elyuminiym


elyuminiym / Aluminium
raasaayanik tatv
Al,13.jpg
namoona
raasaayanik chinh: Al
parmaanu sankhya: 13
raasaayanik shrunkhala: sankramanoparaant dhaatu
Al-TableImage.png

aavart saarani mein sthiti
Electron shell 013 Aluminium.svg
electronic dhaancha
anya bhaashaaon mein naam: Aluminium (angreji)

eluminiym ek raasaayanik tatv hai jo dhaaturoop mein paaya jaata hai. yeh bhooparpati mein sabse adhik maatra mein pai jaane waali dhaatu hai. eluminiym ka ek pramukh ayask hai - bauksaait. yeh mukhya roop se aluminiym oksaaid, aayaran aaksaaid tatha kuchh anya ashuddhiyon se milkar bana hota hai. beyar prakram dvaara in ashuddhiyon ko door kar diya jaata hai jisse sirf alumina (Al2O3) bach jaata hai. elumina se vidyut apaghatan dvaara shuddh eluminiym praapt hota hai.

eluminiym dhaatu vidyut tatha ooshma ka chaalak tatha kaafi halki hoti hai. iske kaaran iska upayog havaai jahaaj ke purjon ko banaane mein kiya jaata hai. Bhaarat mein Jammu Kashmir, Mumbai, kolhaapur, jabalapur, Ranchi, sonabhadr, baalaaghaat tatha katani mein bauksaait ke vishaal bhandaar paae jaate hai. udeesa sthit naalko (NALCO) duniya ki sabse sasti aluminiym banaane waali company hai[1].

anukram

itihaas

ailyoominiym shvet rang ki ek dhaatu hai. laitin bhaasha ke shabd ailyoomen aur angreji ke shabd ailam ka arth fitkari hai. is fitkari mein se jo dhaatu pruthak ki ja saki, usaka naam ailyoominiym pada. fitkiri se to hamaara parichay bahut puraana hai. kaankshi, tuvari aur sauraashtraj iske puraane naam hai. fitkari vastut: potaisiym salfet aur ailyoominiym salfet in donon ka dvigun yaugik hai.

san 1754 mein maaragraaf (Marggraf) ne yeh pradarshit kiya ki jis mitti ko ailyoomina kaha jaata hai, vah choone se bhinn hai. sar hanfri devi ne san 1807 hi mein ailyoomiya mitti se dhaatu pruthak karne ka prayatn kiya, parantu safalta na mili. san 1825 mein arsted (Oersted) ne ailyuminiym kloraaid ko potaisiym sanras ke saath garam kiya aur fir aasavan karke paare ko uda diya. aisa karne par jo choorn sa bach raha usamein dhaatu ki chamak (dhaatvaabha) thi. yahi dhaatu ailyuminiym kahalaai. san 1845 mein fredarik vohalar (Frederik Wohler) ne is dhaatu ke taiyaar karne mein potaisiym dhaatu ka prayog apachaayak ke roop mein kiya. use is dhaatu ke kuchh chhote-chhote kan mile, jinki pareeksha karke usane bataaya ki yeh nai dhaatu bahut halki hai (aapekshik ghanatv 2.5-2.7) aur iske taar kheenche ja sakte hain. tadanantar sodiym aur sodiym ailyoominiym kloraaid ka prayog karke san 1854 mein devil (Deville) ne is dhaatu ki achhi maatra taiyaar ki. us samay nai dhaatu hone ke kaaran ailyoominiym ki ginti bahumoolya dhaatuon mein ki jaati thi aur iska upayog aabharanon aur alankaaron mein hota tha. san 1886 mein ohaayo (amareeka) nagar mein chaalrs Martin hall ne gale hue kraayolaait mein ailyoomina ghola aur usamein se vidyudvishleshan vidhi dvaara ailyoominiym dhaatu pruthak ki. Europe mein bhi lagbhag isi varsh hero (Heroult) ne svatantr roop se isi prakaar yeh dhaatu taiyaar ki. yahi hall-hero-vidhi aajkal is dhaatu ke utpaadan mein vyavahrut ho rahi hai. halaki aur sasti hone ke kaaran ailyoominiym aur usase bani mishr dhaatuon ka prachalan tab se baraabar badhta chala ja raha hai.

ailyoominiym ka nishkarshan

ailyoominiym dhaatu taiyaar karne ke liye do khanijon ka vishesh upayog hota hai. ek to bauksauit (Al2 O3. 2H2O) aur doosra kraayolaait (3NaF. Al F3). bauksaait ke vistrut nikshep Bhaarat mein raaainchi, palaamoo, jabalapur, baalaaghaat, selam, belagaam, kolhaapur, thaana aadi jilon mein paae gaye hain. is desh mein is khanij ki anumit maatra 2.8 karod tan hai.

ailyoominiym dhaatu taiyaar karne ke nirmitt pehla prayatn yeh kiya jaata hai ki bauksaait se shuddh ailyoomina mile. bauksaait ke shodhan ki ek vidhi, baayar (Baeyer) vidhi ke naam par prachalit hai. ismein bauksaait ko garam kaastik soda ke vilyan ke saath aabhikrut karke sodiym ailyoominet bana lete hain. is ailyoominet ke vilyan ko chhaan lete hain aur ismein se fir ailyoomina ka avakshepan kar liya jaata hai. (avakshepan ke nirmit vilyan mein ailyoomina traaihaaidret ke beejon ka vapan kar diya jaata hai, jisse sab ailyoomina avakshepit ho jaata hai).

ailyoomina se ailyoominiym dhaatu hall-hero-vidhi dvaara taiyaar ki jaati hai. vidyudvishleshan ke liye jis sel ka prayog kiya jaata hai vah ispaat ka bana ek bada baksa hota hai, jiske bheetar kaarban ka astar laga rahata hai. kaarban ka yeh astar kok, pitch aur taarakol ke mishran ko tapaakar taiyaar kiya jaata hai. isi prakaar kaarban ke dhanaagr bhi taiyaar kiye jaate hain. ye bahudha 12-20 inch lambe aayataakaar hote hain. ye dhanaagr ek sanvaahak dand (bas baar) se latakate rahate hain aur ichhaanusaar oopar neeche kiye ja sakte hain. vidyut sel ke bheetar gala hua kraayolaait lete hain aur vidyuddhaara is prakaar niyantrit karte rahate hain ki uske pravaah ki garami se hi kraayolaait baraabar galit avastha mein bana rahe. vidyudvishleshan hone par jo ailyoominiym dhaatu banti hai vah kraayolaait se bhaari hoti hai, at: sel mein neeche baith jaati hai. yeh dhaatu hi rinaagr ka kaam karti hai. gali hui dhaatu samay-samay par sel mein se baahar baha li jaati hai. sel mein beech-beech mein aavashyakataanusaar aur ailyoomina milaate jaate hain. kraayolaait ke galanaank ko kam karne ke liye ismein bahudha thoda sa kailsiym floraaid bhi mila dete hain. yeh ullekhaneeya hai ki ailyoominiym dhaatu ke kaarkhaane ki safalta sasti bijli ke oopar nirbhar hai. 20,000 se 50,000 ainpeeyar tak ki dhaara ka upayog vyaapaarik vidhiyon mein kiya jaata raha hai.

eluminiym ke gun

vyavahaar mein kaam aanevaali dhaatu mein 99% 99.3% ailyoominiym hota hai. shuddh dhaatu ka rang shvet hota hai, par baajaar mein biknevaale ailyoominiym mein kuchh loh aur silikn mila hone ke kaaran halaki si neeli aabha hoti hai.

bhautik gun

paramaanubhaar : 26.97

aapekshik ushma (20roo sein. par) : 0.214

aapekshik ushma chaalakata (kalari prati sein.mi. ghan, prati degree sein., prati saikand, 18digri sein. par) : 0.504

galanaank (99.97% shuddhata) : 659.8roo

kvathanaank : 1800 degree

galan ki gupt ushma : 95.3

aapekshik ghanatv : 2.703

galanaank par drav ka ghanatv : 2.382

vidyut pratirodh, 20 degree sein. par : 2.845 (maaikrom prati sein.mi.ghan)

vidyut raasaayanik tulyaank : 0.00009316 gram prati koolanb

paraavartanata (shvet prakaash ke liye) : 85%

thos hone par sankoch : 6.6%

vidyudagr vibhv (vilyan mein 25 degree par) 1.69 volt

raasaayanik gun

ailyoominiym par saadhaaran taap par oksijn ka kuchh bhi prabhaav naheen padta, parantu yadi dhaatu ke choorn ko 400 degree taap par oksijn ke sampark mein laaya jaae, to paryaapt apachayan hota hai. ati shuddh dhaatu par paani ka bhi prabhaav naheen padta, par taaainba, peetal athva anya dhaatuon ki samupasthiti mein paani ka prabhaav bhi paryaapt hota hai. kaarban athva kaarban ke oksaaid ooainche taap par dhaatu ko kaarbaaid (Al4 C3) mein parint kar dete hain. paara aur nami ki vidyamaanata mein dhaatu haaidraaksaaid ban jaati hai. yadi ailyoominiym choorn aur sodiym paraaksaaid ke mishran par paani ki kuchh hi booaindein padein, to jor ka visfot hoga. ailyoominiym choorn aur potaisiym paramainganet ka mishran jalate samay prachand deepti deta hai. dhaatu ka choorn garam karne par hailojan aur naaitrojan ke saath bhi jalne lagta hai aur ailyoominiym hailaaid aur naaitraaid bante hain. shushk ithar mein bane bromeen aur aayodeen ke vilyan ke saath bhi yeh dhaatu ugrata se abhikriya karke bromaaid aur aayodaaid banaati hai. gandhak, seleeniym aur telyooriym garam kiye jaane par hi is dhaatu ke saath sanyukt hote hain. haaidroklorik aml garam hone par dhaatu ke saath abhikriya karke kloraaid banaata hai. yeh kriya dhaatu ki shuddhata aur aml ki saandrata par nirbhar hai. tanu salfyoorik aml ka dhaatu par dheere-dheere hi prabhaav padta hai, par aml ki saandrata badhaane par yeh prabhaav pehle to badhta hai, par fir kam hone lagta hai. 98% salfyoorik aml ka dhaatu par bahut hi kam prabhaav padta hai. naaitrik aml ka prabhaav is dhaatu par itna kam hota hai ki saandr naaitrik aml ailyoominiym ke bane paatron mein band karke door-door tak bheja ja sakta hai. amoniya ka vilyan kam taap par to dhaatu par prabhaav naheen daalata, parantu garam karne par abhikriya teevrata se hoti hai. kaastik soda, kaastik potaash aur beraaita ka ailyoominiym dhaatu par prabhaav teevrata se hota hai, parantu kailsiym haaidraaksaaid ka adhik naheen hota.

ailyoominiym oksijn ke prati adhik kriyaasheel hai. is gun ke kaaran anek aaksaaidon ke apachayan mein is dhaatu ka prayog kiya jaata hai. goldashmit ki tharmaait ya taapan vidhi mein ailyoominiym choorn ka prayog karke lauh, mainganeej, kromiym, maalibdeenam, tangsatan aadi dhaatueain apne aaksaaidon mein se pruthak ki jaati hain.

ailyoominiym ko sankshaaran se bachaana

beingaf (Bengough) aur satan ne 1926 E. mein ek vidhi nikaali jiske dvaara ailyoominiym dhaatu par uske aaksaaid ka ek patal is drudhta se ban jaata hai ki uske neeche ki dhaatu sankshaaran se bachi rahe. yeh kaarya vidyuddhaara ki sahaayata se kiya jaata hai. ailyoominiym paatr ko dhanaagr banaakar 3 pratishat kromik aml ke vilyan mein (jo yathaasanbhav salfyoorik aml se mukt ho) rakhate hain. voltata dheere-dheere 40 volt tak 15 minute ke bheetar badha di jaati hai. 35 minute tak isi voltata par kriya hone dete hain, fir voltata 5 minute ke bheetar 50 volt kar dete hain aur 5 minute tak ise sthir rakhate hain. aisa karne par paatr par aaksaaid ka ek sookshm patal jam jaata hai. paatr par rang ya vaarnish bhi chadhaai ja sakti hai aur yathesht anek rang bhi diye ja sakte hain. is vidhi ko enodaaijing ya dhanaagreekaran kehte hain aur is vidhi dvaara banaae gaye sundar rangon se alankrut ailyoominiym paatr baajaar mein bahut bikne ko aate hain.

ailyoominiym mishradhaatueain

ailyoominiym lagbhag sabhi dhaatuon ke saath sanyukt hokar mishr dhaatueain banaata hai, jinmein se tauba, loha, jasta, mainganeej, maiganeeshiym, nikel, kromiym, seesa, bismath aur vainediym mukhya hain. ye mishradhaatueain do prakaar ke kaam ki hain – pitvaaain aur dhalavaaain. pitvaaain mishradhaatuon se plate, chhadein aadi taiyaar ki jaati hain. inki bhi do jaatiyaaain hain, ek to ve jo bina garam kiye hi peetakar yathechh avastha mein laai ja sakti hain, doosari ve jinhein garam karna padta hai. pitvaaain aur dhalavaaain mishradhaatuon ke do namoone yahaaain diye jaate hain-

dhalavaaain : taaainba 8%, loha 1%, silikn 1.2%, ailyoominiym 89.8% pitvaaain : taaainba 0.9%, silikn 12.5%, maiganeeshiym 1.0 %, nikel 0.9%, ailyoominiym 84.7%

ailyoominiym ke yaugik

ailyoominiym oksaaid (Al2 O3) prakruti mein bhi paaya jaata hai tatha fitkari aur amoniya kshaar ki abhikriya se taiyaar bhi kiya ja sakta hai. ismein jal ki maatra sanyukt rahati hai. jalarahit ailyoominiym kloraaid (AlCl3) ka upayog kaarbanik rasaayan ki freeden-kraaft abhikriya mein anek sanshleshanon mein kiya jaata hai. ailyoominiym salafet ke saath anek fitkariyaaain banti hain. dhaatu ko naaitrojan ya amoniya ke saath 800 degree se. taap par garam karke ailyoominiym naaitraaid, (AlN), taiyaar kiya ja sakta hai. sarapek (Serpek) vidhi mein ailyoomina aur kaarban ko naaitrojan ke pravaah mein garam karke yeh naaitraaid taiyaar karte the. is prakaar vaayu ke naaitrojan ka sthireekaran sambhav tha. bauksaait aur kaarban ko bijli ki bhattiyon mein galaakar ailyoominiym kaarbaaid (Al4 C3) taiyaar karte hain, jo sankshaaran se bachaane mein bahut kaam aata hai aur ooaincha taap sahan kar sakta hai.

ailyuminiym trisanyoji tatv hai at: iske yaugikon mein +3 ki sanyojakata, Al(III), pradarshit hoti hai. iske pramukh yaugik aaksaaid, kloraaid, naaitret, salfet tatha haaidraaksaaid hain.

ailyuminiym aaksaaid (Al2O3)- ise ailyumina bhi kehte hain. yeh ailyuminiym ka shvet ya rangaheen aaksaaid hai jo do roopon mein paaya jaata hai-sthaayi roop athva a-roop jiske kristal shatabhuji hote hain tatha gaama ailyumina (y) jo garm karne par a-roop mein badal jaata hai. inke atirikt bh.8 aadi roop bhi gyaat hain jinmein kshaareeya dhaatu aayan rahate hain.

ailyumina prakruti mein baaksaait tatha korandam ke roop mein paaya jaata hai. ise ailyuminiym haaidraaksaaid, naaitret athva amoniym fitkari ko garm karke praapt kiya ja sakta hai.

2 Al (OH)3 --> Al2O3+3H2O

4 Al (NO3)2 --> Al2O3+ 8NO2+3O2

(NH4)2 SO4.Al2(SO4)3 --> Al2O3+4SO3+2NH3-H2O

shuddh ailyuminiym aaksaaid praapt karne ke liye baaksaait ayask ko sodiym haaidraaksaaid mein gholate hain. jo ashuddhiyaaain hoti hain ve avileya rahi aati hain. ailyuminiym haaidraaksaaid avakshep ko vilg karke 1150-1200 tak garm karne par a_ aaksaaid banaata hai. yeh atyadhik kathor padaarth hai at: apagharshak ke roop mein prayukt kiya jaata hai. iski agnish intein bhi banaai jaati hain. bhattiyon mein durgalaneeya astar banaane ke bhi kaam aata hai.

ailyuminiym aaksaaid ubhayadharmi hai at: amlo tatha kshaaron mein samaan roop se vilyit hokar lavan utpann karta hai. kshaaron ke saath ailyuminet banta hai.

Al2O3+6HCl --> 2AlCl3-3H2O

Al2O3+2NaOH-2NaAlO2+H2O

haaidrojan athva kaarban ke saath garm karne par Al2O3 apachit naheen hota.

ailyuminiym aiseetet athva aithenoet- yeh shvet thos hai jo thande jalamein bahut kam vileya hai aur garm jal mein vightit ho jaata hai. jal ki anupasthit mein shuddh lavan ban sakta hai. anyatha kshaareeya lavan hi banta hai. iska upayog rangabandhak ke roopamein tatha tainnig mein kiya jaata hai. pehle sankramanarodhi tatha aushadhi ke roop mein prayukt hota tha.

ailyuminiym kloraaid (AlCl3)- yeh shvet thos hai aur jal ke saath teevrata se kriya karke HCl banaata hai. yeh do roopon mein paaya jaata hai- (1) nirjal roop tatha (2) jalayojit heksaahaaidret AlHCl3.6H2O. prayogashaala mein ailyuminiym ke oopar kloreen gas pravaahit karke nijl kloraaid praapt karte hain-

2Al +3HCl2 -2AlHCl3

kintu bahut maatra mein utpaadak ke liye garam kiye gaye ailyumina tatha kaarban mishran ke oopar kloreen pravaahit karte hain-

jalayojit kloraaid praapt karne ke liye ailyuminiym dhaatu ya ailyumina ko haaidroklorik aml mein vilyit karke vilyan ko sukhaakar kiya jaata hai-

2Al+6H --> HCl + H2

yadi jalayojit kloraaid ko garm karke nirjal lavan banaana chaahein to yeh sambhav naheen hai kyonki tab ailyumina banta hai-

2 AlHCl3. 6H2O --> Al2O H2O + 6HHCl

drav tatha vaashp avastha mein samaan roop Al2HCl6 paaya jaata hai. ailyuminiykloraaid ka jal apaghatan hota hai at: HHCl daalkar rakhana chaahiye. iska upayog telon ke bhandaaron mein utprerak ke roop mein hota hai. freedal-kraift abhikriyaan bhi utprerak ka kaarya karti hain.

ailyuminiym traaimethil (Al3H2O3) yeh rangaheen dravya hai jo vaayu mein jal uthata hai aur jal ke saath abhikriya karke methen tatha Al(OH)3 banaata hai. ise AlHCl3 ke saath grignyaaain abhikrmak ki kriya dvaara taiyaar karte hain. iska upayog uchch ghanatv vaale paaleetheen banaane mein hota hai.

ailyuminiym naaitret Al(NO)3 yeh shvet thos hai. is turant avakshepit Al(OH)3 mein se HNO3 ki kriya karaakar ya fir Al2(SO4)3 evam (NO3)2 vilyanon ko milaakar PbSO4 avakshep ko chhaanakar praapt kar sakte hain. iska upayog raingaai tatha gas gaital banaane mein hota hai.

ailyuminiym potaisiym salfet Al2(SO4)3.K2SO4. 24 H2O- yeh potaash ailam ya ailag (fitkari) ke naam se prasiddh hai. yeh shvet kristaleeya yaugik hai jise garm karne par pehle 18 H2O nikal jaata hai aur adhik garm karne par (200) nirjal ban jaata hai. yeh garm jal mein vileya hai kintu ethenaal tatha aiseeton mein avileya hai. ise taiyaar karne ke liye potaisiym salfet tatha ailyuminiym salfet ki samaaanavik maatraaeain vilyan roop mein milaai jaati hai. iska upayog rangabandhak, chamada kamaane tatha agnishaamak mein hota hai.

ailyuminiym floraaid AlF- yeh rangaheen yaugik hai jise Al (OH)2 ke oopar HF ki kriya karaakar banaate hain. is par amlon ya kshaaron ki koi kriya naheen hoti.

ailyuminiym salfet- yeh nirjal tatha jalayojit roopon mein praapt hota hai. Al2(SO4)3 nirjal roop hai jo shvet kristaleeya yaugik hai. jalayojit yaugik Al2(SO4) 18 H2O hai jo 86.5 par apna jal kho deta hai. jalayojit tatha nirjal donon hi roop mein jal vileya hain. jab Al(OH)3 ke saath H2SO4 ki kriya karaai jaati hai ya cheeni mitti (keolin) ya baaksaait par H2SO4 ki kriya karaate hain jo jalayojit salfet banta hai. iska jaleeya vilyan amleeya hota hai-

Al2 (SO4)3 + 6H2O --> 2Al(OH)3 + 3H2SO4 yeh kshaareeya dhaatu salfeton ke saath fitkari banaata hai. garm karne par iska apaghatan ho jaata hai-

Al2(SO4)3 --> Al2O3 +3SO

iska upayog paani ke shodhan, visheshataya mal-jal ke parishkaar, kapado ki raingaai, chamade ki raingaai tatha kaagaj udyog mein hota hai. isse agnish padaarth banaaye jaate hai.

ailyuminiym sileket- praakrutik tatha sashlisht donon prakaar ke yaugik, jinmein Al.Si ke saath aakseejan sanyukt rahata hai. mruttikaaeain, jeyolaait, abhrak aadi mukhya udaaharan hain.

ailyuminiym haaidraaksaaid Al(OH)3- yeh ubhayadharmi haaidraaksaaid hai jo amlon tatha kshaaron mein samaan roop sein vilyit ho jaata hai. yeh shvet jiletini thos hai jise ailyuminiym lavanon ke vilyan mein amo_niya daalkar taiyaar kiya ja sakta hai. yeh garm kiye jaane par ailyumina mein parint ho jaata hai.

2Al(OH)3 --> Al2O3 + 3H2O

ismein upasahasanyojit jal anu hote hain at: jalayojit Al(OH)3 kahalaata hai. iska upayog jal parishkaran, rangabandhak tatha jalasah vastr banaane mein hota hai. utprerak tatha kromaitograafi mein bhi prayukt.

chitr

sandarbh

  1. title=dhaatu aur adhaatu| publication=NCERT, Class Tenth, Hindi Edition, |page=209