english channel

english channel ka saitelaait drushya

english channel (fraanseesi: la Manche‎, "sleev") atalaantik mahaasaagar ki ek shaakha hai jo great Britain ko uttari France se alag karti hai aur uttari saagar ko atalaantik se jodti hai. yeh takareeban 560 kimi (350 meal) lambi hai aur chaudaai mein 240 kimi (150 meal) se iski vyaapakata se lekar dovar jalasanyogi mein keval 34 kimi (21 meal) tak ke aadhaar par bhinnata hai.[1] yeh Europe ke mahaadveepeeya shelf ke aaspaas ke uthale samudron mein sabse chhota hai jismein takareeban 75,000 kimi2 (29,000 varg meal) ka ek kshetr shaamil hai.[2]

anukram

bhaugolik sthiti

english channel (neele rang mein)
english channel ka maanachitr

antararaashtreeya jal sarvekshan sangathan english channel ki seemaaon ko is prakaar paribhaashit karta hai:[3]

pashchim mein, aail vaayarj 48°a38′a23″aN 4°a34′a13″aW / 48.63972°aN 4.57028°aW / 48.63972; -4.57028 ko lainds end 50°a04′aN 5°a43′aW / 50.067°aN 5.717°aW / 50.067; -5.717 se jodne waali ek rekha.

poorv mein, uttari saagar ki dakshin-pashchimi seema [vaalde laaitahaaus (France, 1°a55'E) aur ledarakot point (England, 51°a10'N) ko jodne waali ek rekha].

channel ke poorvi kinaare par dovar jalasanyogi iska sabse sankeern sthaan hai, jabki iska sabse chauda sthaan laaime ki khaadi aur jalamaarg ke madhya bindu ke nikat seint maalo ki khaadi ke beech maujood hai.[1] yeh apekshaakrut uthali hai jiski ausat gaharaai iske sabse chaude hisse mein takareeban 120 mi (390 fut) hai, jo dovar aur kailaais ke beech takareeban 45 mi (148 fut)ki gaharaai tak kam ho jaati hai. vahaaain se poorv ki or sata hua uttari saagar brod forteens mein takareeban 26 mi (85 fut) tak nirantar uthali hai jahaaain yeh poorvi engliya aur lo kantreej ke beech pehle ke land brij ke vaatarashed par sthit hai. yeh gvernase ke pashchim-uttar pashchim 30 meal (48 kimi) hards deep ki jalamagn ghaati mein 180 mi (590 fut) ki adhiktam gaharaai tak pahuainchati hai.[4] fraanseesi tat ke saath poorvi kshetr cheraborg aur li haarve mein seene nadi ke muhaane ke beech sthit hai jise aksar seene ki khaadi ke roop mein sandarbhit kiya jaata hai.fraanseesi: Baie de Seine[5]

channel mein kai pramukh dweep sthit hain, jinmein sabse ullekhaneeya english tat par aail of vaait aur France ke tat par channel ke dveepon ke roop mein british raajatantr ki sanbhaavi parisampattiyaan hain. England ke sudoor dakshin-pashchim tat par aails of sisili ko aam taur par channel mein shaamil dveepon ke roop mein naheen gina jaata hai. vishesh roop se France ke tat par sthit tatarekha gaharaai tak haashiye par bani hui hai. France mein koteintin peninsula channel mein baahar ki or ubhari hui hai aur aail of vaait ek chhota samaanaantar channel banaata hai jise soleint ke roop mein jaana jaata hai. keltik saagar channel ke pashchim ki or maujood hai.

channel ka mool bhaugolik drushtikon se haal hi ka hai, jo plestoseen yug ke jyaadaatar hisse mein ek sookhi bhoomi ke roop mein raha hai. maana jaata hai ki iska nirmaan 450,000 aur 180,000 varshon pehle ke beech ki avadhi mein veld-aartois enteeklaain naamak ek rij, jo daugaralaind kshetr mein ek vishaal himnadi roopi jheel ko niyantrit rakhati thi aur ab uttari saagar mein jalamagn ho gaya hai, jiske tootane ke kaaran do vinaashakaari himnadeeya jheelon ke prakop se aayi bhayankar baadh se hua hai. yeh baadh kai maheenon tak rahi hogi, jisse adhik se adhik das lakh ghan meter prati second se jal ka teevr pravaah hua hoga. rij ke tootane ka kaaran gyaat naheen hai lekin sanbhavat: aisa kisi bhookamp ki vajah se ya jheel mein sirf paani ka dabaav atyadhik badh jaane ke kaaran hua hoga. is baadh ne english channel ki lanbaai ke samaanaantar ek vishaal chataani aadhaar ki satah waali ghaati ka nirmaan kar diya, jisne suvyavasthit dveepon aur bhayankar vinaashakaari baadh ki sthitiyon ki pehchaan roopi lambavat kataav vaale groovs ko peechhe chhod diya tha.[6][7] isne us sthaladamaroomadhya ko nasht kar diya jo us samay Britain ko mahaadveepeeya Europe se jodta tha, haalaanki baad ke samay mein himaachhaadan ki avadhiyon ke baad, jiske parinaam svarup nimn samudra staron ka nirmaan hua, thode-thode antaraal par dakshini uttar saagar ke saath-saath ek land brij maujood raha hoga.[8]

Britain ke nauvahan poorvaanumaan ke liye english channel ko (pashchim ki or se) in kshetron mein vibhaajit kar diya gaya hai:

  • plaaimaauth
  • portalaind
  • vaait
  • dovar

shabd vyutpatti

fraanseesi naamakaran ke saath maanachitr

"english channel " ka naam 18veen sadi ki shuruaat se vyaapak roop se prayog kiya jaata raha hai, jo sanbhavat: 16veen sadi ke baad se dach samudri nakshe mein maujood "english canal" ke naam se utpann hua hai. ise "british channel" ke roop mein bhi jaana jaata raha hai.[9][10] usase pehle ise british saagar ke roop mein jaana jaata tha aur doosari shataabdi ke bhoogolavetta tolemi dvaara ise "osiyenas britainiks " kaha gaya tha. yahi naam lagbhag 1450 ke itaalavi nakshe par istemaal kiya gaya hai jo ise "kainaalaaits engali " ka vaikalpik naam deta hai - sanbhavat: channel ke naam ka sabse pehla darj kiya gaya istemaal hai.[11]

fraanseesi naam "(la) maanche " ka istemaal kam se kam 17veen sadi ke baad se kiya gaya hai.[2] kaha jaata hai ki is naam ka sandarbh aam taur par channel ke sleev (French: "maanche ") se hai. haalaanki, iski bajaay kabhi-kabhi iske ek keltik shabdaarth "channel" se nikalne ka daava kiya jaata hai jo Scotland mein the minch ke naam ka bhi ek srot hai.[12] Spain aur jyaadaatar Spanish bolne vaale deshon mein channel ko "al canal di la maancha " ke roop mein sandarbhit kiya jaata hai. purtagaali mein ise "O canal da maancha " ke roop mein jaana jaata hai. (yeh fraanseesi se kiya gaya ek anuvaad naheen hai: purtagaali ke saath-saath Spanish mein "maancha" ka arth hai "daag", jabki sleev ke liye shabd hai "mainga" - jo fraanseesi se kiya gaya ek praarambhik roop se kharaab dhvanyaatmak anuvaad prateet hota hai). anya bhaashaaon mein bhi is naam ka istemaal hota hai, jaise ki greek mein (Κaaαaaνaaάaaλaaι Μaaάaaγaaχaaηaaς τaaηaaς) aur itaalavi mein (la mainika) .

bretan mein ise "mor brejh" (britaini ka samudra) ke roop mein jaana jaata hai, jo laitin se juda hua hai aur armonika ke naam ke mool ka saanketik svarup hai.

itihaas

takareeban 10,000 saal poorv ke aaspaas deveinsiyn himaachhaadan (sabse haal ke him yug) ki samaapti se pehle, british aails mahaadveepeeya Europe ka hissa the. is avadhi ke dauraan uttar saagar aur lagbhag sabhi british aails barf se dhanke hue the. samudra tal aaj ki tulana mein takareeban 120 meter neeche tha aur channel nichle-star par bichhe tundra ke ek vistaar ke roop mein thi jisse hokar ek nadi gujarati thi jo atalaantik ki or se pashchim tak raain aur thems mein jaakar milti thi. jaise-jaise barf ki chaadar pighli, aaj ke uttar saagar ke dakshini bhaag mein ek ek vishaal taaje paani ki jheel bankar taiyaar ho gayi. choonki pighla hua jal ab bhi uttar ki or naheen nikal paaya tha (kyonki uttar saagar ka uttari hissa ab tak jama hua tha), jheel se channel ka pravaah dovar aur kailaais ke kshetr mein atalaantik mahaasaagar mein pravesh kar gaya.

This precious stone set in the silver sea,
Which serves it in the office of a wall
Or as a moat defensive to a house,
Against the envy of less happier lands.

William Shakespeare, Richard II (Act II, Scene 1)

channel Britain ke liye ek mahatvapoorn praakrutik suraksha kavach ka kaam karti rahi hai, jisne Britain ko mahaadveep ki naakaabandi karne ki anumati dekar uttar saagar ke niyantran ke saath ek sanyojan karte hue hamlaavar sainya balon ko rokane ka kaam kiya hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein] sabse mahatvapoorn asafal hamlaavar khatre us samay aaye jab dach aur Belgium ke bandaragaahon mahaadveepeeya ko ek pramukh mahaadveepeeya shakti dvaara kabja kar liya gaya jaise ki 1588 mein Spanish aarmaada, nepoliyn se sambandhit yuddhon ke dauraan nepoliyn aur dviteeya vishv yuddh ke dauraan naaji Germany se aaye khatre. safal aakramanon mein Britain par roman ki vijay, 1088 mein naurman vijay aur 1688 mein William III ke adheen dach sainikon dvaara Britain par hamla aur jeet shaamil hain, jabki Britain ke dakshini tat par pashchimi channel mein behatareen bandaragaahon ke kendreekaran ne ab tak ke sabse bade hamle ko sambhav banaaya: 1944 mein nauramaindi ki chadhaaiyaaain. channel ki nausena sambandhi yuddhon mein gudavin sands ka yuddh (1652), portalaind ka yuddh (1653), la haug ka yuddh (1692) aur yooesaes (USS) keeyarasaarje evam seeesaes (CSS) alaabaama ke beech paarasparik sambandh (1864) shaamil hain.

jyaadaatar shaantipoorn samay mein channel ne saajha sanskrutiyon aur raajaneetik sanrachanaaon ko jodne waali ek kadi ke roop mein seva ki hai, visheshakar 1135-1217 mein vishaal enjevin saamraajya ki. takareeban ek hajaar saalon se channel ne aadhunik keltik kshetron aur kaurnavaal evam britaini ki bhaashaaon ke beech ek kadi bhi pradaan ki hai. britaini ka gathan britnon dvaara kiya gaya tha jo englo-saikson atikraman ke baad kaurnavaal aur }devon se bhaag nikle the. britaini mein, fraanseesi bhaasha mein "kaurnoili" (kaurnavaal) aur bretan mein "karanev" ke naam se jaana jaane wala ek kshetr maujood hai.[13] praacheen kaal mein vahaaain britaini mein "domanoniya" (devon) naamak ek kshetr bhi tha.

british aails ke maarg

uttari saagar ke aaspaas 10veen shataabdi ki shuruaat mein old naurs aur sambandhit bhaashaaon ki anumaanit had.laal kshetr old vest naurs boli ke vistaar ka hai, naarangi kshetr old East naurs boli ke prasaar ka hai aur hara kshetr anya jarmenik bhaashaaon ki had hai jiske saath old naurs ki aaj bhi kuchh paarasparik bodhagamyata kaayam hai.

daayodoras saaikulas aur plini[14] donon yeh bataate hain ki aarmonika ke vidrohi keltik janajaatiyon aur lauh yug ke Britain ke beech vyaapaar kaafi fala-foola. 55 E.poo. mein jooliys seejr ne yeh daava karte hue aakraman kiya ki britnon ne pichhle varsh unke khilaaf veneti ki sahaayata ki thi. 54 E.poo. mein vah kaheen adhik safal raha tha, lekin 43 E. mein olas plautiys dvaara aakraman ke poora hone tak Britain poori tarah se roman saamraajya ke ek hisse ke roop mein sthaapit naheen hua tha. roman gaul ke bandaragaahon aur Britain ke logon ke beech ek teevr aur niyamit vyaapaar shuroo hua. yeh yaataayaat 410 E. mein Britain se romanon ke prasthaan tak nirantar chalta raha, jiske baad ham shuruaati englo-saiksanon ko dekhte hain jinhonne bahut kam spasht aitihaasik record chhode hain.

vaapas jaane vaale romanon dvaara chhode shakti ke khaali sthaan mein Germany ke engals, saiksans aur joots ne samooche uttar saagar mein bade paimaane par agala palaayan shuroo kiya. romanon dvaara Britain mein in janajaatiyon se kiraae ke sainikon ke roop mein pehle se hi istemaal kiye ja rahe kai log pravaasan avadhi ke dauraan sthaaneeya keltik aabaadi par jeet haasil karte hue aur sanbhavat: unhein vahaaain se hataate hue samooche uttar saagar mein pravaasit ho gaye.[15]

naursamen aur naurmeins

seint heliyr ka aashram seint heliyr ki khaadi ke paas sthit hai aur kam jvaar par vahaaain paidal pahuaincha ja sakta hai.

793 mein lindisfaarne par hamle ko aam taur par vaaiking yug ki shuruaat maana jaata hai. agale 250 varshon tak naarve, sveedan aur Denmark ke skaindineviyaai hamlaavaron ne uttar saagar par apna prabhutv jamaaya, jismein unhonne samudra tat ke saath aur un nadiyon ke saath jinmein dweep maujood the, mathon, gharon aur kasbon par chhaapemaari ki. englo saikson kraunikl ke anusaar unhonne 851 mein Britain mein basana shuroo kiya. unhonne 1050 ke aas-paas ki avadhi tak british aails aur mahaadveep mein basane ka silsila jaari rakha.[16]

nauramaindi ki jaageer vaaiking neta rolo (jise nauramaindi ke Robert ke roop mein bhi jaana jaata hai) ke liye taiyaar ki gayi thi. rolo ne peris ko gher liya tha lekin 911 mein usane seint kleyar sur epte ki sandhi ke jariye pashchim frainks ke raaja Charles the sinpal ki daasata sveekaar kar li. apni shraddha aur svaameebhakti ke badle rolo ne un kshetron ko kaanooni taur par haasil kar liya jinhein usane aur uske vaaiking sahayogi dalon ne pehle jeeta tha. nauramaindi naam rolo ke vaaiking (yaani "naurthamain") mool ko darshaata hai.

rolo aur uske anuyaayiyon ke vanshajon ne sthaaneeya gailo-romaintik bhaasha ko apna liya aur kshetr ke poorv nivaasiyon ke saath aapas mein vaivaahik sambandh banaaya aur nauramains ban gaye - skaindineviyaai, haaibarno-naurs, orkaidiyans, englo-daanish aur svadeshi frainks evam gauls ka ek naurman fraanseesi bhaashi mishran.

rolo ke vanshaj William, nauramaindi ke Duke 1066 mein naurman vijay mein hestings ke yuddh ki samaapti par England ke raaja bane jismein unhonne apne aur apne vanshajon ke liye nauramaindi ki jaageer ko apne paas kaayam rakha. 1204 mein King John ke shaasanakaal ke dauraan, mukhyabhoomi nauramaindi ko Phillip dviteeya ke tahat France ne England se apne paas le liya jabki dveepeeya nauramaindi (channel ke dweep) angrejon ke niyantran mein bane rahe. 1259 mein England ke henari truteeya ne peris ki sandhi ke tahat mukhya bhoomi nauramaindi ke fraanseesi adhikaar ki vaidhata ko maanyata di. haalaanki, unke uttaraadhikaariyon ne mukhya bhoomi fraanseesi nauramaindi ka niyantran dubaara haasil karne ke liye aksar ladaaiyaan ladeen.

vijeta William ke utthaan ke saath uttari saagar aur channel ne apne kuchh mahatva ko khona shuroo kar diya. nai vyavastha ne England aur skainadineviya ke vyaapaar ko bhoomadhyasaagar aur oriyent ki disha mein dakshin ko unmukh kar diya.

haalaanki british ne 1801 mein mukhya bhoomi nauramaindi aur anya fraanseesi sampattiyon ke daavon ko chhod diya tha, United kingadam ke raaja ne channel ke dveepon ke sambandh mein nauramaindi ke Duke ka sammaan apne paas barkaraar rakha. channel ke dweep (chausi ko chhodkar) vartamaan yug mein british raajashaahi ki ek raajashaahi sambandhi nirbharata ke roop mein rah gaye. is tarah channel dweep samooh mein lauyal tost la reene, notre Duke ("mahaaraani, hamaari Duke") hai. british samraat 1259 mein hui peris ki sandhi, 1801 mein fraanseesi sampattiyon ke aatmasamarpan aur yeh dhaarana ki us sammaan ke uttaraadhikaar ke adhikaar sailik kaanoon par nirbhar karte hain jo mahila viraasat ke maadhyam se uttaraadhikaar ki anumati naheen deta hai, iske aadhaar par yahaaain bataaye gaye nauramaindi ke fraanseesi kshetr ke sandarbh mein nauramaindi ke Duke naheen samajhe jaate hain.

fraanseesi nauramaindi par angreji sainya balon dvaara 1346-1360 mein aur fir 1415-1450 mein sau varshon ke yuddh ke dauraan kabja kiya gaya tha.

England aur Britain: nausena ke suparapaavar

Elizabeth pratham ke shaasanakaal se angreji videsh neeti ne yeh sunishchit karte hue ki kisi bhi pramukh Europeeya shakti ne sambhaavit dach aur flemish aakraman sambandhi bandaragaahon par niyantran naheen kiya hai, sampoorn channel mein aakramanon ko rokane par dhyaan keindrit kiya. duniya ke poorv-prakhyaat samudri satta tak unki chadhaai 1588 mein shuroo hui jab Spanish aarmaada ke aakraman ki koshish ko angrejon dvaara nautingham ke pehle arl Charles hovaard ke command ke saath-saath sekand in command mein sar Francis drek ke tahat utkrusht nausainik rananeetiyon ke sanyukt prayaas aur iske baad ke toofaani mausam ke jariye paraast kar diya gaya. sadiyon ke baad royal nausena dheere-dheere duniya bhar mein sabse shaktishaali hokar ubhari.[17]

british saamraajya ka nirmaan sirf iseeliye sambhav hua tha kyonki royal nausena ne Europe ke aaspaas, vishesh roop se channel aur uttari saagar ke samudron par nirvivaad roop se niyantran haasil kiya tha. saat varshon ke yuddh ke dauraan France ne Britain par ek aakraman ka prayaas shuroo kiya. is kaamayaabi ke liye France ko kai hafton tak channel ka niyantran haasil karne ki aavashyakta thi, lekin 1759 mein kveeberon ki khaadi ke yuddh mein british sena ki jeet ke baad unhein is kaarya mein naakaami haath lagi.

samudron par british prabhutv ke liye ek anya mahatvapoorn chunauti nepoliyn sambandhi yuddhon ke dauraan aayi thi. traafalagar ka yuddh fraanseesi aur Spanish jahaaji bade ke khilaaf Spain ke samudra tat par hua tha aur ise Admiral horaatiyo nelsan dvaara jeeta gaya, jisne channel ke aar-paar hamle ki nepoliyn ki yojanaaon ko samaapt kar diya aur samudron par british prabhutv ko ek sadi se adhik ke liye surakshit kar diya.

pratham vishv yuddh

naakaabandi ke ek upakaran ke roop mein channel ka vishisht rananeetik mahattv ko pratham vishv yuddh ke poorv ke varshon mein pehle samudri Lord Admiral fishr dvaara maanyata di gayi thi. paaainch pramukh sthaan duniya ka raasta band kar sakte hai! Singapore, kep, elekjeindriya, jibraaltar, dovar."[18] haalaanki 25 July 1909 ko luis bleriyot ne kailaais se dovar tak ek havaai jahaaj mein baithakar pehli baar channel ko safalataapoorvak paar kiya. bleriyot ke paar karne ke turant baad inglaind ke liye videshi shatruon ke khilaaf ek baadhak-khaai ke roop mein channel ke istemaal ki samaapti ka sanket mil gaya.

kyonki kaisaraleeche samudri satah ka jahaaji beda british grand fleet ka saamana naheen kar saki, iseeliye jarmanon ne panadubbi yuddh ki takaneek viksit ki jo Britain ke liye kaheen adhik bada khatra ban gaya. dovar gashti ki vyavastha yuddh ke jariye channel ke paar ke sainya jahaajon ki nigraani karna shuroo karne se theek pehle aur panadubbiyon ke channel ka upayog karne se rokane ke liye ki gayi, jisse unhein Scotland ke aas-paas kaheen adhik lambe maarg se hokar atalaantik ki yaatra ke liye baadhya hona padau॰

jameen par, jarman sena ne channel ke bandaragaahon par kabja karne ka prayaas kiya (dekhein "race too the si") lekin haalaanki khaaiyon ko aksar "Switzerland ki seema se lekar english channel tak" badhaaya hua kaha gaya tha, vaastav mein ve uttari saagar ke tat par pahuainch gaye the. flaindars mein british yuddh ke jyaadaatar prayaas jarmanon ko channel ke tat par pahuainchane se rokane ke liye ek khooni lekin safal rananeeti ke roop mein the.

31 January 1917 ko jarmanon ne ek baar fir se apratibandhit panadubbi yuddh shuroo kiya jismein nausena vibhaag ki khatarnaak bhavishyavaaniyaaain theen ki panadubbiyaaain November tak Britain ko paraast kar deingeen,[19] jo kisi bhi vishv yuddh mein Britain ke saamane aayi sabse adhik khatarnaak paristhiti thi.

1917 mein paasacheindeele ka yuddh Belgium ke samudra tat par panadubbi thikaanon par kabja kar khatre ko kam karne ke liye lada gaya tha haalaanki yeh kaafilon ka pravesh aur thikaanon par kabja naheen hona hi tha jisne haar ko taal diya tha. April 1918 mein dovar ki gashti ne you-bot thikaanon ke khilaaf prasiddh jeebrooj chhaape ko anjaam diya. channel aur uttari saagar se hokar prabhaavit nausena ki naakaabandi 1918 mein jarmanon ki haar ke nirnaayak pahaluon mein se ek tha.[20]

dviteeya vishv yuddh

1940 mein Britain ke yuddh ke dauraan british radaar suvidhaaen

dviteeya vishv yuddh ke dauraan Europeeya theatre mein nausena ki gatividhi mukhya roop se atalaantik tak seemit thi. Britain ke yuddh[21] ke shuruaati charanon mein channel ke shiping aur bandaragaahon par havaai hamlon ko dekha gaya tha aur channel daish ke apavaad ke saath nauramaindi ki chadhaaiyon tak sankara samudra bade paimaane ke yuddhon ke liye bahut adhik khatarnaak tha. haalaanki, shiping ke khilaaf in shuruaati safalataaon ke baavajood jarman channel ke aar-paar aakraman ke liye aavashyak havaai varchasv ko jeetne mein naakaam rahe.

baad mein channel ek teevr samudra tateeya yuddh ke liye ek manch ban gaya, jismein panadubbiyaaain, surang bhedi pot aur teji se aakraman karne vaale jahaaj shaamil the.[22]

nauramaindi mein 150 mimi vishv yuddh dviteeya jarman bandook ki sansthaapana.

deepe shahar Canadai aur british sainya balon dvaara durbhaagyapoorn deepe chhaapemaari ka sthaan tha. sarvaadhik safal baad ka operation ovaralord tha (jise di-de ke roop mein bhi jaana gaya) jo mitr deshon ki senaaon dvaara jarman-kabje vaale France par vyaapak star ka ek aakraman tha. kain, cheraborg, kaireintan, faalaais aur anya naurman shaharon ko praant ke liye hui ladaai mein kai logon ke hataahat hone ka nuksaan sahana pada jo chaimbois aur montoramel ke beech tathaakathit faalaais gaip ke band hone tak, tatkaaleen li haavre ki aajaadi tak nirantar jaari raha.

atalaantik ki deevaar ke ek bhaag ke roop mein, 1940 aur 1945 ke beech kabja karne vaale jarman balon aur sangathan taud ne channel dweep samooh ke taton ke aas-paas durgon ka nirmaan kiya, jaise ki les laindes, jersey mein sthit yeh paryavekshan tauvar.

channel dweep samooh keval Germany dvaara kabja kiye gaye british raashtramandal ka hissa the (al alaameen ke doosare yuddh ke samay Africa korps dvaara kabja kiye gaye ijipt ke hisse ko chhodkar, jo ek sanrakshit raajya tha aur raashtramandal ka hissa naheen tha). 1940-1945 ka jarman kabja bahut hi sakht tha jismein kuchh dweep ke nivaasiyon ko mahaadveep mein gulaam majadoori ke liye le jaaya gaya; sthaaneeya yahoodiyon ko keindreeyakrut shiviron mein bheja gaya; pakshapaatapoorn pratirodh aur pratikaar; sahayog ke aarop; aur das majadooron ke roop mein (mukhya roop se roosiyon aur poorvi Europe ke nivaasiyon ko) durgon ka nirmaan karne ke liye dveepon par laaya gaya tha.[krupaya uddharan jodein] royal nausena ne samay-samay par dveepon ki naakaabandi ki, visheshakar 1944 mein mukhya bhoomi nauramaindi ki mukti ke baad. gahan vaarta ke parinaamasvaroop red kraus ke jariye kuchh maanaveeya sahaayata pahuainchaai gayi, lekin jarman kabje ke paaainch varshon ke dauraan vahaaain kaafi bhukhamari aur abhaav ki sthiti thi vishesh roop se un aakhiri paaainch maheenon mein jab vahaaain ki aabaadi bhukhamari ke kagaar par pahuainch gayi thi. mukhya bhoomi Europe mein antim aatmasamarpan ke keval kuchh hi dinon baad 9 May 1945 ko dveepon par maujood jarman sainikon ne aatmasamarpan kar diya.

janasankhya

english channel ke donon kinaaron par ghani aabaadi basi hui hai, jis par kai pramukh bandaragaahon aur rijaurts ko milaakar sanyukt roop se 3.5 million logon se jyaada ki aabaadi rahati hai. channel ke saath lage sabse mahatvapoorn shahar aur kasbe (pratyek 20,000 se adhik nivaasiyon ke saath, avarohi kram mein sthaan diye gaye; janasankhya mein shahari kshetr ki janasankhya 1999 ki fraanseesi janaganana, 2001 ki UK ki janaganana aur 2001 ki jersey janaganana ke anusaar) is prakaar hain:

angreji bhaag

seint maalo ka deevaaron wala shahar kaursaayars ka ek poorv gadh tha.
spinaikar tower, portsamaauth raat mein, tauvar ki roshani ka pradarshan karte hue.
  • braaitan-varthing-litilhaimpatan: 461,181 nivaasi, jinmein shaamil hain:
    • braaitan: 155,919
    • varthing: 96,964
    • hove: 72,335
    • litilhaimpatan: 55,716
    • laansing-sompting: 30,360
  • portsamaauth: 442,252 jinmein shaamil hain
    • gosaport: 79,200
  • bornamaauth aur pool: 383,713
  • saauthemptan: 304,400
  • plaayamaauth: 243,795
  • torbe (torkve): 129,702
  • hestings-beksahil: 126,386
  • istaborn: 106,562
  • bognor regis: 62,141
  • folkeston-haith: 60,039
  • vemaauth: 56,043
  • dovar: 39,078
  • eksamaauth: 32,972
  • faulamaauth - penarin: 28,801
  • raaid: 22,806
  • seint ostel: 22,658
  • seeford: 21,851
  • faulamaauth: 21,635
  • peinjains: 20,255

fraanseesi bhaag

  • li haavre: 248,547 nivaasi
  • kailaais: 104,852
  • bolone-sur-mar: 92,704
  • cheraborg: 89,704
  • seint-briyk: 85,849
  • saint-maalo: 50,675
  • laanion-peraus-guiraik: 48,990
  • deepe: 42,202
  • maurlaiks: 35,996
  • dinaard: 25,006
  • etepals-li-taukvet-peris-plej: 23,994
  • fekaimp: 22,717
  • iyu-le treport: 22,019
  • trauville-sur-mar-dyooville: 20,406
  • bark: 20,113

channel ke dweep

  • seint heliyr: 28,310 nivaasi
  • seint Peter port: 16,488 nivaasi

jahaajaraani

channel, Britain-Europe aur uttar saagar-atalaantik, donon raaston mein yaataayaat ke saath duniya ke sabse vyast samudri maargon mein se ek hai jahaaain se pratidin 400 se adhik jahaajon ka aavaagaman hota hai.[23] January 1971 mein ek durghatana aur February[24] mein malabon ke saath vinaashakaari takkaron ki ek shrrunkhala ke baad antarraashtreeya samudri sangathan dvaara duniya ke sabse tej radaar niyantrit teeesaes (TSS), dovar traffic separeshan system (teeesaes (TSS))[25] ki sthaapana ki gayi.

December 2002 mein £a30em lakjari kaaron le ja raha emavi traaikalar dankirk ke uttar-pashchim mein 32 kimi (20 meal) par kantenar jahaaj kareeba se kohare mein hui takkar ke baad doob gaya. agale din maalavaahak jahaaj nikaula malabe mein fans gaya. haalaanki, vahaaain jaan-maal ka koi nuksaan naheen hua tha.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

samudratat-aadhaarit lambi doori ki yaataayaat niyantran pranaali ko 2003 mein naveeneekrut kiya gaya aur vartamaan mein traffic separeshan system ki ek shrrunkhala vahaaain kaam kar rahi hai.[26] haalaanki yeh pranaali svaabhaavik roop se traffic kolijn evauideins system jaisi vimaanan pranaaliyon se mili suraksha ke star tak pahuainchaane mein aksham rahi hai, isne prati varsh ek ya do tak durghatanaaon ko kam kiya hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

samudri jeepeees pranaaliyaaain nauparivhan sambandhi channelon ka sateek tareeke aur svachaalit roop se anusaran karne ke liye poorvaniyojit rahane ki anumati deti hai aur jisse dharati mein fans jaane ka jokhim kam ho jaata hai, lekin October 2001 mein dach ekvaamareen aur aish ke beech hui ghaatak takkar ke baad, Britain ki samudri durghatana jaaainch shaakha (emaeaaibi) (MAIB)) ne yeh kehte hue ek suraksha buletin jaari kiya ki iska maanana tha ki in atyant asaamaanya paristhitiyon mein jeepeees (GPS) ke upayog ne vaastav mein takkar mein madad ki thi.[27] jahaajon dvaara ek maanav dishaadarshak ke roop mein yaataayaat ke maargon ki sampoorn chaudaai ka istemaal karne ki bajaay, seedhe taur par ek jahaaj ke doosare ke peechhe chalte hue, bahut hi sateek svachaalit maargadarshan banaae rakha ja raha tha.

khadi chattaanon ke paas ke kshetron ki nigraani karne mein radaar ki mushkilon, CCTV (CCTV) pranaali ki vifalta, langar ka galat sanchaalan, langar ko kheenchne vaale jahaaj ki poorv chetaavani dene ke kram mein jeepeees (GPS) ka istemaal karne ke liye maanak prakriyaaon ka anusaran karne mein chaalak dal ki akshamata aur galati ko sveekaar karne ki anichha aur injin ko staart karne ke sanyukt kaaranon se emavi vili January 2002 mein kaausaind ki khaadi, kaurnavaul mein jaakar fans gaya. samudri durghatana jaaainch shaakha ki report yeh spasht karti hai ki bandargaah niyantrakon ko vaastav mein aasann aapada ke baare mein samudratateeya paryavekshakon dvaara chaalaak dal ke swayam sachet hone ke pehle hi soochit kar diya gaya tha.[28] visfot ke jokhim ki vajah se kingasaind gaaainv ko 3 dinon ke liye khaali kara liya gaya tha aur jahaaj ko 11 dinon ke liye fainsa hua chhod diya gaya tha.[29][30][31]

paaristhitiki

ek vyast jahaajaraani maarg ke roop mein, english channel ko vishaakt kaargo aur tel ke risaav sambandhi durghatanaaon ke baad paryaavaraneeya samasyaaon ka saamana karna padta hai.[32] vaastav mein Britain ki 40% se adhik durghatanaaen channel mein ya iske bahut nikat pradooshan ke khatre paida karti hain.[33] inmein se sarvaadhik kukhyaat durghatanaaon mein se ek emaesasi (MSC) naipoli ki thi, jismein lagbhag 1700 tan ka khatarnaak kaargo vivaadit roop se ek sanrakshit world heritej saait, laaime ki khaadi ke samudratateeya maarg mein sama gaya tha. yeh jahaaj kshatigrast ho gaya tha aur portalaind jaane ke raaste mein tha, jabki isse kaheen najadeek ke bandargaah upalabdh the.

parivhan

li haavre ke samudra tat ka ek drushya aur punarnirmit shahar ka ek hissa

feri

feri ke mahatvapoorn raaste hain:

  • dovar-kailaais
  • dovar-bolon
  • nyooheven-deepe
  • portsamaauth-kain (ooistrehaim)
  • portsamaauth-cheraborg
  • portsamaauth-li haavre
  • portsamaauth - seint maalo
  • portsamaauth - jersey aur gvernase
  • pool-seint maalo
  • pool-cheraborg
  • veemaauth-seint maalo
  • plaayamaauth-rausakauf

channel ki surang

kai yaatri channel ki surang ka istemaal karte hue english channel ke neeche se hokar paar jaate hain. 19veen sadi ki shuruaat mein sabse pehle prastaavit aur 1994 mein antim roop se yeh engineering upalabdhi haasil ki gayi, jo Britain aur France ko relamaarg dvaara jodti hai. peris ya brusels aur London ke beech yoorostaar train par safr ab ek dincharya ban chuki hai. kaaron ko folkeston aur kailaais ke beech vishesh trainon par bhi le jaaya ja sakta hai.

arthavyavastha

paryatan

channel ke tateeya rijaurts jaise ki braaitan aur diyuvile ne 19veen sadi ki shuruaat mein vaibhav shaali paryatan ke ek yug ka shubhaaranbh kiya tha jise samudra ke kinaare paryatan ke liye viksit kiya gaya tha jisne duniya bhar ke rijaurts ko aakaar diya. avakaash sambandhi prayojanon ke liye samooche channel mein chhoti-chhoti yaatraaon ko aksar channel hoping kaha jaata hai.

sanskruti aur bhaashaaen

naurman ya puraani fraanseesi bhaasha ke liye kelhaim ka shabdakosh (1779), England ke fraanseesi kaanoon ka varnan karte hue, ek kraus channel avashesh.
mark-seint-leevin, paas-di-kailaais mein ek sadak ka chinh, sthaaneeya likhaavat mein jarmainik prabhaav ko dikhaate hue.pikeindal (Picquendal) naam aadhunik dach pikeindal (Pikkendal) se mel khaata hai.

channel ke uttari tat par angreji aur dakshini tat par fraanseesi, do pramukh sanskrutiyaaain rahi hain. haalaanki, kai alpasankhyak bhaashaaen bhi hain jo english channel ke samudra taton aur dveepon par paayi jaati hain/theen, jo channel ke naamon ke saath yahaaain soocheebaddh hain.

keltik bhaashaaeain
  • bretan (brejhoneg) - "mor brejh" (britaini ka saagar)
  • kaurnish (karnevek) - "channel"
jarmenik bhaashaaeain
  • dach - "het canal" (channel)
  • jarman - "dar aarmelakainaal" ("sleev channel")

fraanseesiyon ke paas pehle ek badi range thi, jinka aadhunik fraanseesi raajya ke bhaagon ke roop mein vistaar hua. adhik jaankaari ke liye, krupaya French flemish ko dekhein.

romance bhaashaaen
  • French bhaasha - "la maanche"
  • gailo
  • naurman, channel dweep ki vishisht shabdaavaliyon sahit
    • englo- naurman (vilupt, lekin kuchh angreji kaanoon ke vaakyaanshon mein ab bhi avashesh ke roop mein maujood)
    • aureganaayas (vilupt)
    • koteintinaayas - maunche
    • gvernesiyaai - shanaal
    • jeriyaai - shana
    • sarkvais
  • pikaard

adhikaansh anya bhaashaaen fraanseesi aur angreji ke bhinn roopon ki or jaati hain, lekin vishesh roop se velsh ki bhaasha "maur ud" hai.

ullekhaneeya channel krausing

khatarnaak dhaaraaon se rahit sabse adhik sankare lekin sabse prasiddh antararaashtreeya jalamaargon mein se ek ke roop mein, channel ko paar karna kai aavishkaari samudri, havaai aur maanav shakti yukt praudyogikiyon ka pehla uddeshya raha hai.

tithi krausing pratibhaagi tippaniyaaain
7 January 1785 havaai maarg ke jariye pehli krausing (gubbaare mein, dovar se kailaais tak) jeen piyre fraaainsva blainkaard (fraans)
John jefreej (yooes)
-
15 June 1785 pehli vimaan durghatana
(haaidrojan/garm hava se bhare gubbaare ke sanyojan mein)
pilaatre di raujiar (fraans) piyre romain (fraans) blainkaard/jefreej ki tarah krausing ki koshish
10 June 1821 paidal steemar "raub Roy", channel ko paar karne ke liye pehla paidal steemar baad mein fraanseesi daak prashaasan dvaara steemar ko khareeda gaya aur ise "henari chaturth" ka naya naam diya gaya tha.
June 1843 folkeston-bolon se hokar nauka ke maadhyam se pehla sampark commanding aafisr captain Hayward
25 August 1875 channel ko tairakar paar karne wala pehla gyaat vyakti (dovar se kailaais tak, 21 ghante, 45 minute) Matthew web (Britain) 12 August ko usi varsh channel ko paar karne ka prayaas kiya gaya, lekin tej havaaon aur samudra ki kharaab paristhitiyon ke kaaran tairane ki koshish chhodne par majaboor hona padau॰
27 March 1899 sampoorn channel mein pehla radio prasaaran (vimriyks se dakshin foralaind laaitahaaus tak) gugliyelmo maarakoni (Italy)
25 July 1909 pehla vyakti jisne ek hava se bhaari vimaan (bleriyot XI) mein baithakar channel ko paar kiya (kailaais se dovar tak, 37 minton mein) luis bleriyot (fraans) sampoorn channel mein pehli safal udaan ke liye daily mel dvaara ki gayi peshakash ke roop mein 1000 pound ke puraskaar se protsaahit kiya gaya.
23 August 1910 yaatriyon ke saath vimaan ki pehli udaan John bevins moisaant (you.S.) maikenik albart filiyks aur moisaant ki billi yaatriyon ke roop mein the.
16 April 1912 pehli mahila jisne english channel ke aar-paar udaan bhari (dovar se kailaais, 59 minute mein) hairiyet kvimbi (yooes) usaki upalabdhi par media ka jyaada dhyaan naheen gaya tha kyonki iski isse pehle ki shaam ko aaraemaes taaitainik doob gaya tha.
23 August 1926 channel ke aar-paar tairane waali pehli mahila (kaip grees nej se kingsadaaun tak tak, 14 ghante 39 minute mein) jaratrood edarale (America) edarale se pehle paaainch logon ne safalataapoorvak channel ko tairakar paar kiya tha. edarale ne apna sarvashresht samay lete hue unhein do ghanton se maat diya aur ek mahila tairaak ke liye ek record banaaya jo tab tak kaayam raha jab tak ki floreins chaidavik ne 1950 mein ise 13 ghante 20 minute mein tairakar paar naheen kar liya.[34]
25 July 1959 hovarakraaft krausing (kailaais se dovar tak, 2 ghante 3 minute mein) esaaar-ena1 (SR-N1) sar Christopher kaukerel board par the.
22 August 1972 pehla ekal hovarakraaft krausing (esaaar-ena1 ki tarah usi maarg par; 2 ghante 20 minute mein[35]) nigel bele (Britain)
1974 koraikal (13 ½ ghante) barnaard Thomas (Britain) prachaar stunt ke ek hisse ke roop mein, yaatra yeh dikhaane ke liye aayojit ki gayi thi ki kis tarah uttari dakota ke mandan bhaarateeyon ke bul bots dvaara 12veen sadi mein Rajkumar maidaug dvaara shuroo kiye gaye velsh koraikals ki nakl ki gayi ho sakti thi.[36]
12 June 1979 channel ke oopar udaan bharne wala pehla maanav sanchaalit vimaan
(55-pound mein (25 kigra) gosaimar albaatraus)
Brian elan (America) £a100,000 ka ek kremar puraskaar jeeta; elan ne teen ghanton ke liye paidal chalaaya.
14 September 1995 hovarakraaft dvaara sabse tej krausing, "Rajkumari aini" dvaara 22 minute mein emaseeech (MCH) esaaar-ena4 emakeIII nauka ko ek feri ke roop mein design kiya gaya tha
1997 fotovoltik sales ka upayog karte hue saur shakti sanchaalit krausing poori karne waali pehli pot. esabi kolinda -
14 June 2004 ubhayachar vaahan mein krausing ke liye naya record samay (Gibbs ekvaada, do-seaton waali khuli-chhat ki sports car richrd brainasan (Britain) 100 minute 06 second mein krausing poori ki. pichhla record 6 ghante ka tha.
31 July 2003 ek vingasoot aur ek kaarban faaibar ving ka upayog kar ek 20 meal (32 kimi) lanbaai ke freefaul mein krausing feliks baumagaartanar (ostriya)
26 July 2006 haaidrofoil car mein krausing ke liye liya gaya naya record samay (rinspeed splaish, do-seaton waali khuli chhat ki sports car Frank M. rindarkanekt (esayooaai (SUI)) 194 minute mein krausing poori ki[37]
25 September 2006 rassi se kheenchne yogya hava waali ek naav par pehli krausing (ek hava waali naav se sanchaalit naheen) Stefan prestan (Britain) 180 minute mein krausing poori ki[38]
July 2007 BBC ke top giyr prastotaaon ne ubhayachar kaaron mein France tak drive kiya. jeremi klaarkasan, richrd haimond, James me (Britain) ek honda aautabord injin se yukt, ek 1996 nisaan dee21 pikap ("nisaank") mein krausing poori ki[39]
26 September 2008 ek jetapaik ke saath pehli krausing yuves rausi (esayooaai (SUI)) das minute se bhi kam samay mein krausing poori ki[40]
12 March 2010 paani mein skiing dvaara pehli krausing kristeen bleekale (Britain) sirf 100 minute se thode adhik mein poori ki. usane BBC khel raahat ke liye krausing ke dauraan aath baar girte hue yeh chunauti poori ki.
28 May 2010 heeliym bailoon dvaara pehli krausing jonaathan trep (yooesae) chaar ghante mein poora hua. usane ek rangeen heeliym gubbaaron ke baadal ke neeche jhoolate hue channel ko paar kiya aur ek jodi kainchiyon se apne gubbaaron ko saadhaaran tareeke se ek-ek kar kaatate hue aage badhta raha.[41]
18 July 2010 RS tera dvaara pehli krausing seeseeesasi (CCSC), deeesasi (DSC) aur daauns SC (UK) ke 7-16 varsh ki aayu ke bachche ek-haath ke 9' naukaayan waali diggiyon mein krausing poori ki. 5 ghanton mein dovar se bolon tak (27 enamaails)

naav dvaara

piyre endriyl ne 1815 mein Alice mein baithakar english channel ko paar kiya tha, jo bhaap ke jahaaj dvaara tay ki jaane waali sabse pehli samudri yaatraaon mein se ek thi.

10 June 1821 ko angreji nirmit paidal steemar "rob Roy" channel ko paar karne waali pehli yaatri nauka thi. baad mein steemar ko fraansi daak prashaasan dvaara khareed liya gaya aur ise "henari chaturth" ka naya naam diya gaya aur ek saal baad ise niyamit yaatri seva mein daal diya gaya. yeh dovar ke sampoorn jalasanyogi ki yaatra lagbhag teen ghante ke aaspaas mein poori karne mein saksham thi.[42]

dovar bandargaah ke saath kathinaaiyon ki vajah se June 1843 mein dakshin poorv railway company ne kailaais-dovar ke ek vikalp ke roop mein bolon-sur-mar-folkeston maarg viksit kiya tha. pehli nauka kaptaan Hayward ke command ke tahat paar hui thi.[43]

maauntabetan class hovarakraaft (emaseeech (MCH)) ne August 1968 mein vaanijyik seva mein pravesh kiya aur shuruaat mein dovar aur bolon ke beech sanchaalit ki gayi, lekin baad mein yeh nauka raimsaget (pegavel ki khaadi) se kailaais ke maarg mein bhi chalaai gayi. dovar se bolon tak ki yaatra ka samay lagbhag 35 minute ka tha jismein teji ke samay mein chhah khep prati din ki yaatra hoti thi. ek vaanijyik car-vaahak hovarakraaft dvaara english channel ki sabse tej krausing 22 minute ki thi, jise Rajkumari aini dvaara 14 September 1995[44] ko 10:00 baje subah ki seva[krupaya uddharan jodein] ke liye emaseeech esaaar-ena4 emake3 (MCH SR-N4 Mk3) se darj kiya gaya tha.

naav dvaara channel ko paar karne vaale sabse kam umr ke darj naavikon mein 18 July 2010 ko 7 se 16 varsh ki aayu ke aath bachchon ki ek team thi. unhonne apni ek haath se chalaai jaane waali RS tera dingiyon ko khete hue dovar se bolon ki 27 meal ki doori 5 ghanton mein poori ki aur dovar tatarakshak redaar dvaara unki nigraani ki gayi jisne raaste ka ek record rakha. ye bachche Britain ke teen clubon ke the: kaisal kov SC, daibachiks SC aur dauns SC.

tair kar

channel tairaaki ke khel ki shuruaat 19 veen sadi ke uttaraarddh se hui maani jaati hai jab kaptaan Matthew web ne 24 August 1875 - 25 August 1875 ko England se lekar France tak sampoorn dovar jalasanyogi ko pehli baar nigraani ke tahat aur kisi sahaayata ke bagair 21 ghante aur 45 minute mein tair kar paar kiya tha.

1927 mein (ek aise samay mein jab das se kam tairaakon ne is upalabdhi ka anukaran karne ka prayaas kiya tha aur kai tarah ke sandigdh daave kiye gaye the), tairaakon ke english channel ko tairakar paar karne ke daavon ko pramaanit karne evam inki pushti ke liye aur paar karne ke samay ko satyaapit karne ke liye channel tairaaki association (seeesae (CSA)) ki sthaapana ki gayi thi. seeesae ko 1999 mein bhang kar diya gaya tha aur iske baad do alag sangathanon ka nirmaan kiya gaya tha: seeesae (limited) aur channel sveeming end paayalating federation (seeesapeeef (CSPF)). donon dovar jalasanyogi mein channel ke aar-paar tairaaki ke nireekshan aur pramaanan ka kaam karte hain.

sabse adhik baar channel ko tair kar paar karne ka shreya apne naam karne waali team antararaashtreeya shri chinmaya marathon team hai jiske 25 sadasyon dvaara 35 baar channel ko paar kiya gaya hai.[45]

2005 ke ant tak, 811 vyaktiyon ne seeesae (CSA), seeesae (CSA) (limited), seeesapeeef (CSPF) aur batalins ke niyamon ke tahat 1,185 baar pramaanit krausings poori ki hai.

2005 tak channel tairaaki association ke tahat aayojit aur iske dvaara pramaanit tairaakiyon ki kul sankhya hai: 665 logon dvaara 982 safal krausing. ismein 24 baar do-raaston ki krausing aur teen baar teen-raaston ki krausing shaamil hai.

2004 tak pramaanit tairaakiyon ki kul sankhya thi: 675 logon dvaara 948 safal krausing (purushon dvaara 456 aur mahilaaon dvaara 214). ismein solah baar do-raaston ki krausing shaamil thi (purushon dvaara 9 aur mahilaaon dvaara 7). teen-raaston ki krausing teen baar poori ki gayi thi (purushon dvaara 2 aur mahila dvaara 1). (yeh spasht naheen hai ki aankadon ka yeh antim set vistrut hai ya keval seeesae (CSA) ka hai.)

tairaaki sangathan seees end peeef (CS&PF) aur seeesae (CSA) ne tairaakon ko unki mahangi pilot naukaaon (prati khep 4000 ameriki dollar) ko seemit karne ki safalataapoorvak pairavi ki hai. is raajaneetik pairavi ka parinaam is dastaavej mein ullikhit hai.[46] is pairavi ke prayaas ke baavajood tairaak is dastaavej mein se yeh not kareinge ki "haalaanki, asaadhaaran maamalon mein fraanseesi samudri adhikaariyon dvaara traffic separeshan skeem ke antargat fraanseesi kshetreeya samudra ko paar karne ke liye aparanparaagat nauka ke istemaal ka adhikaar pradaan kiya ja sakta hai jab ye naukaaen british samudratat se chaleingeen, is shart par ki iske adhikaar ka anurodh unke paas british samudri adhikaariyon ki rai ke saath bheja jaae". isliye channel mein tairaaki ke samay ek gair-seeesae (CSA) ya seees end peeef (CS&PF) pilot nauka kiraae par lena sambhav hai.

channel ki sabse tej pramaanit tairaaki bulgeriyaai Peter stoyachev dvaara 24 August 2007 ko darj ki gayi thi. usane 6 ghante 57 minute 50 second mein channel ko paar kiya tha.

car dvaara

16 September 1965 ko do emfeekaaron ne dovar se kailaais tak english channel ko safalataapoorvak paar kiya tha. ek car mein chaalaak dal ke roop mein do sena ke adhikaari, kaptaan Mike belly aaraiemai (REME) aur kaptaan Peter taipeinden (RAOC) maujood the. doosari car mein tim dil-Russel aur saarjeint jo minto aaraeesasi (RASC) chaalaak dal ke roop mein the. is krausing mein 7 ghante aur 20 minute ka samay laga. channel ke madhya mein shartein fors 5 tak ki thi. kaaron ko us saal ke frainkafart motor sho mein le jaaya gaya, jahaaain unhein pradarshani ke liye rakha gaya tha.[47]

2007 mein BBC kaaryakram top giyr ke prastutakartaaon, jeremi klaarkasan, richrd haimand aur James me ne England se France tak sampoorn channel se hokar "drive kiya". unhonne yeh karatab "emfeebaayas kaaron" ko design karte hue dikhaaya jinhein jameen ke saath-saath paani mein bhi chalaaya ja sakta hai. chaar baar ke prayaason ke baad - do baar dovar bandargaah se chalne mein naakaam rahe - teenon prastutakarta ek nisaan pikap mein baithakar safalataapoorvak France ke samudratat par pahuainch gaye, jismein khule paani mein sthaayitv mein madad ke liye aautabord motor aur peechhe ki or tel ke dramon ko joda gaya tha.[39] krausing ki koshish karne vaale do anya vaahanon mein se (ek paal ke saath ek traayamf heraald aur ek flaaivheel se jude ek propelar ke saath volksavaigan kaimparavain) donon doob gaye.

klaarkasan ka maanana tha ki is tarah se channel ko paar karne ke liye vishv record ko toda jaana sambhav ho sakta hai, lekin yeh team asafal rahi thi.[48]

daily mel ne daava kiya ki BBC ko tatarakshakon se aalochna ka saamana karna pada jinhonne yeh daava kiya ki unhein yeh naheen bataaya gaya tha ki aisa koi stunt aayojit hone ja raha hai aur kathit taur par ise "poornat: gair-jimmedaar" ke roop mein brand bana diya, iske baavajood ki prasaarit episode mein tatarakshakon ka sahayog dikhaaya gaya tha.[49]

inhein bhi dekhein

  • sharaab ka krooj
  • feeniks brekavaatars
  • safal english channel tairaakon ki soochi

sandarbh

  1. a aa "english channel". Columbia ensaaiklopeediya 2004.
  2. a aa "english channel." ensaaiklopeediya britainika 2007.
  3. "Limits of Oceans and Seas, 3rd edition + corrections". International Hydrographic Organization. 1971. p. 42 [corrections to page 13]. http://www.iho-ohi.net/iho_pubs/standard/S-23/S23_1953.pdf. abhigman tithi: 6 fravari 2010.
  4. "english channel." hachinsan anaebrijd ensaaiklopeediya etalas sahit. 2005.
  5. File:Allied Invasion Force.jpg + channel ka fraanseesi naksha
  6. sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; Gupta_Nature naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  7. sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; PhysToday naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  8. "daugaralaind pariyojana", puraatatv ke eksetar vibhaag ka vishvavidyaalaya. 20 sitmbar 2010 ko praapt
  9. "Jonathan Potter: Map : The British Channel". Jpmaps.co.uk. http://www.jpmaps.co.uk/map/id.22553. abhigman tithi: 2010-04-27.
  10. "A chart of the British Channel, Jefferys, Thomas, 1787". Davidrumsey.com. 1999-02-22. http://www.davidrumsey.com/maps6489.html. abhigman tithi: 2010-04-27.
  11. "great Britain ka maanachitr, CA. 1450", collect Britain
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  13. seeef. "karnaav", kaurnavaal ke liye kaurnish.
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  22. Campaigns of World War II, Naval History Homepage. "Atlantic, WW2, U-boats, convoys, OA, OB, SL, HX, HG, Halifax, RCN ...". http://www.naval-history.net/WW2CampaignsStartEurope.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007-07-24.
  23. "The Dover Strait". Maritime and Coastguard Agency. 2007. http://www.mcga.gov.uk/c4mca/mcga07-home/emergencyresponse/mcga-searchandrescue/mcga-hmcgsar-sarsystem/channel_navigation_information_service__cnis_/the_dover_strait.htm. abhigman tithi: 2008-10-08.
  24. "History of CNIS". Maritime and Coastguard Agency. 2007. http://www.mcga.gov.uk/c4mca/mcga07-home/emergencyresponse/mcga-searchandrescue/mcga-hmcgsar-sarsystem/channel_navigation_information_service__cnis_/history_of_cnis.htm. abhigman tithi: 2008-11-01.
  25. "Dover Strait TSS". Maritime and Coastguard Agency. http://www.mcga.gov.uk/c4mca/mcga07-home/emergencyresponse/mcga-searchandrescue/mcga-hmcgsar-sarsystem/channel_navigation_information_service__cnis_/dops_-_dover_strait_tss_chartlet.htm. abhigman tithi: 2008-11-01.
  26. samudri aur tataraksha agency dvaara prakaashit chaartalet
  27. "Safety Bulletin 2" (PDF). Marine Accident Investigation Branch. 2001. http://www.maib.gov.uk/cms_resources/SB_%202_2001_%20Ash_and_Dutch_Aquamarin.pdf. abhigman tithi: 2008-11-01.
  28. "Report on the Investigation of the grounding of MV Willy" (PDF). Marine Accident Investigation Branch. October 2002. http://www.maib.gov.uk/cms_resources/willy.pdf. abhigman tithi: 2008-11-01.
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  30. "Salvage team hunts for leak". London: BBC. 6 January 2002. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/1745945.stm. abhigman tithi: 2008-11-01.
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  35. great Britain rikaurds ke hovarakraaft club mein satyaapan yogya aur abhilekhaagaar.
  36. "Wales on Britannia: Facts About Wales & the Welsh". Britannia.com. http://www.britannia.com/celtic/wales/facts/facts7.html. abhigman tithi: 2010-04-27.
  37. Stuart Waterman (July 27, 2006). "Rinspeed "Splash" sets English Channel record". Autoblog. http://www.autoblog.com/2006/07/27/rinspeed-splash-sets-english-channel-record/. abhigman tithi: 2008-11-01.
  38. "Inflatable Drag". http://www.stupidsteve.co.uk/inflatable.html. abhigman tithi: 2008-11-01.
  39. a aa "1996 Nissan Truck [D21] in "Top Gear, 2002–2010"". IMCDb.org. http://imcdb.org/vehicle_132991-Nissan-Pickup-D21-1996.html. abhigman tithi: 2010-04-27.
  40. "Pilot completes jetpack challenge". London: BBC. 26 September 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/7637327.stm. abhigman tithi: 2008-11-01.
  41. ameriki ne heeliym gubbaaron ke jariye channel ko paar kiya, the gaarjiyn, 28/05/2010 ko praapt.
  42. [1] channel feri ka itihaas
  43. [2] channel feriyaan aur feri bandargaah
  44. "Hovercraft deal opens show". London: BBC News. 15 June 1966. http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/june/15/newsid_3025000/3025267.stm. abhigman tithi: 2008-11-01.
  45. "Sri Chinmoy Marathon Team Channel Swim List". http://www.srichinmoyraces.org/channel/channel_swimmers/channel_swimmers_list. abhigman tithi: 2008-11-01.
  46. "Unorthodox Crossing of the Dover Strait Traffic Separation Scheme". Maritime and Coastguard Agency. http://www.mcga.gov.uk/c4mca/mcga07-home/emergencyresponse/mcga-searchandrescue/mcga-hmcgsar-sarsystem/channel_navigation_information_service__cnis_/dops_-_all-sar_cnis_unorthodox_crossings.htm. abhigman tithi: 2008-11-01.
  47. 10 December 1965 ko prakaashit kaars ahoya sheershak autocar aalekh
  48. BBC ki top giyr shrrunkhala 10 episode 2
  49. "Coastguards' fury as Top Gear stars attempt to 'drive' across the Channel | Mail Online". Dailymail.co.uk. 2007-07-20. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/tvshowbiz/article-469782/Coastguards-fury-Top-Gear-stars-attempt-drive-Channel.html. abhigman tithi: 2010-04-27.

baahari links