eniml firm

eniml firm (Animal Farm) angrej upan‍aayaasakaar George oravel ki kaalajayi rachana hai. beesaveen sadi ke mahaan angrej upan‍aayaasakaar George oravel ne apni is kaalajayi kruti mein suaron ko ken‍aadreeya charitra banaakar bolashevik kraanti ki vifalta par karaara v‍aayang‍aaya kiya tha. apne aakaar ke lihaaj se laghu upan‍aayaas ki shreni mein aanevaali yeh rachana paathakon ke liye aaj bhi utani hi asaradaar hai.

George oravel (1903-1950) ke sambandh mein khaas baat yeh hai ki unka jan‍aam Bhaarat mein hi Bihar ke motihaari naamak s‍aathaan par hua tha. unke pita british raaj ki bhaarateeya civil seva ke adhikaari the. oravel ka mool naam 'erik aarthar b‍aaleyar' tha. unke jan‍aam ke saal bhar baad hi unki maan un‍aahein lekar ing‍aalain‍aad chaleen gayeen theen, jahaan se‍aavaanivrutti ke baad unke pita bhi chale gaye. vaheen par unki shiksha hui.

eneemal form 1944 E. mein likha gaya. prakaashan 1945 mein England mein hua jise tab nauvela (laghu upanyaas) kaha gaya, yadyapi iski mool sanrachana ek lambi kahaani ki hai. kathaakaar ne ise pratham prakaashan ke samay sheershak ke saath ek 'feyari tel' (pari katha) kaha, kyonki pari kathaaon ke samaan hi vibhinn jaanavar-jantu yahaan upasthit hain. prakaashan ke saath hi vishv ki sabhi bhaashaaon mein iske anuvaad prakaashit hue- fraanseesi bhaasha mein to kai-kai!! prasiddh time maigajeen ne varsh 2005 mein ek sarvekshan mein 1923-2005 E. ki kaalaavadhi mein prakaashit 100 sarvaadhik prasiddh upanyaason mein is upanyaas ki ginti ki aur saath hi 20 veen shati ki maadarn laaibreri list of best 100 nauvals mein ise 31 vaan sthaan diya.

eneemal form upanyaas saamyavaadi kraanti aandolan ke itihaas mein I bhrashtata ko nanga karta hua darshaata hai ki aise aandolan ke netrutv mein pravesh kar gayi svaarthaparata, lobh-moh tatha bahut-si achhi baaton se kinaaraakashi kis prakaar aadarsho ke svapn-raajya (yootopiya) ko khandit kar saare sapanon ko bikher deti hai. mukti aandolan jis uddeshya ki praapti ke liye kiya gaya tha, sarvahaara varg ko satta hastaantarit karne ke liye, us uddeshya se bhatak kar vah bahut traasadaayi ban jaata hai. eniml form ka ganatantr inheen sarokaaron par apni vyavastha ko keindrit karte hain. pashuon ke baade ka pashuvaad (eneemalijm) vastut: soviyt roos ke 1910 se 1940 ki sthitiyon ka fantaaseeparak roopaatmak prateekeekaran hai. [1]

anukram

kahaani

ainiml firm ki kahaani kuchh is prakaar hai : menar firm ke jaanavar apne maalik ke khilaaf bagaavat kar dete hain aur shaasan apne haath mein le lete hain. jaanvaron mein sooar sabse chaalaak hain aur isliye ve hi inka netrut‍aav karte hain. suar jaanvaron ki sabha mein sushaasan ke kuchh niyam tay karte hain. panratu baad mein ye suar aadmi ka hi rang-dhang apna lete hain aur apne faayde va aish ke liye doosare jaanvaron ka shoshan karne lagte hain. is kram mein ve niyamon mein manamaane dhang se tod-marod bhi karte hain. masalan niyam tha – ALL ANIMALS ARE EQUAL (sabhi baraabar hain) lekin usamein heraaferi kar use bana diya jaata hai:-

ALL ANIMALS ARE EQUAL, BUT SOME ANIMALS ARE MORE EQUAL THAN OTHERS. (sabhi jaanavar baraabar hain kintu kuchh jaanavar anya jaanvaron se adhik baraabar hain)

sandarbh

inhein bhi dekhein

  • do bailon ki katha (munshi premachand]]

baahari kadiyaaain