yojana mein dhanaraashi ke aabantan ke aur ek sanstha ke rup mein ek nai sangathanaatmak sanrachana taiyaar karke is pariyojana ko aur adhik sudrudh banaane ka sankalp liya. desh ke vaigyaanik samudaaya ne bhi buniyaadi suvidhaaon aur anusandhaan evam vikaas donon ke liye ernet ke yogadaan ko saraaha hai. mantramandal ki vaigyaanik salaahakaar samiti ne desh mein anusandhaan evam vikaas network ki shuruaat karne ke liye platform ke rup mein ernet ko apnaaya hai. ernet ki sthaapana ilektraaniki vibhaag (DoE) dvaara Bhaarat sarkaar aur sanyukt raashtra vikaas kaaryakram (UNDP) ki vitteeya madad se 1986 mein ki gayi aur aath pramukh sansthaanon ko iske pratibhaagi agencyon ke rup mein sammilit kiya gaya -- NCST (raashtreeya software praudyogiki kendra) Mumbai, IISc (bhaarateeya vigyaan sansthaan) bangalaur, Delhi, Mumbai, Kanpur, Khadagpur aur Madras sthit paanch IITs (bhaarateeya praudyogiki sansthaan) aur ilektraaniki vibhaag, nai Delhi. ernet ne ek malteeprotokaul network ke roop mein kaarya aarambh kiya jasake TCP/IP tatha OSI-IP protokaul staiks baikabon ke leejd-line bhaag par chal rahe the. lekan 1995 ke baad se lagbhag saara traffic TCP/IP par chalta hai.

ernet ke kaarya arthaat shaikshik aur anusandhaan sansthaanon, sarkaari sangathanon, gair-sarkaari sangathanon, niji kshetr ke anusandhaan evam vikaas sangathanon aur vibhinn anya gair-vaanijyak sangathanon ko sanchaar sambandhi adhatan takaneeki jaankaari ki buniyaadi suvidhaaen aur sevaaen pradaan karna; 
 anusandhaan evam vikaas; 
prashikshan aur paraamarsh seva; 
soochana saamagri vikaas. 

nimnalikhit ke maadhyam se computer networking ke kshetr mein raashtreeya kshamata nirmaan ki neenv rakhi gayi :

pratibhaagi agencyon mein nyoonatam prayogashaala suvidhaaon ke saath kor groupon ki shrrunkhala ki sthaapana aur anusandhaan tatha vikaas karne ke liye kushal janashakti ka srujan 
vibhinn staron par janashakti ka nirmaan 
vishv maanakon (TCP/IP, OSI aadi) ko achhi tarah samajhaana 
ATM network, netavarkat malteemeediya aur soochana ki buniyaadi suvidhaaen jaise udeeyamaan muddon ki vistrut jaankaari pradaan karna. 
network ki buniyaadi suvidhaaon aur sevaaon ka dhaancha, jismein nimn likhit shaamil hain:
bade kaimpas LANs ki sthaapana, anurakshan aur prachaalan.
SATWAN hab ka design, aarambh aur pareekshan tatha VSATs ki sthaapana. 
LAN-WAN ghatakon ka avichhatv sampark aur malti-protokaul kshamata pradaan ki gayi. 
sabhi prakaar ki Internet sevaaon ki vyavastha. 
Internet ke upayog ke liye VSAT network par aadhaarit TDM/TDMA lagaana. 

anusandhaan aur vikaas :- computer networking ke kshetr mein anusandhaan aur vikaas ERNET ki visheshata rahi hai. Bhaarat mein ernet sabse bada raashtravyaapi sthaleeya evam upagrah network hai aur iski desh ke pramukh shaharon mein agraki shaikshik aur anusandhaan sansthaanon mein upasthiti hai. ernet ka dhyaan keval kanektiviti pradaan karne tak hi seemit naheen hai, balki prayoktaaon ke liye web site taiyaar karke aur sangat soochana pradaan karke shaikshik aur anusandhaan sansthaanon ki samoochi aavashyakataaon ko poora karna bhi hai. anusandhaan evam vikaas aur prashikshan ernet ke kaaryaalayon ke abhinn ang hain. ernet ke sahayog se hi ek prakalp digital laayabreri of indiya sthaapit hai, jisme antarajaal par kai bhaashaao mein saahitya, vigyaan, kala, sanskruti, krushi evam vyaapaar sanbandhi achhi pustakein sabke liye upalabdh hain. Internet va intraanet upakaranon aur computer ki sahaayata waali takaneekon ko jnyaaanaarjan ke vaataavaran mein ekeekrut karna. iske atirikt ernet ki anya gatividhiyaan hain-

soochana-saamagri ka vikaas, shikshak-varg vikaas aur kushalataaon ka aadaan-pradaan.
desh ke sabhi uchchatar jnyaaanaarjan sansthaanon mein soochana takaneek ki buniyaadi suvidhaaon ka darja badhaana. 
shiksha sansthaan ke bheetar anek sevaaen pradaan karne ke liye inhein intraanet aur Internet se jodna. 
prashaasan/vitt/sankaayon/chhaatraavaason/pustakaalayon ko uchch gati faaibar aadhaarit kaimpas LAN se kanekt karna. vishvavidyaalayon ko ek sansaadhan kendra ke rup mein kaam karne aur isse sanbanddh collegeon ko behtar gunavatta tatha vishv shreni ki shiksha ke liye sansaadhanon aur kushalata ka aadaan-pradaan karne ke liye samarth banaana.

ERNET prayoktaaon ko upalabdh vibhinn knektiviti vikalp nimnaanusaar hain:- daayal ap UUCP, daayal ap IP, leejd laainein (enaalaug ya digital),VSAT, radio link Internet kanektiviti, E-mel, web hosting sevaaen, domen panjeekaran, sahaayata desk, shiksha portal, parisar vyaapi networking, Internet suraksha aur networking mein prashikshan kaaryakram