eni besent

eni besent

eni besent 1897 mein
janm 1 October 1847
landan kalafam
mrutyu 20 sitmbar 1933(1933-09-20) (umr 85)
Madras
prasiddhi kaaran thiyosofist, mahila adhikaaron ki samarthak, lekhak, vakta evam Bhaarat-premi mahila
jeevanasaathi revarend Frank

Dr eni besent (1 October 1847 - 20 sitmbar 1933) agrani aadhyaatmik, thiyosofist, mahila adhikaaron ki samarthak, lekhak, vakta evam Bhaarat-premi mahila theen. san 1917 mein ve bhaarateeya raashtreeya Congress ki adhyaksha bhi bani.

anukram

jeevani

dau॰ eni besent (Dr. Annie Wood Besant) ka janm landan shahar mein 1847 mein hua. inke pita angrej the. pita peshe se daaktar the. pita ki daaktari peshe se alag ganit evam darshan mein gahari roochi thi. inki maata ek aadarsh aayaris mahila theen. dau॰ besent ke oopar inke maata pita ke dhaarmik vichaaron ka gahra prabhaav tha. apne pita ki mrutyu ke samay dau॰ besent maatr paaainch varsh ki thi. pita ki mrutyu ke baad dhanaabhaav ke kaaran inki maata inhein hairo le gayi. vahaaain miss meriyt ke sanrakshan mein inhonne shiksha praapt ki. miss meriyt inhein alpaayu mein hi France tatha Germany le gayi tatha un deshon ki bhaasha seekheen. 17 varsh ki aayu mein apni maaain ke paas vaapas aa gain. yuvaavastha mein inka parichay ek yuva paadari se hua aur 1867 mein usi revarend Frank se eni bud ka vivaah bhi ho gaya. pati ke vichaaron se asamaanata ke kaaran daampatya jeevan sukhamaya naheen raha. sankuchit vichaaron wala pati asaadhaaran vyaktitv sampann svatantr vichaaron waali aatm-vishvaasi mahila ko saath naheen rakh sake. 1870 tak ve do bachchon ki maaain ban chuki theen. ishvar, baaibil aur isaai dharm par se unki aastha dig gayi. paadari-pati aur patni ka paraspar nirvaah kathin ho gaya aur antatogatva 1874 mein sambandh-vichhed ho gaya.. talaak ke pashchaat eni besent ko gambheer aarthik sankat ka saamana karna pada aur unhein svatantr vichaar sambandhi lekh likhkar dhanopaarjan karna pada.

dau॰ besent isi samay Charles vredala ke sampark mein I. ab vah sandehavaadi ke sthaan par ishvaravaadi ho gayi. kaanoon ki sahaayata se unke pati donon bachchon ko praapt karne mein safal ho gaye. is ghatna se unhein haardik kasht hua.

yeh atyant amaanaveeya kaanoon hai jo bachchon ko unki maaain se alag karva diya hai. main apne du:khon ka nivaaran doosaron ke du:khon ko door karke karungi aur sab anaath evam asahaaya bachchon ki maaain banoongi.

— dau॰ besent unhonne Britain ke kaanoon ki ninda karte hue kaha,

dau॰ besent kathan ko satya karte hue apna adhikaansh jeevan deen heen anaathon ki seva mein hi vyateet kiya.

mahaan khyaati praapt patrakaar viliyn steed ke sampark mein aane par va lekhan evam prakaashan ke kaarya mein adhik ruchi lene lageen. apna adhikaansh samay majadooron, akaal peediton tatha jhuggi jhopadiyon mein rahane vaalon ko suvidha dilaane mein vyateet kiya. vah kai varshon tak inglaind ki sarvaadhik shaktishaali mahila trade union ki sekretari raheen. ve apne gyaan evam shakti ko seva ke maadhyam se chaaron or failaana nitaant aavashyak samajhti theen. unka vichaar tha ki bina svatantr vichaaron ke satya ki khoj sambhav naheen hai.

henari olkaut (baayein) tatha Charles leedabeetar (daayein) ke saath eni besent (adayaar, Madras, 1905)

1878 mein hi unhonne pratham baar bhaaratavarsh ke baare mein apne vichaar prakat kiye. unke lekh tatha vichaaron ne bhaarateeyon ke man mein unke prati sneh utpann kar diya. ab ve bhaarateeyon ke beech kaarya karne ke baare mein din-raat sochane lageen. 1883 mein ve samaajavaadi vichaaradhaara ki or aakarshit huin. unhonne 'sosalist difens sangathan' naam ki sanstha banaai. is sanstha mein unki sevaaon ne unhein kaafi sammaan diya. is sanstha ne un majadooron ko dand milne se suraksha pradaan ki jo landan ki sadkon par nikalne vaale juloos mein hissa lete the. 1889 mein eni besent thiyosofi ke vichaaron se prabhaavit huin. unke andar ek shaktishaali adviteeya aur vilkshan bhaashan dene ki kala nihit thi. at: bahut sheegra unhonne apne liye thiyosofikl society ki ek pramukh vakta ke roop mein mahatvapoorn sthaan bana liya. unhonne sampoorn vishv ko thiyosofi ki shaakhaaon ke maadhyam se ekta ke sootr mein baadhane ka aajeevan prayaas kiya. unhonne Bhaarat ko thiyosofi ki gatividhiyon ka kendra banaaya. unka Bhaarat aagaman 1893 mein hua. san 1906 tak inka adhikaansh samay Varanasi mein beeta. ve 1907 mein thiyosofikl society ki adhyaksha nirvaachit huin. unhonne paashchaatya bhautikvaadi sabhyata ki kadi aalochna karte hue praacheen hindu sabhyata ko shreshth siddh kiya. dhaarmik, shaikshanik, saamaajik evam raajanaitik kshetr mein unhonne raashtreeya punarjaagaran ka kaarya praarambh kiya. Bhaarat ke liye raajaneetik svatantrata aavashyak hai is uddeshya ki praapti ke liye unhonne 'homarool aandolan' sangathit karke usaka netrutv kiya.

20 sitmbar 1933 ko ve brahmaleen ho gayi. aajeevan Varanasi ko hi hrudaya se apna ghar maanane waali besent ki asthiyaaain Varanasi laai gayeen aur shaanti-kunyaj se nikle ek vishaal jan-samooh ne un apasheshon ko sasammaan surasari ko samarpit kar diya.

dau॰ eni besent ke vichaar

Bhaarat hitaishi eni besent

dau॰ besent ke jeevan ka moolamantr tha 'karm'. vah jis siddhaant par vishvaas karateen use apne jeevan mein utaar kar upadesh deteen. ve Bhaarat ko apni maatrubhoomi samajhti theen. ve janm se aayarish, vivaah se angrej tatha Bhaarat ko apna lene ke kaaran bhaarateeya theen. tilk, jinna evam mahaatma gaaaindhi tak ne unke vyaktitv ki prashansa ki. ve Bhaarat ki svatantrata ke naam par apna balidaan karne ko sadaiv tatpar rahati theen. ve bhaarateeya varn vyavastha ki prashansak theen. parantu unke saamane samasya thi ki ise vyavahaarik kaise banaaya jaaya taaki saamaajik tanaav kam ho. unki maanyata thi ki shiksha ka samuchit prabandh hona chaahiye. shiksha mein dhaarmik shiksha ka samaavesh ho. aisi shiksha dene ke liye unhonne 1898 mein Varanasi mein sentral hindu school ki sthaapana ki. saamaajik buraaiyon jaise baal vivaah, jaati vyavastha, vidhva vivaah, videsh yaatra aadi ko door karne ke liye unhonne 'brothers of service' naamak sanstha ka sangathan kiya. is sanstha ki sadasyata ke liye aavashyak tha ki use neeche likhe pratijnyaa patra par hastaakshar karna padta tha -

1. main jaati paaainti par aadhaarit chhuaachhoot naheen karuainga.

2. main apne putron ka vivaah 18 varsh se pehle naheen karuainga.

3. main apni putriyon ka vivaah 16 varsh se pehle naheen karunga.

4. main patni, putriyon aur kutumb ki anya striyon ko shiksha dilaaooainga; kanya shiksha ka prachaar karuainga. striyon ki samasyaaon ko sulajhaane ka prayaas karuainga.

5. main jan saadhaaran mein shiksha ka prachaar karuainga.

6. main saamaajik evam raajaneetik jeevan mein varg par aadhaarit bhed-bhaav ko mitaane ka prayaas karuainga.

7. main sakriya roop se un saamaajik bandhanon ka virodh karuainga jo vidhva, stri ke saamane aate hain to punarvivaah karti hain.

8. main kaaryakartaaon mein aadhyaatmik shiksha evam saamaajik aur raajaneetik unnati ke kshetr mein ekta laane ka prayatn bhaarateeya raashtreeya Congress ke netrutv va nirdeshan mein karunga.

dau॰ eni besent ki maanyata thi ki bina raajanaitik svatantrata ke in sabhi kathinaaiyon ka samaadhaan sambhav naheen hai.

dau॰ eni besent svabhaavat: dhaarmik pravrutti ki mahila theen. unke raajaneetik vichaar ki aadhaarashila thi unke aadhyaatmik evam naitik moolya. unka vichaar tha ki achhaai ke maarg ka nirdhaaran bina adhyaatm ke sambhav naheen. kalyaanakaari jeevan praapt karne ke liye manushya ki ichhaaon ko daivi ichha ke adheen hona chaahiye. raashtra ka nirmaan evam vikaas tabhi sambhav hai jab us desh ke vibhinn dharmon, maanyataaon evam sanskrutiyon mein ekta sthaapit ho. sachche dharm ka gyaan aadhyaatmik chetna dvaara hi milta hai. unke in vichaaron ko mahaatma gaaaindhi ne bhi sveekaar kiya. praacheen Bhaarat ki sabhyata evam sanskruti ka svaroop aadhyaatmik tha. yahi aadhyaatmikta us samay ke bhaarateeyon ki nidhi thi. dau॰ besent ka uddeshya tha hindu samaaj evam usaki aadhyaatmikta mein aayi hui vikrutiyon ko door karna. unhonne bhaarateeya punarjanm mein vishvaas karna shuroo kiya. unka nishchit mat tha ki vah pichhle janm mein hindu theen. vah dharm aur vigyaan mein koi bhed naheen maanati theen. unka dhaarmik sahishnuta mein poorn vishvaas tha. unhonne bhaarateeya dharm ka gambheer adhyayan kiya. unka bhagavadgeeta ka anuvaad 'thaats aan di stadi of di bhagavadgeeta' is baat ka pramaan hai ki hindu dharm evam darshan mein unki gahari aastha thi. ve kaha karti theen ki hindu dharm mein itne sampradaayon ka hona is baat ka pramaan hai ki ismein svatantr bauddhik vikaas ko protsaahan diya jaata hai. ve yeh maanati theen ki vishv ko maarg darshan karne ki kshamata keval Bhaarat mein nihit hai. ve Bhaarat ke sadiyon se andh vishvaason se grast maanav ko mukt karna chaahati theen.

dau॰ besent ne nirdhanon ki seva ka aadarsh samaajavaad mein dekha. gareebi door karne ke liye unka vishvaas tha ki audyogeekaran ho. unhonne dekha ki naari ko kisi prakaar ki svatantrata praapt naheen thi. ve log bhog ki vastu samajhi jaati theen. is du:khad sthiti se dau॰ besent ka hrudaya dravit ho utha. unhonne naari suraksha ka prashn uthaaya aur jor dekar kaha ki samaaj mein sarvaangeen vikaas ke liye naari adhikaaron ko surakshit karna aavashyak hai. dau॰ besent praacheen dharm aadhaarit varn vyavastha ki samarthak theen. varn vyavastha ka mukhya uddeshya kaarya vibhaajan tha jiske anusaar samaaj ka pratyek vyakti apne kaaryon ko karne ki yogyata dvaara braahman, kshatriya, vaishya evam shoodr ka sthaan praapt karta tha. ve kaha karti theen ki mahaabhaarat ke anusaar braahman mein shoodr ke gun hain to vah shoodr hai. shoodr mein agar braahman ke gun hain to vah braahman samjha jaayaga. us samay videsh yaatra ko adhaarmik samjha jaata tha. unhonne bataaya ki praacheen aitihaasik tathyon se pata chalta hai ki shyaam, jaava, sumaatra, kamboj, lanka, Tibet tatha cheen aadi deshon mein hindu raajya ke chinh paaye gaye hain. at: hindooon ki videsh yaatra pramaanit ho jaati hai. unhonne videsh yaatra ko protsaahan diye jaane ka samarthan kiya. unke anusaar aadhyaatmik buddhi evam shaareerik shakti ke sammishran se raashtra ka utthaan karna praacheen Bhaarat ki visheshata rahi hai.

ve vidhva vivaah ko dharm maanati theen. unki dhaarana thi ki praudh vidhvaaon ko chhodkar kishor evam yuvaavastha ki vidhvaaon ko saamaajik buraai rokane ke liye vivaah karna aavashyak hai. ve antarjaateeya vivaahon ko bhi dharm sammat maanati theen. bahu vivaah ko ve naari gaurav ka apamaan evam samaaj ka abhishaap maanati theen. kisi bhi desh ke nirmaan mein prabuddh varg ki bhoomika mahatvapoorn hoti hai. yeh prabuddh varg us desh ki shiksha ka upaj hota hai. at: shiksha vyavastha ko ve atyadhik mahatva deti theen. unhonne shiksha paathyakramon mein dhaarmik evam naitik shiksha ko anivaarya roop se padhaaye jaane tatha use praacheen bhaarateeya aadarshon par aadhaarit hone ke liye jor diya. unki dhaarana thi ki pratyek bhaarateeya ko sanskrut tatha angreji donon ka gyaan hona chaahiye.

1913 se 1919 tak vah bhaarateeya raajaneetik jeevan ki agrani vibhootiyon mein theen. sitmbar 1916 mein unhonne homarool league (svaaraajya sangh) ki sthaapana ki aur svaraajya ke aadarsh ko lokapriya banaane ke liye prachaar kiya kintu 1919 ke baad ve akeli pad gain. iska taatkaalik kaaran baal gangaadhar tilk se unka vivaad hona tha. jab gaaaindhi ji ne apna satyaagrah aandolan praarambh kiya to vah bhaarateeya raajaneeti ki mukhya dhaara se aur bhi pruthak ho gayi. bade durbhaagya ki baat hai ki eni besent ne gaaaindhi ji ke asahayog aandolan ki atyant asanyamit bhaasha mein bhartsana karte huye unke aandolan ko kraantikaari, araajakataavaadi tatha ghruna aur hinsa ko ubhaadne wala aandolan niroopit kiya tha. gaaaindhi ke darshan evam netrutv ko unhonne svatantrata ke maarg mein sabse badi baadha bataaya tha. unhonne gaaaindhi ji ko aspasht Swaraj dekhne wala aur rahasyavaadi raajaneetijnya bataaya. unhein is baat se sandeh tha ki gaaaindhi ji sachche hrudaya se pashchaataap, upavaas, tapasya aadi mein vishvaas karte hain. unhonne desh ki janta ko chetaavani di thi ki yadi gaaaindheevaadi pranaali ko apnaaya gaya to desh pun: araajakata ke khadd mein ja girega.

dau॰ eni besent ki pramukh krutiyaaain

pratibha-sampann lekhika aur svatantr vichaarak hone ke naate shreemati eni besent ne thiyosaufi (brahmavidya) par kareeb 220 pustakon va lekhon ki baadh laga di thi. 'ajaiks' upanaam se bhi unki lekhani chali thi. poorv-thiyosaufikl pustakon evam lekhon ki sankhya lagbhag 105 hai. 1893 mein unhonne apni aatmakatha prakaashit ki thi. unki jeevaneeparak krutiyon ki sankhya 6 hai. unhonne keval ek saal ke andar 1895 mein solah pustakein aur anek paimplet prakaashit kiye jo 900 prushthon se bhi adhik the. eni besent ne bhagavadgeeta ka angreji-anuvaad kiya tatha anya krutiyon ke liye prastaavanaaeain bhi likheen. unke dvaara kveens hall mein diye gaye vyaakhyaanon ki sankhya praaya: 20 hogi. bhaarateeya sanskruti, shiksha va saamaajik sudhaaron par sambhavat: 48 granthon aur paimpleton ki unhonne rachana ki. bhaarateeya raajaneeti par kareeban 77 pushp khile. unki maulik krutiyon se chayanit lagbhag 28 granthon ka pranayan hua. samay-samay par 'loosifer', 'the kaamanaveel' va 'new India' ke sanpaadan bhi eni besent ne kiye. gat shataabdi mein prakaashit unke prasiddh granth nimnalikhit hain :

सन १८९५ में एनी बेसेन्ट
  1. death-aind aaftar (thiyosaufikl mainyual III) - 1893
  2. aatmakatha - 1893
  3. in the outer court - 1895
  4. karm (thiyosaufikl mainyual IV) - 1895 - karm-vyavastha ka sundar chitran.
  5. the self aind its sheeths - 1895
  6. main aind hij baudeej (thiyosaufikl mainyual VII) - 1896
  7. the paath of disaaipilship - 1896 - mumuksh ka maarg.
  8. the ainshyiyent vijdam - 1897
  9. for great relijns - 1897 - dharm par prasiddh pustak - kaalaantar mein chaar bhaagon mein prakaashit - hindooijm, joraistriynijm, buddhijm, krishchiyainiti.
  10. evolyooshan of life end form - 1899

shreemati eni besent dvaara beesaveen shataabdi mein kori gayi rachanaaon mein nimnalikhit suprasiddh hain-

  • 11. sam praublams of life - 1900
  • 12. thaut power : its kantrol aind kalchar - 1901
  • 13. relijs praublam in indiya - 1902 - yeh unki ek mahaan saahityik kruti thi jo kaalaantar mein chaar bhaagon - islaam, jainijm, sikkhijm, thiyosaufi - mein prakaashit hui.
  • 13. relijs praublam in indiya - 1902 - yeh unki ek mahaan saahityik kruti thi jo kaalaantar mein chaar bhaagon - islaam, jainijm, sikkhijm, thiyosaufi - mein prakaashit hui.
  • 14. the pedigri of main - 1904
  • 15. A stadi in kaunsesnes - 1904
  • 16. A stadi in karma - 1912 - karm-siddhaant par praneet.
  • 17. vek ap, indiya : A pli for social reform - 1913
  • 18. indiya aind A empaayar - 1914
  • 19. for indiyaaj apalift - 1914
  • 20. the kaumanaveel - 1914 ki July se nikaalna shuroo kiya (prasiddh saaptaahik patra)
  • 21. new indiya - 1915 - Madras (chennai) se nikalne wala dainik patra.
  • 22. haaoo indiya raut for freedom - 1915 - yeh prasiddh granth aafishiyl rikaardon ke aadhaar par rachit raashtreeya Congress ki kahaani hai.
  • 23. indiya : A nation - 1915 - the people's books sireej ki is pustak ko 1916 mein angrej sarkaar ne jabt kar liya aur eni besent ko alage varsh najaraband kar diya gaya.
  • 24. Congress speechej - 1917
  • 25. the barth of new indiya - 1917 - yeh pustak for indiyaaj apalift - 1914, se milti julati hai.
  • 26. letars too A yang indiyn prins - 1921 - is granth mein chhote-chhote deshi raajyon ko aadhunik tareekon se punarganit karne ki sanstuti ki gayi hai.
  • 27. the future of indiyn paulitks - 1922 - iski upaadeyata tatkaaleen samasyaaon ko samajhne ke liye rahi hai.
  • 28. brahm vidya - 1923
  • 29. indiyn Art - 1925 - bhaarateeya sanskruti par yeh pustak Calcutta vishvavidyaalaya mein diye gaye kamala lekchar par aadhaarit hai.
  • 30. indiya : baund or free? - 1926 - yeh pustak adbhut saahityik aur maananeeya ruchi ka ek niji dastaavej hai. saath hi saath bhaarateeya itihaas ki ek apoorv nidhi hai. ismein Bhaarat ke bhoot, vartamaan aur bhavishya ka vyavasthit sarvekshan kiya gaya hai.

is prakaar kul milaajula kar kareeban 505 granthon va lekhon ki malika dau॰ eni besent ne 'haaoo indiya raut for freedom' (1915) mein Bhaarat ko apni maatrubhoomi batalaaya hai. 'indiya : A nation' naamak jo pustak jabt kar li gayi thi usamein unhonne svaayatt-shaasan ki vichaar dhaara pratipaadit ki hai. 1917 mein najaraband kiye jaane se pehle sattar varsheeya vruddha ne apne Bhaarat ke bhaaiyon aur bahanon ko aakhiri sandesh diya tha : main vruddha hooain, kintu mujhe vishvaas hai ki marne ke pehle hi main dekhoongi ki Bhaarat ko svaayatt-shaasan mil gaya.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain