eneemeshan

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uchhalati geind eneemeshan (neeche) 6 farmon mein samaavisht hai
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yeh eneemeshan 19 frem prati second ki teji se chalta hai

eneemeshan harkat ka bhram paida karne ke liye 2-di ya 3-di kalaakruti ya model chhaavion ka teji se prardashit hone wala ek anukram hai. yeh harkat (motion) ka prakaashik bhram (optical illusion) drushti ke hath (persistence of vision) ke kaaran hai aur bhinn tareekon se prardashit chalachitr ya video (video) kaaryakram eneemeshan pesh karne ki sabse aam vidhi hai, haalaanki eneemeshan pesh karne ke aur bhi kai roop hain eneemeshan kabhi kabhi ek samudaaya ko sakriya karne ka ek tareeka yaani upabhogkarta ko 'jeevit karne' ka ullekh hai is ka arth hai kriya jo kisi diye gaye seva ke saath baatcheet karne ke liye upayogakartaaon ko protsaahit karti ho aur vah anatikram (moderation) se judi hai.

anukram

itihaas

eneemeshan ka sab se praacheen roop hai Shahr-i Sokhta (Shahr-i Sokhta) Iran mein paaya gaya mitti ka pyaala jis ke kinaaron par paaainch chhaviyaaain chitrit hain jab us pyaale ko ghumaaya jaae, veh bakare ko naashapaati lene ke liye uchhaalate hue darshaata hai[1][2]

suruaati (praacheen) udaaharan

dast chitrakala ko abhigrahan karne ke shurooaati prayaas paleolithic (paleolithic)gufa chitrakala (cave painting) mein paaya ja sakta hai jahaaain pashu anek taangon ke saath uparishaayi mudraaon meingati ki dhaarana sanpreshit karne ke prayaas mein darshaae gayi hain fenaakistoskop (phenakistoscope), joitrop (zoetrope) aur praaksinoskop (praxinoscope) evam flip pustak (flip book) 1800 ki sadi ke shurooaati lokapriya eneemeshan upakaran the yeh upakaran anukramik chitron se takaneeki madhyam ke dvaara harkat pesh karte the, lekin eneemeshan ne bahut der tak aage koi tarakki naheen ki jab tak chalachitr filmon ka aagaman nahi hua kisi ek vyakti ko eneemeshan ka janmadaata naheen kaha ja sakta kyonki lagbhag ek vakt par hi anya log kai pariyojanaaon mein vyast the jin ko eneemeshan ke alag prakaar maana ja sakta hai georges melis (Georges Méalièas) special effekts (vishesh-prabhaav) filmon ke janmadaata the; vah saamaanyat: is takaneek se eneemeshan ka upayog karne vaale pehle vyakti the unahonne durghatana dvaara ek takaneek ki khoj ki jo thi camera ko rok dena drushya mein kuchh badlaavon ke liye aur fir se use rol kar dena yeh vichaar baad mein staap motion eneemeshan ke naam se prachalit hui maalis nein durghatana dvaara is takaneek ki khoj ki jab ek chalti bas ko shoot karte hue un ka camera khraab ho gaya jab camera theek hua, jaise hi maalis ne camera rol kiya, murda le jaane ki gaadi gujr rahi thi aur parninaam svarup bas murda le jaane ki gaadi mein badal gayi praarambhik varshon ke yeh keval ek mahaan yogadaanakarata the J . stuart bleaaktn (J. Stuart Blackton) sanbhavat: staap motion aur hast chitrit takaneekon dbaara eneemeshan ke pehle Amreeki film nirmaata the in ko edeesan (Edison) dvaara film nirmaan ka parichay mila aur inahonne in avadhaaranaaon ko 20 veen sadi ke mod par apne 1900 dinaankit pehle kopyright kiye kaarya se maarg darshan diya un ki kai filmein jis mein The Enchanted draaing (mantramugdh rekhaachitr) (The Enchanted Drawing) (san 1900) aur Humorous Phases of Funny Faces (majedaar charan ke vinodi chehare) (Humorous Phases of Funny Faces) (san 1906) shaamil hain, blaektn ke "lightning artist" nemaka ke filmi roopaantaran the, jinhonne melis ke praarambhik staap motion takaneek ke badle roop ki takaneek ka upayog kiya shyaamapatt (blackboard) chitrakala mein harkat dikhaane aur unhein apne roop badalate darshaane ke liye humorous feajej of fani fasis (majedaar chehare ke vinodi charan) niyamit roop se pehli asal anupraanit film ke roop mein uddhrut hai aur blaektn pehle sachche eneemeshan kaarak (animator) maane jaate hain ek anya fraanseesi kalaakaar, Emile kohal (Éaamile Cohl) nein kaartoon chitr tukade chitrit karne shuroo kiye aur san 1908 mein fantaasmaagori naamak ek film banaai is film mein chhadi aakaar (stick figure) ko idhar udhar hilte hue darshaaya gaya, jis ne roop badalti vastuon ka saamana kiya jaise vaain (sharaab) ki botal jo fool mein roopaantarit ho jaati hai is mein jeevit kriya ke bhe bhaag the jis mein eneemeshan kaarak ke haath drushya mein pravesh karte hain har ek frem ko kaagaj par chitrit kar inkaari film (negative film) par shoot kiya gaya jis kaaranavash chitr ko shyaamapatt roop mila yeh fantaasmaagori ko pehli anupraanit film banaata hai jis ki rachana baad mein chal kar paramparaagat (hast chitrit) eneemeshan (traditional (hand-drawn) animation) kahalaane waali pranaali se bani blaakkton aur kol ki safalta ke baad, kai kalaakaaron ne eneemeshan ke saath prayog shuroo kiye aise hi ek kalaakaar the vinsar mak ke (Winsor McCay), ek samaachaarapatr kaartoonist jinhonne vistrut enimeshan nirmit kiye, jis ke liye kalaakaaron ki poori mandali aur shramasaadhya dhyaan ki aavashyakta thi pratyek frem kaagaj par taiyaar kiya gaya, jis ke sada hi prushthabhoomi aur paatron ke punaarchitran aur eneemeshan ki aavashyakta padi mak ke ki sab se naami filmein hain Little Nemo (Little Nemo) (san 1911), Gertie the Dinosaur (Gertie the Dinosaur) (san 1914) and The Sinking of the Lusitania (The Sinking of the Lusitania) (san 1918).

anupraanit laghu filmon ka utpaadan, aam taur par karne ke liye "kaartoon" ke roop mein sandarbhit, 1910 ke varshon mein ek udyog hi ban gaya aur kaartoon shorts moovi theatre (movie theaters) mein dikaae jaane ke liye nirmit kiye jaane lage sabse adhik safal shurooaati nirmaata the John randolf bre (John Randolph Bray) jinhonne eneemeshan kaarak (animator) arl hard (Earl Hurd) ke saath mil kar sel eneemeshan (cel animation) prakriya ko peteint karaaya jis nein eneemeshan udyog ko baaki ke dashak ke liye prabhutv kiya

takaneek

paaramparik eneemeshan

paaramparik eneemeshan, ka udahaaran ek ghoda jo rotoskoping (rotoscoping) dvaara sachet kiya gaya

Edward maaibrij (Edward Muybridge's) ki 19vi sadi ki fotuon se (sel eneemeshan (cel animation) bhi bulaaya jaane wala) paaramparik eneemeshan 20 veen sadi ke sabse adhik animated filmon ke liye istemaal ki jaane waali prakriya thi paramparaagat animated film ke ekal frem chitron ke photo hai, jinhein pehle kaagaj par chitrit kiya jaata tha harkat ka bhram paida karne ke liye, pratyek chitr apne se pehli se alag hai eneemeshan kaarakon ke chitr sel (cel) naamak paaradarshi eseetet par pratilipt ya fotokaupi kiya jaata tha, jo fir nirdisht rangon se chitran ki ulati disha mein bhara jaata tha rostrum camera (rostrum camera) ki madad se poorn sel ke charitron ke photo ek ek kar ke ek rangeen prushthabhoomi ke pratikool liye jaate paramparaagat sel eneemeshan prakriya 21veen sadi ki shuruaat se aprachalit ho gayi. aaj eneemeshan kaarakon ki chitrakala aur un ke prushthabhoomi ya to scan kiye jaate hain, yaan seedhe computer par hi chitrit kiye jaate hain. vibhinn software kaaryakram chitr ko rangane aur anukaran karne ke liye aur camera harkat aur prabhaavon ko banaane ke liye prayog kiye jaate hain antim animated tukada paaramparik 35 mimi film (35 mm film) aur nae digital video (digital video) jaise kai delivery maadhyamon mein se ek ka utpaad hai paaramparik sel eneemeshan ka "roop" abhi bhi sanrakshit hai aur charitra eneemeshan kaarakon (character animator) ka kaarya pichhle 70 varshon se ek sa hi raha hai. kuchh eneemeshan utpaadakon nein jo computer praudyogiki ke vyaapak upayog karte hain, sel eneemeshan ka varnan karne ke liye is shabd "traadijitl" ka istemaal kiya hai.

paramparaagat animated feature filmon ke udaaharanaon mein shaamil hain pinochchiyo (Pinocchio) (yunaited states, san 1940), Dumbo (en:Dumbo) (yunaited states, san 1941), baanbi (en:Bambi) (yunaited states, san 1942), eneemal firm (Animal Farm), chairalot ke web (Charlotte's Web (yunaited states, san 1973), lomadi aur shikaari kutta (The Fox and the Hound (yunaited states, san 1981) aur akira (Akira) (Japan, san 1988).paaramparik animated filmein jo computer praudyogiki ki sahaayata se bani mein shaamil hain de laayan King (The Lion King) (US, 1994) sen to chihiro no kamikkushi (spirited aave) (Sen to Chihiro no Kamikakushi (Spirited Away)) (Japan, 2001) aur les triplettes de belleville (Les Triplettes de Belleville) (2003).

  • poorn eneemeshan sandarbhit karta hai uchch gunavatta ke paramparaagat animated filmon ke nirmaan ke prakriya ko, jo niyamit roop se vistrut chitr aur sukhad halachal ka upayog karein poori tarah se animated filmon ko anek shailiyon mein kiya ja sakta hai, vaastavik abhiklpit se le kar vaalt dijni studio (Walt Disney studio) nirmit jaise, se adhik 'kaartooni' shailiyaaain jaise vorner brothers eneemeshan studio (Warner Bros. animation studio) dvaara nirmit jaiseekai dijni dvaara animated feechur aur gair dijni kaarya jaise An American Tail (An American Tail) (US, 1986) aur The Iron Giant (The Iron Giant) (US, 1999) (Disney animated features) poorn eneemeshan ke udaaharan hain,
  • seemit eneemeshan (Limited animation) kam vistrut aur / ya adhik prachalit chitron aur halchul ke tareekon ka istamaal karte hain American studio ke kalaakaaron dvaara shuroo kiya gaya United Productions of America (America ke sanyukt prodakshans) (United Productions of America) limited eneemeshan dikhaavati kalaatmak vyanjak vidhi ke taur par upayog kiya ja sakta hai, jaise geraald mak Boeing Boeing (Gerald McBoing Boing) (amareeka san 1951), Yellow Submarine (Yellow Submarine) (England, san 1968) aur Japan mein nirmit bahut ainime tathaapi is ka praathamik uddeshya media ke liye kam laagat ki animted saamagri banaana raha hai jaise ki television (hena baarabara (Hanna-Barbera) filmeekaran (Filmation) aur anya ti vi eneemeshan studio ke kaam) aur baad mein intaranet (web kaartoon (web cartoon))
  • rotoskoping (Rotoscoping) maiks flaisher (Max Fleischer) dvaara san 1917 mein peteint karaai takaneek hai, jahaaain eneemeshan kaarak jaivik-kriya halachal ko frem (frame) frem filaamaate hain srot film ko seedhe abhinetaaon ke khaake se anupraanit aarekh par nakal kiya ja sakta hai jaise The Lord of the Rings (The Lord of the Rings) (amareeka, san 1978) mein, dijni ke atyaadhik filmon jaise, jo charitra eneemeshan ke aadhaar aur prerana ke roop mein upayog hua, ya Waking Life (Waking Life) (amareeka, san 2001) aur A Scanner Darkly (A Scanner Darkly) (amareeka san 2006) jaise dikhaavati vyanjak prakaar mein upayog hua

staap motion

  • staap motion eneemeshan (Stop-motion animation) mein halachal ka bhram paida karne ke liye vaastavik duniya ki vastuon se chhedchhaad kar, ek samay mein ek frem filmaaya jaata hai staap motion ke anek prakaar hai aur aamtaur par eneemeshan banaane vaale maadhyam par un ka naam rakha jaata hai.
ek ti vi vigyaapan se ek mitti ka eneemeshan drushya.
  • kle eneemeshan (Clay animation), aksar sankshipt mein klaaymeshan jaane jaane wala, mitti ya kisi isi jaise lacheele saaman se bane aakaaron se staap motion baanaane ke liye upayog hota hai in aakaaron ke bheetar kathaputali eneemeshan ke jaise kavach (armature) ya taar ka dhaancha diya jaata hai taaki use mudra dene ke liye hilaaya ja sake anyat: yeh aakaar poore mitti ke bhi bane ho sakte hain jaise ki Bruce bikford (Bruce Bickford) ki filmon mein dekha ja sakta hai, jaha mitte ke jeev doosare roopon mein badal sakein clay (mitika) eneemeshan ke udaaharan mein shaamil hain The Gumby Show (The Gumby Show) (US, san 1957 - 1967) Morph (Morph) shorts (UK, san 1977 - 2000), Wallace and Gromit (Wallace and Gromit) shorts (UK, san 1989 -1995 aur san 2000 - ?)yaan svaankmaayer (Jan Šaavankmajer) ka Dimensions of Dialogue (chekoslovaakiya, san 1982), The Amazing Mr. Bickford (The Amazing Mr. Bickford) (US, 1987) aur The Trap Door (The Trap Door) (UK, 1984).
  • graafik eneemeshan (Graphic animation) gair chitrit sapet dikhne vaale graafik saamagri (tasveerein, akhbaar kataranein, patrikaaon, aadi) ka upayog karta hai jo kabhi kabhi frem dar frem harkat darshaane ke liye hilaaya gaya ho aur samay par, graafik sthir rahete hain jabki staap motion camera ko parade par angavikshep / kartoot paida karne ke liye hilaaya jaata hai
  • model eneemeshan (Model animation) sandarbhit karta hai staap motion eneemeshan ko jo jeevit-kaarravaai ki duniya ke saath mel jol kare aur us ke ek bhaag ke roop mein astitv banaae .aapas mein ulajhaate moodh (matte) prabhaav aur split screen aksar staap motion charitron yaan vastuon ko jeevant abhinetaaon aur prushthabhoomiyon ko sammishrit karne ke liye prayog kiye jaate hain udaahraanonn mein shaamil hain re hereehaujnn (Ray Harryhausen) ke kaam jaise Jason and the Argonauts (Jason and the Argonauts) (san 1961) aur Willis O baraaeain (Willis O'Brien) ka jaise King kong (King Kong) (san 1933 film) par kaam
  • objekt (vastu) eneemeshan (Object animation) staap-motion eneemeshan mein vishesh roop s nirmit ke vipreet, saamaanya nirjeev vastuon ke prayog ko sandarbhit karta hai objekt (vastu) eneemeshan ka ek udaaharan hai brichkfilm (brickfilm), jo plastic ke nirmaan blaukon jaise lego (LEGO) shaamil karta hai
  • piksileshan (Pixilation) staap motion jeevon ke roop mein jeevit maanavon ka upayog shaamil karta hai. yeh anekon atiythaarthavaadi prabaavon ke liye jagah banaata hai jis mein gaayab hona aur fir se laut aana shaamil hain, jis se logon ke bhoomi paar fislane aur anekon aur aise prabaavon ke aabhaas ka avsar milta hai piksileshan ke udaaharanon mein shaamil hain naurman maikaleran (Norman McLaren) ki padosiyon ka (Neighbours) (Canada, 1952).
  • kathaputali eneemeshan (Puppet animation) aamtaur par staap motion kathaputaliyon ka aapas mein ek nirmit vaataavaran mein anyonyakriya shaamil karta hai, model eneemeshan ki asal-duniya ki tulana kathaputaliyon ke andar aam taur par ek kavach (armature) diya jaata hai unhein sthir rakhane ke liye aur saath hi vishesh jodon mein sthaanaantarit karne ke liyeudhaaraanon mein shaamil hain Le Roman de Renard (The Tale of the Fox) ( Le Roman de Renard (The Tale of the Fox)) (France, 1937), jeeri trnaka (Jiřaí Trnka) ke filmein, The Nightmare Before Christmas (The Nightmare Before Christmas) (amareeka, 1993) aur ti vi shrankhala Robot Chicken (Robot Chicken) (amareeka, 2005 - ab tak).
    • George paal (George Pal) dvaara viksit ppetoon (Puppetoon) kathaputali anupraanit filmein hain jo bajaay bas ek maujooda kathaputali se chhedchhaad ke, alag alag farmon ke liye bhinn kathaputaliyon ka prayog karta hai

computer ainimeshan

ek chhota jif (gif) eneemeshan

staap motion ki tarah, computer eneemeshan mein vibhinn takaneekein shaamil hain, ekeekrut vichaar yeh hai ki eneemeshan digital prakriya se ek computer par banaaya ja raha hai

2d eneemeshan
aakar computer par 2D bitmaap graafiks (bitmap graphics) ya 2D vektar graafiks (vector graphics) ke madad se banaae / sanpaadit kiye jaate hain is mein shaamil hain tveening (tweening), roop badlaav (morphing), aniyn skinning (onion skinning) aur prakshepit (interpolated) rotoskoping jaisi svaachaalit kanpyootareekrut paaramparik eneemeshan takaneekon ke roop
udaaharan: Foster's Home for Imaginary Friends (Foster's Home for Imaginary Friends), Jib Jab (Jib Jab), Mickey the Squirrel (Mickey the Squirrel)
3 di computer graafiks.
3 di eneemeshan (3D animation)
eneemeshan kaarak dvaara hilaae dulaaye dijeetal model jaal ko hilaane dulaane ke liye use kavach (moorti) (armature (sculpture)) diya jaata hai is prakriya ko rigging kaha jaata hai vibhinn anya takaneekein prayog ki ja sakti hain jaise ganiteeya kaarya (jaise gurutv, kan simuleshan), banaavati khaal ya baal, aag aur paani jaise prabhaav aur halachal abhigrahan (Motion capture) dher 3D (3D) eneemeshan (animations) bahut vaastavik hain aur saamaanyat: haal filhaal filmon mein vishesh prabhaav (special effects) ke liye upayog hue
udaaharan: The Incredibles (The Incredibles), Shrek (Shrek), Finding Nemo (Finding Nemo), Flatland (Flatland)
3 di ainimeshan pad

anya eneemeshan takaneek

  • draan on film eneemeshan (Drawn on film animation): ek takaneek jahaaain chhaaya ko seedhe film stock (film stock) par bana kar footage ko nirmit kiya jaata hai, udaaharan ke liye naurman maikaleran (Norman McLaren) aur len lae (Len Lye).
  • Paint-on-glass eneemeshan (Paint-on-glass animation): animted filmein banaane ki takaneek jo dheere sookhane vaale aayal paint (oil paint) ko sheeshe (glass) ki chaadaron par hila hila kar banaayi jaae
  • pinskreen eneemeshan (Pinscreen animation): ek screen ka prayog karta hai jis mein anekon asthaavar pinein thoki jaati hain, jo screen par ek vastu ke dvaara dabaav daalne se andar ya baahar sthaanaantarit kiya ja sakta hai screen ki ek or se prakaash daala jaata hai taaki pin apni chhaaya chhodeyah takaneek filmein banaane ke liye upayog ki gayi hai jahaaain bhinn banaavaton ke prabaav hon, jo paaramparik sel eneemeshan se praapt karna jatil hai
  • saind (ret) eneemeshan (Sand animation): kaaainch ke ek tukade par jis par aage ya peechhe se raushani daali ho, ret ko hilaaya jaata hai, ek animated film ke liye pratyek frem banaane ke liye anupraanit hone par yeh prakaash (light)vipryaas (contrast) ke kaaran ek rochak prabhaav banaata hai

anya takaneekon aur drushtikon

inhein bhi dekhein

eneemeshan ke prakaar

eneemeshan ke kam se kam teen vishisht prakaar hain:

proses (prakriya) eneemeshan: eneemeshan ka prakaar hai jo paribhaashit kaarya paddhati ki prakriya ko kishton mein pesh karne ke liye prayog kiya jaata hai. is mein prashikshan eneemeshan, anudesh eneemeshan aur saamaan shaamil hain

ifekt (prabhaav) eneemeshan: eneemeshan ke prakaar hain jo poverpoint prastutiyon ko pratiblit athva jor dene ke liye upayog kiye jaate hain. powerpoint prastutiyaan ifekt (prabaav) eneemeshan ke vishisht upayog hain jahaaain eneemeshan sandesh yaan prakriya par jor dene ke liye upayog mein laaya jaae

story (kahaani) eneemeshan: kaartoon eneemeshan ka prakaar hain jahaaain kahaani batalaai jaati hai saral eneemeshan ka upayog karte hue jis ke nirmaan ki kam laagat ho, vah saral hon aur sandesh pahunchaane ke liye seedhe-spasht hon, aur ekaangi gunak ke kaaran lambe samay tak upayog kiye ja sakein aur tik sakein un vidiyo ke vipreet jo yug vishisht hain

sandarbh

aage padhna

baahari links