elijaabeth dviteeya

elijaabeth II
March 2015 mein mahaaraani elijaabeth
United Kingdom aur
shaasanakaal 6 February 1952 – vartamaan
raajyaabhishek 2 June 1953
poorvaadhikaari jaurj 6
uttaraadhikaari Charles, vels ke Rajkumar
pradhaanamantri


soochi dekhein
jeevanasaathi Rajkumar Phillip (edinbarg ke Duke) (vi॰ 1947–vartamaan) «astart: (1947-11-20)»"Marriage: Rajkumar Phillip (edinbarg ke Duke) to elijaabeth dviteeya" Location: (linkback://hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%A4%8F%E0%A4%B2%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%9C%E0%A4%BC%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%AC%E0%A5%87%E0%A4%A5_%E0%A4%A6%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B5%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%A4%E0%A5%80%E0%A4%AF)
santaane
Charles, aine, Rajkumar eaindrayoo aur Rajkumar Edward
poora naam
elijbeth ailekjaindra mairi
raajagharaana vindasar
pita jaurj 6
maata elijaabeth, yaurk ki dachej
janm (1926-04-21) 21 April 1926 (aayu 90 varsh)
mefeyar, London, England
dharm England ka girijaaghar
Scotland ka girijaaghar

elijaabeth dviteeya (angreji: Elizabeth II) (Elizabeth ailaigjaindra mairi, janm: 21 April 1926) United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, nyoojeelaind, jamaika, baarabaados, bahaamaas, Grenada, paapuaa new gini, soloman dveepasamooh, tuvaaloo, sant loosiya, sant vinsent aur grenaadaains, beleej, anteeguaa aur baarabooda aur sant kits aur nevis ki mahaaraani hain. iske atirikt vah raashtramandal ke 54 raashtron aur raajyakshetron ki pramukh hain aur british saamraajnyai ke roop mein, vah angreji church ki sarvochch raajyapaal hain aur raashtramandal ke solah svatantr samprabhu deshon ki samvaidhaanik mahaaraani hain.

elijaabeth ko niji roop se par ghar par shikshit kiya gaya tha. unke pita, George shashtham ko 1936 mein Britain aur british upanivesh Bhaarat ka samraat banaaya gaya tha.

6 February 1952 ko apne raajyaabhishek ke baad elijaabeth raashtrakul ki adhyaksh va saath svatantr deshon United Kingdom, Pakistan abhiraajya, Australia, nyoojeelaind, Canada, dakshin Africa va silon [a] ki shaasak raani ban gayeen. unka raajyaabhishek samaaroh apne tarah ka pehla aisa raajyaabhishek tha jiska dooradarshan par prasaaran hua tha. 1956 se 1992 ke dauraan vibhinn deshon ko svatantrata milte rahane se unki riyaasaton ki sankhya kam hoti gayi. vah vishv mein sabse vruddh shaasak aur Britain par sabse jyaada samay tak shaasan karne waali raani hai. 9 sitmbar 2015 ko unhonne apni paradaadi mahaaraani Victoria ke sabse lambe shaasanakaal ke keertimaan ko tod diya va Britain par sarvaadhik samay tak shaasan karne waali va saamraajnyai ban gayeen.

elijaabeth ka janm London mein Duke jaurj shashtam va raajamaata raani elijaabeth ke yahaaain paida huin va unki padhaai ghar mein hi hui. unke pita ne 1936 mein Edward 8 ke raaj-paath tyaagane ke baad raaj grahan kiya. tab vah raajya ki uttaraadhikaari ho gayi theen. unhonne doosare vishvayuddh ke dauraan janasevaaon mein hissa lena shuru kiya va sahaayak praadeshik seva mein hissa liya. 1947 mein unka vivaah Rajkumar Phillip se hua jinse unke chaar bachche, Charles, aine, Rajkumar eaindrayoo aur Rajkumar Edward hain.

elijaabeth ke shaasan ke dauraan United Kingdom mein kai mahatvapoorn badlaav hue, jaise Africa ki british upanivesheekaran se svatantrata, UK ki sansad ki shaktiyon ka vels, Scotland, England va Ireland ki sansadon mein vibhaajan ityaadi. apne shaasanakaal ke dauraan unhonne vibhinn yuddhon ke dauraan apne raajya ka netrutv kiya.

anukram

shuruvaati jeevan

Elizabeth as a thoughtful-looking toddler with curly, fair hair
Rajkumari elijaabeth 3, 1929 mein

elijaabeth ka janm 21 April 1926 ko 02:40 (jeeemati) ko apne daada jaurj pancham ke shaasanakaal ke dauraan hua. unke pita Rajkumar elbart (baad mein raaja jaurj VI), raaja ke doosare putr the. unki maaain, elijaabeth, yaurk ki dachej (baad mein raani elijaabeth), skautish arl klaaude bovs-lyaun ki chhoti beti theen. 29 May ko yaurk ke sheersh paadari kausmo gaurdan laing ke dvaara unhein Birmingham mahal ke niji praarthana ghar mein isaai dharm mein pravesh (baiptijm) karaaya gaya.[1][b] aur elijaabeth ka naamakaran kiya.[3]

elijaabeth ki bahan, Rajkumari maargaret ka janm 1930 mein hua. donon bahanon ko ghar par hi apni maaain va shikshika mairiyn krauford ki dekharekh mein itihaas, sangeet, bhaasha ki shiksha di gayi.[4] 1950 mein kraaford ne elijaabeth va unki bahan ki the little prinsejej sheershak se ek jeevani prakaashit ki. [5] pustak mein elijaabeth ke ghodon va paalatoo kutton ke prati lagaav, aajnyaaakaarita va jimmedaar svabhaav ka varnan hai. [6] unki chacheri bahan maargaret rhods unhein ek chulbuli chhoti ladki, lekin behad samvedansheel va sabhya bataati hain. [7]

sambhaavit uttaraadhikaari

Elizabeth as a rosy-cheeked young girl with blue eyes and fair hair
Rajkumari elijaabeth 7 varsh ki aayu mein, chitrakaar Phillip di laijlo dvaara 1933 mein.

apne daada ke shaasanakaal ke dauraan elijaabeth sinhaasan ke liye uttaraadhikaar ke maamale mein teesare kramaank par theen. unke pehle unke taaoo Edward 8 aur unke pita James 6 the. unke taaoo ki kisi santaan hone se pehle hi elijaabeth paida ho gayeen theen isaliye janta mein unke prati nbehad utsukata thi lekin unke raani ban jaane ke baare mein kisi ne naheen socha tha kyonki sab samajhte the ki unke taaoo jo abhi yuva the, shaadi karke apaneen santaane paida kareinge va unki santaane hi bhavishya ki raaja ya raani hongi.[8] jab unke daada ki 1936 mein mrutyu ho gayi aur unke taaoo Edward 8 raaja bane vo apne pita James ke baad sinhaasan ke daavedaaron ki pankti mein doosare kramaank par aa gayeen. usi varshaant mein Edward 8 ne talaakashuda vailis Simpson se hone waali apni vivaadaaspad shaadi ke liye gaddi chhod di. [9] parinaamasvaroop elijaabeth ke pita James 6 raaja bane va elijaabeth raaj uttaraadhikaari. agar unke maataapita ko koi beta hota to vo uttaraadhikaar ki soochi mein apne bhaai se pichhad jaateen lekin aisa naheen hua aur vo hi James 6 ke baad England ki raani bani.[10]

1939 mein unke maata-pita shaahi yaatra par Canada va Australia gaye. tab elijaabeth itni lambi yaatraaeain karne ke lihaaj se bahut chhoti theen aur unhein London mein akele rukana pada.[11][12] unke maata-pita unase niyamit roop se vaartaalaap karte rahe the[12] aur unhonne 18 May ko pehla shaahi atalaantik-paar doorabhaash vaarta ki.[11]

vivaah va parivaar

elijaabeth apne hone vaale pati Rajkumar Phillip se 1934 aur 1937 mein mili theen.[13] filip unke door ke rishtedaar the. iske baad unki mulaakaat 1939 mein shaahi nausena mahaavidyaalaya mein hui. elijaabeth bataati hain ki 13 varsh ki hi umr mein unhein filip se prem ho gaya tha aur unhonne patra vyavahaar praarambh kar diya tha. [14] 9 July 1947 ko unke sagaai ki ghoshana hui thi. [15]

sagaai vivaadon se achhooti na rah saki: Phillip aarthik roop se kamjor the, ek videshi the (haalaanki unhonne shaahi nausena ke liye doosare vishvayuddh mein hissa liya tha.), aur unki bahanon ne naaji party se sambandh rakhane vaale jarman adhikaariyon se shaadiyaaain ki theen.[16] mairiyn krauford likhti hain ki raaja ke kuchh salaahakar unhein Rajkumari ke laayak naheen maanate the. vah bina saamraajya ke Rajkumar the. kuchh logon ne unke videshi hone par bhi bahut shor kiya. [17] elijaabeth ki maaain bhi unki bahanon ke jarman sambandh hone ki vajah se unhein pasand naheen karti theen.[18] haalaanki baad mein unki dhaarana badal gayi.[19]

vivaah se pehle Phillip ne apni yoonaani va dainish upaadhiyaaain tyaag Dean, greek roodhivaadi isaai se badal kar ainglikn ho gaye aur naamashaili lieutenant Phillip maauntabeten (Lieutenant Philip Mountbatten) dhaaran kar li. maauntabeten unki british maata ka paarivaarik upanaam tha. [20] vivaah ke kuchh hi samay pehle unhein edinbarg ka Duke bana diya gaya aur iske saath hi unke naam ke aage hij royal haaines ki shaahi upaadhi lag gayi.[21]

elijaabeth aur Phillip ka vivaah 20 November 1947 ko vestaminstar aibi mein hua. unhein duniya bhar se 2500 upahaar mile.[22]yuddh ke baad ke Britain mein jarman virodhi bhaavana itni jyaada thi ki edinbarg ke Duke ke jarman sanbandhiyon va rishtedaaron aur yahaaain tak ki unki teenon bahanon ko bhi vivaah mein nimantrit naheen kiya gaya tha.[23] Rajkumari ke taaoo va vindasar ke Duke, jo pehle raaja Edward 8 the ko bhi is vivaah mein naheen bulaaya gaya tha.[24]

shaasanakaal

raajyaabhishek

Elizabeth in crown and robes next to her husband in military uniform
elijaabeth 2 aur edinbargake Duke ka raajyaabhishek ke dauraan ka chitr, June 1953
elijaabeth 2 ka raajyaabhishek

1951 ke dauraan, jaurj 6 ka svaasthaya kharaab rahane laga tha aur is vajah se aksar elijaabeth unki anupasthiti mein saamoohik samaarohon mein unka pratinidhitv karti theen. October 1951 mein Canada ke apni sarkaari yaatra ke dauraan unki niji sahaayika ne apne saath unke raani hone ka ek ghoshanaapatr le gayi theen taaki unki yaatra ke dauraan raaja ki mrutyu ho jaane par Canada ki sarkaar ke dvaara elijaabeth ko UK ka shaasak maana jaae.[25] 1952 ke uttaraardh mein elijaabeth va Phillip kenya hote hue Australia va nyoojeelaind ki yaatra par gaye. 6 February 1952 ko kenya mein apne aavaas pahunchane par unhein raaja ki mrutyu ka samaachaar mila. Phillip ne yeh samaachaar apni patni ko diya.[26] unhein apne liye koi raajasi naam chunane ko kaha gaya aur unhonne elijaabeth naam rakhe rahana hi chuna. [27] raajyaabhishek hone tak unhein ghoshit raani maana gaya [28] aur London lautane par vah Phillip ke saath bakingham pailes mein rahane chali gayeen.[29]

choonki patni shaadi ke baad apne pati ka upanaam rakh leti hai isliye elijaabeth ke raajyaabhishek ke vakt aisa laga ki shaahi reetiyon aur itihaas ke maddenajr ab UK ke shaahi gharaane ka naam vindasar raajagharaana se badalkar unke pati ke upanaam par maauntabetan raajagharaana ho jaayega. british pradhaanamantri vinstan charchil aur elijaabeth ki daadi tech ki mairi ne shaahi gharaane ka naam vindasar raajagharaana rakhe rahane par hi jor diya. 9 April 1952 ko elijaabeth ne vindasar ko hi shaahi gharaana bane rahane ki ghoshana ki. Duke ne shikaayat ki ki vo desh mein ekamaatr aise purush hain jo apne bachchon ko apna naam bhi naheen de sakte.[30] 1960 mein, raani mairi ki 1953 mein mrutyu va charchil ke 1955 mein tyaagapatr dene ke baad elijaabeth aur Phillip ke beton va purush vanshajon jinhein koi bhi shaahi upaadhiyaaain naheen mili ya mileingi ke liye maauntabeten-vindasar ka upanaam apnaaya gaya.[31]

raajamaata mairi ke 24 March ko dehaant ke baavajood raajyaabhishek ka kaaryakram 2 June 1953 ko mairi ke ichhaanusaar kiya gaya.[32] raajatilk va paramaprasaad grahan karne ke alaava is samaaroh ka pehli baar dooradarshan par prasaaran hua.[33][c] raajyaabhishek ke vakt pahana hua unka gaaun naurman haartanel se mangavaaya gaya tha aur hone waali raani ke nirdesh par raashtrakul deshon ke foolon ke chinhon se sajaaya gaya tha.[37] England- tyoodar gulaab; Scott- kaaaintedaar paudha; vels hari pyaaj; aairish shaimarauk; Australiaee- vaital; kanaadiyaai chinaar ki patti; nyoojeelaind ka silver farn; dakshin afreeki protiya; Bhaarat aur selaun ka kamal ka fool aur Pakistani geinhoo, joot va kapaas ka paudha.[38]

raashtrakul ka vistaar

elijaabeth 2 ke shaasan ke shuruvaat mein british raashtrakul (gulaabi) aur saamraajya (laal) mein
A formal group of Elizabeth in tiara and evening dress with eleven politicians in evening dress or national costume.
elijaabeth 2 va raashtrakul deshon ke neta 1960 mein, vindasar kila

elijaabeth ke janm ke baad se hi british saamraajya ka raashtrakul ke deshon mein parivrtit hona jaari raha.[39] 1952 mein unke raajyaarohan ke pashchaat vibhinn svatantr raashtron ke adhyaksh ke roop mein unki bhoomika sthaapit ho chuki thi.[40] 1953–54 ke dauraan, raani aur unke pati 6 maheenon ki ek vishv yaatra par nikle. Australia va nyoojeelaind par shaasan ke dauraan vahaaain jaane waali vah pehli shaasak bani.[41] apne shaasanakaal ke dauraan elijaabeth ne bahut saare deshon va raashtrakul raashtron ka aadhikaarik daura kiya aur ek raashtraadhyaksh ke taur par vah sabse jyaada videshi yaatraaeain karne waali shaasak hain.[42]

Wikisource
vikisors mein elijaabeth dviteeya lekh se sambandhit mool saahitya hai.

1957 mein, aadhikaarik yaatra par vah America gayeen va raashtrakul deshon ki taraf se sayunkt raashtra sabha ko sambodhit kiya. usi yaatra ke dauraan unhonne Canada ke teisaveen sansad sabha ka uddhaatan kiya aur aisa karne waali pehli kanaadiyaai shaasak bani.[43] 2 saal baad Canada ki raani ke taur par unhonne ek baar fir America ka daura kiya va Canada mein apni praja se mileen.[43][44] 1961 mein unhonne saaipras, Bhaarat, Pakistan, Nepal aur iraan ka daura kiya. [45] usi varsh Ghana mein vahaaain ke svatantrata senaaniyon ke dvaara apni hatya ki aashankaaon ko darakinaar karte hue unhonne raani ke taur par apna farj nibhaane ki baat kahi aur Ghana ki yaatra par gayeen.

pradhaanamantri Edward heeth ke saath raani (baayeen or), ameriki raashtrapati richrd Nixon aur unki patni pait Nixon, 1970

apne sampoorn shaasanakaal mein sirf ke 1959 va 1963 mein garbhaadhaan[d] ke dauraan hi unhonne british sansad satr ka uddhaatan naheen kiya.[46] paaramparik samaaroohon mein hissa lete rahane ke saath saath unhonne nai paramparaaeain bhi sthaapit keen. Australia va nyoojeelaind ke 1970 ki apni yaatra mein unhonne pehli baar saamaanya logon se mulaakaatein keen.[47]

1960 aur 1970 ke dauraan british upanivesh se svatantrata paane vaale afreeki va kairebiyaai deshon ki sankhya mein teji se ijaafa hua. 20 se jyaada deshon ko Britain se svatantrata mili. 1965 mein rodeshiya ke pradhaanamantri iaan smith ne ektarfa svatantrata ki ghoshana kar di aur elijaabeth ke prati vafaadaari aur pratibaddhata ki baat bhi kahi. raani ne ek aupachaarik ghoshana mein smith ko barkhaast kar diya aur antarraashtreeya samooh ne rodeshiya par vibhinn tarah ki paabandiya laga Dean. [48] jaise jaise Britain ka apne puraane saamraajya se naata kamjor hota gaya Britain ne Europeeya sangh mein pravesh chaaha jo use 1973 mein mil gaya.[49]

rajat jayanti

1977 mein, elijaabeth ne apne shaasanakaal ki rajat jayanti manaai. raashtrakul mein daavaton aur aayojanon ka daur chala. in samaarohon ne raani ki lokapriyta ko aur sthaapit kiya.[50] agala varsh unke liye behad chaunkaane wala va dukhabhara raha jab raani ke chitrakaar va sarvekshak ainthoni blant ek saamavaadi jaasoos nikla va unke rishtedaar Louis maauntabetan ka aayarish Republican sena dvaara katl kar diya gaya..[51]

paul Joseph James Martin ke anusaar 1970 ke ant tak raani yeh maanane lag gain theen ki Canada ke pradhaanamantri trudyu ke liye Britain ki satta koi maayane naheen rakhati hai.[52][52]1980 mein kanaadiyaai samvidhaan ke british pitrusatta se alagaav ki charcha ke liye kanaadiyaai raajanetaaon ke London pravaas ke dauraan unhonne raani ko is vishay mein british netaaon ke mukaabale jyaada avagat va jaankaar paaya.[52] prastaav C-60 ke girne ke baad vah vyaktigat roop se is vishay mein roochi le rahi theen kyonki isse Canada mein unke raashtraadhyaksh ki bhoomika khatm hone waali thi.[52] kanaadiyaai samvidhaan par se british sansad ki pitrusatta hat gayi lekin raajashaahi barkaraar rahi. vahaaain ke pradhaanamantri trudyu ne apni yaadon mein kaha hai ki raani ne uske samvidhaan sansodhanon ka samarthan kiya tha aur vah unki buddhimtta se behad prabhaavit tha.[53]

nabbe ka dashak

Elizabeth in red uniform on a black horse
1986 mein trooping the kalar samaaroh mein barmeej naamak apne ghode ki savaari karateen elijaabeth

1981 mein Rajkumar Charles va ledi daaena speinsar ke vivaah se 6 hafte pehle trooping the kalar samaaroh ke dauraan mahaaraani par paas se 6 goliyaaain chalaai gayeen theen. police ne baad mein pata kiya ki goliyaaain nakali theen. aakramanakaari 17 varsheeya maarkas saarjeint ko 5 varsh ke kaaraavaas ki saja hui jise 3 varsh baad mukt kar diya gaya.[54] is dauraan mahaaraani ke shaantachitt rahane va apne ghode va jeen ko sambhaale rakhane ke kaushal ki jam kar prashansa hui.[55] April se sitmbar 1982 ke dauraan mahaaraani apne bete Rajkumar aindrayoo jo us samay faukalaind ka yuddh mein british senaaon ki taraf se lad rahe the, ko lekar thodi chintit[56] lekin gaurvaanvit[57] rahati theen. 9 July ko raani ke bankingham pailes mein sthit kamre mein ek ghusapaithiya, Michael fagan pahunch gaya. 7 minute baad surakshaakarmeeyon ke aane se pehle tak raani ne shaantachitt rahate hue use baaton mein ulajhaae rakha.[58] haalaanki unhonne ronaald Reagan ka 1982 mein vindasar kile mein svaagat kiya tha aur swayam bhi unke California sthit faurmahaaus ja chuki theen, ameriki prashaasan ke raani ke shaasan vaale ek kairibiyaai raajya grenaada par unhein bina soochit kiye aakraman karne se behad kruddh ho gayeen.[59]

1990-2000 ka dashak

1991 mein, khaadi yuddh ke jeet ki khushi mein ameriki sansad ke sanyukt satr ko sambodhit karne waali vo pehli angrej shaasak theen.[60]

Elizabeth, in formal dress, holds a pair of spectacles to her mouth in a thoughtful pose
Rajkumar filip aur elijaabeth II, October 1992

24 November 1992 ko apne raajyaabhishek ki chaaleesaveen varshagaaainth par ek sambodhan mein unhonne 1992 ko apne liye ek bhayaavah varsh bataaya.[61] March mein unke doosare putr Rajkumar endryu, yaurk ke Duke aur unki patni saarau, yaurk ki dachej ka talaak ho gaya tha; April mein, unki beti aine, shaahi rajaakumaari ka bhi apne pati kaptaan mark filips se alagaav ho gaya.[62]; October mein jrmani ke apne ek raajasi daure par dresaden mein kruddh pradarshanakaariyon ne unapar ande feinke.[63] aur November mein vindasar kile ko aag se bahut nuksaan pahuncha tha. raajasatta ko bahut jyaada nakaaraatmak chhavi va janta ke gusse va dilchaspi ka saamana karna pada tha.[64] ek asanbhaavit vyaktigat sambodhan mein raani ne kaha ki sansthaan ko jan aalochanaaon ka sammaan karna chaahiye. lekin aalochanaaon ko bhi halke andaaj mein sabhya tareekon va samajhadaari se kiye jaane ki aavashyakta hai.[65] do din baad pradhaanamantri John major ne shaahi aay mein sudhaaron ki ghoshana ki, ismein raani dvaara pehli baar 1993 se kar diye jaane ka praavadhaan tha.[66] December mein, Charles, vels ke Rajkumar aur unki patni daaena, vels ki Rajkumari aadhikaarik roop se alag ho gaye.[67] varshaant mein raani ne the san naamak akhbaar pe kaupeeraait ullanghan ka mukadama daayar kiya jab samaachaar patra ne unke vaarshik shaahi christmas sandesh ke kuchh ansh uske shaahi aadhikaarik prasaaran se do din pehle hi prakaashit kar diye. samaachaarapatr ko unke vakeel ka shulk dena pada aur £a200,000 chairiti ko dene pade.[68]

aagaami varshon mein Charles aur daaena ke sambandhon ke baare mein saarvajanik khulaase hote rahe.[69] in varshon mein Britain mein ganatantr pranaali ki maang lagaataar uthati rahi lekin raani ki lokapriyta bhi bani rahi va unki raajashaahi ko koi khatra naheen utpann hua. [70] aalochanaaon ka kendra raani ke vyavahaar va kshamataaon se jyaada raajasatta va shaahi raajagharaane ke sadasyon par jyaada aadhaarit thi. [71] apne pati, pradhaanamantri, kaintarabari ke aarkabishp aur apne niji sahaayak se salaah ke pashchaat unhonne Charles aur daaena ko likha ki ab unka talaak lena jaroori ho gaya hai. [72] talaak ke ek saal baad jo 1996 mein hua tha daaena ki 31 August 1997 ko peris mein sadak durghatana mein mrutyu ho gayi. raani apne bete aur poton ke saath baalamoral mahal mein chhuttiyaaain bita rahi theen. daaena ke dono bete is mauke par church jaana chaahate the jahaaain raani aur Charles unhein le gaye.[73] is akele saarvajanik upasthiti ke baad raani aur Rajkumar ne paaainch dinon tak William aur Harry ko baalamoral mein press se bacha kar rakha taaki vo apni maaain ki mrutyu ka shok mana sakein.[74]lekin raaj-parivaar ke ekaantavaas aur bakingham mahal par british jhande ko shok mein aadha na jhukaae rakhane par janaata ke gusse ka shikaar hona pada.[75] janabhaavana ke aage jhukate hue raani ne vishv ko London lautakar daaena ke antim sanskaar ke ek din poorv 5 sitmbar ko diye ek seedhe prasaarit hue sandesh mein unhonne daaena va unke bachchon ke prati apni premapoorn bhaavanaaon ka ijahaara kiya.[76][77] parinaamasvaroop janta ka virodh shaant hua.[77]

svarn jayanti

In evening wear, Elizabeth and President Bush hold wine glasses of water and smile
elijaabeth II aur jaurj dablyu. bush white house mein raajakeeya bhoj ke dauraan, 7 May 2007
एलिज़ाबेथ और दर्शक
elijaabeth II (madhya mein, gulaabi rang) ek chahal-kadami ke dauraan kveens park, Toronto mein, 6 July 2010

2002 mein, elijaabeth ne apne shaasanakaal ki svarn jayanti poori ki. unki bahan aur maaain ka February aur March mein nidhan ho gaya. media svarn jayanti ke samaarohon ko lekar sashankit thi.[78] unhonne jamaika se shuru karke apne raashtramandal ke daure kiye.

haalaanki vah aajeevan svasth raheen, 2003 mein unke ghutanon ka operation hua.

May 2007 mein vah pradhaanamantri toni bleyar ki neetiyon se vo khafa theen. british senaaon ki Afghanistan va iraak mein jaroorat se jyaada samay tak tainaati se bhi vah chintit theen.[79] haalaanki uttari Ireland mein shaanti bahaali ke bleyar ke prayaason ki unhonne taareef keen.[80]May 2011 mein aairish raashtrapati mairi maikelsi ke nimantran par Ireland ganaraajya ki aadhikaarik yaatra par jaane waali vo pehli british raani bani.[81]

mahaaraani ne 2010 mein ek baar fir sayunkt raashtra mahaasabha ko raashtrakul deshon va british riyaasaton ke adhyaksh ke taur par sambodhit kiya.[82] sayunkt raashtra adhyaksh, baan ki moon ne unka yug ka sahaara ("an anchor for our age") ke taur par parichay karavaaya.[83] New York ki apni yaatra ke dauraan unhonne 11 sitmbar 2001 ke hamle mein maare gaye british logon ki yaad mein ek udyaan ka udghaatan kiya.[83] October 2011 mein Australia ki unki yaatra jo 1954 ke baad se 16veeain yaatra thi ko press dvaara unki jyaada umr ki vajah se vidaai yaatra ka naam diya gaya.[84]

heerak jayanti

2012 mein raani ke 60 varshon ke shaasanakaal ko elijaabeth ki heerak jayanti ke taur par manaaya gaya. sabhi riyaasaton mein jashn samaaroh aayojit kiye gaye. raajyaarohan diwas par diye apne ek sambodhan mein unhonne kaha ki is vishesh varsh mein jab main swayam ko ek baar fir aapki seva mein samarpit kar rahi hooain, ummeed karti hooain ki ham sab parivaar, mitr va padosiyon ke saath aur ekta mein nihit shakti ko yaad rakheinge..... main is baat ki bhi ummeed karti hooain ki yeh jayanti varsh garmajoshi se bhavishya ki or dekhne aur 1952 se abhi tak hue vibhinn mahaan badlaavon ke liye ishvar ko dhanyavaad dene ka bhi samay laaya hai[85] unhonne apne pati ke saath is mauke par poore United Kingdom ki yaatra ki aur unke bachchon va naati poton ne unke pratinidhi ke taur par unki anya riyaasaton va raashtrakul deshon ki yaatra ki.[86][87] 4 June ko jayanti varsh ke sammaan mein duniya bhar mein mashaalein jalaai gayeen.[88]

raani ne 2012 greeshmakaaleen olympic ki shuruvaat 27 July aur 2012, greeshmakaaleen pairaalampiks ki shuruvaat 29 August 2012 ko London mein ki. iske pehle vah 1976 ke greeshmakaaleen olympic ka mauntriyl mein udghaatan kar chuki hain. do deshon mein do olampikon ka udghaatan karne waali vo akeli raashtraadhyaksh hain.[89] London olympic ke udghaatan samaaroh ke dauraan chalaae gaye ek chalachitr mein unhonne James bond ka kirdaar nibhaane vaale dainiyl kreg ke saath ek chhoti si bhoomika bhi nibhaai thi.[90] film udyog ke prati apne utsaahavardhak vyavahaar ke liye 4 April 2013 ko unhein baafta puraskaar se sammaanit kiya gaya.[91]

badhati umr va kam yaatraaeain karne ke chikitsakeeya sujhaavon par amal karne ki vajah se vah 2013 mein Sri Lanka mein aayojit hue raashtramandal samaaroh mein hissa na le sakeen, unki jagah unke putr Rajkumar Charles ne is sabha ki adhyakshata ki. 1973 se vo iski adhyakshata lagaataar karti raheen theen.[92]

mahaaraani, December 2007 mein apni paradaadi mahaaraani Victoria ke baad sabse jyaada samay tak jeevit rahane waali va 9 sitmbar 2015 ko sabse jyaada samay tak british saamraajya par shaasan karne waali british raashtraadhyaksh bani. [93] is keertimaan ke saath-saath unhein vishv itihaas mein sabse lambe samay tak shaasan karne waali mahaaraani ka bhi khitaab haasil ho gaya hai.[94] unka abhi bhi raajapaath tyaagane ka koi iraada naheen hai[95] jabki Rajkumar Charles ka mahaaraani jo 2016 mein 90 varsh ki ho jaayeingi ke pratinidhi ke taur par shaahi kartavyon ko nibhaane ke mauke badhate hi raheinge.[96]


upanaam, shailiyaaain, upaadhiyaaain va kul-chinh

upanaam va naamakaran shaili

elijaabeth ne raashtrakul mein tamaam upaadhiyaaain va sammaanajanak sainya sthaan arjit kiye hain. unhein desh-videsh se vibhinn prakaar ke naamakaran alankaaron va sammaanajanak upaadhiyon se navaaja gaya hai. apni har riyaasat mein unki ek alag upaadhi hai jinki shaili ek hi hai: jaise jamaika mein kveen of jamaika end har adar riyaalms end teritreej arthaat jamaika va apne anya riyaasaton ki mahaaraani. Australia mein kveen of Australia end har adar riyaalms end teritreej ityaadi. channel dweep aur aail of main jo alag riyaasatein hone ke bajaae kendra shaasit ya taaj par nirbhar raajya (kraaun dipendenseej) hain vahaaain unhein kramash: naurmaindi ki Duke va main ka Lord ki upaadhi mili hui hai. anya shailiyaaain hain aastha ka rakhavaala aur lankaastar ke Duke. mahaaraani se baat karte hue ya unhein sambodhit karte hue unhein yor maijesti aur uske baad maim kaha jaata hai.[97]

kul-chinh

inhein bhi dekhein: elijaabeth 2 ke jhande

21 April 1944 se unke raajyaabhishek tak elijaabeth ke jhande mein lojeinj hota tha jispe United Kingdom ka kul chinh bana rahata tha jo teen binduon vaale nishaan mein banta rahata tha. inmein se pehle va teesare seint George ke kraus va madhya bindu ek tyoodar gulaab hota tha.[98] raajyaabhishek ke baad, unhonne apne pita dvaara istemaal kiye ja rahe vibhinn kul-chinhon ko apne jhande mein viraasat ke taur par shaamil kar liya.[99]

Coat of Arms of Elizabeth, Heiress Presumptive (1944-1947).svg
Coat of Arms of Elizabeth, Duchess of Edinburgh (1947-1952).svg
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (Scotland).svg
Coat of arms of Canada (1957-1994).svg
Rajkumari elijaabeth ka shaahi chinh (1944–1947)
edinbarg ki dachej va Rajkumari elijaabeth ka shaahi chinh (1947–1952)
yoonaaited Kingdom mein mahaaraani elijaabeth II ka shaahi chinh (Scotland shaamil naheen)
Scotland mein mahaaraani elijaabeth II ka shaahi chinh
Canada mein mahaaraani elijaabeth II ka shaahi chinh (shaasanakaal mein istemaal hua 3 mein se ek sanskaran)[e]

santaane

naam janm vivaah unke bachche unke naati-pote
dinaank jeevanasaathi
Charles, vels ke Rajkumar 14 November 1948 29 July 1981
talaak 28 August 1996
ledi daaena spensar Rajkumar William, kaimbrij ke Duke George, kaimbrij ke Rajkumar
chaarlote, kaimbrij ki Rajkumari
vels ke Rajkumar Harry
9 April 2005 kaimila paarkar bauuls
Rajkumari aine, shaahi Rajkumari 15 August 1950 14 November 1973
talaak 28 April 1992
mark filips Peter filips saavanna filips
isla filips
jaara filips miaa tindal
12 December 1992 Timothy Lawrence
Rajkumar endrayu, yaurk ke Duke 19 February 1960 23 July 1986
talaak 30 May 1996
saaraah fargusan beetris, yaurk ki Rajkumari
yugin, yaurk ki Rajkumari
Rajkumar Edward, veseks ke arl 10 March 1964 19 June 1999 Sophie, veseks ki kaauntes ledi luij vindasar
James, viskauunt sevarn

poorvaj

yeh bhi dekhein

tippaniyaaain

  1. ab Sri Lanka ke naam se jaana jaata hai.
  2. unke gaudapaireint the: raaja George pancham va raani mairi, Lord straithamor; Rajkumar aarthar, buaa mairi, Rajkumari aur heyaravud ki kaauntes aur mausi mairi elfinston.[2]
  3. dooradarshan par raajyaabhishek samaaroh ke prasaaran ne sanchaar ke is maadhyam ki lokapriyta ko kai guna badha diya.[34]20 lakh se jyaada logon ne is samaaroh ko apne mitron va rishtedaaron ke ghar pehli baar dooradarshan par dekha.[35] America mein ek karon logon ne is samaaroh ki rikaarded prasaaran dekha.[36]
  4. Rajkumar aindrayu aur Rajkumar Edward
  5. unke shaasanakaal ke dauraan Canada mein kul-chinh ke 3 saskaran istemaal hue hain. yeh sanskaran 1957 se 1994 ke dauraan istemaal hua.[100]

sandarbh

  1. Hoey, p. 40
  2. braindarth, pru. 103; hoe, pru. 40
  3. braindarth, pru. 103
  4. krauford, pru. 26; pimlaut, pru. 20; shaukraus, pru. 21
  5. braindarth, pru. 108–110; lesi, pru. 159–161; pimlaut, pru. 20, 163
  6. braindarth, pru. 108–110
  7. braindarth, pru. 105–106
  8. baund, pru. 8; lesi, pru. 76; pimlaut, pru. 3
  9. lesi, pru. 97–98
  10. maar, pru. 78, 85; pimlaut, pru. 71–73
  11. a aa Pimlott, p. 54
  12. a aa Pimlott, p. 55
  13. braindarth, pru. 132–139; lesi, pru. 124–125; pimlaut, pru. 86
  14. baund, pru. 10; braindareth pru. 132–136, 166–169; lesi, pru. 119, 126, 135
  15. held, pru. 77
  16. Edwards, fil (31 October 2000). "The Real Prince Philip". channel 4. http://www.channel4.com/history/microsites/R/real_lives/prince_philip_t.html. abhigman tithi: 23 sitmbar 2009.
  17. krauford, pru. 180
  18. Davis, kairolin (20 April 2006). "Philip, the one constant through her life". the teleegraaf (London). http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1400208/Philip-the-one-constant-through-her-life.html. abhigman tithi: 23 sitmbar 2009.
  19. heeld, pru. xviii
  20. hoe, pru. 55–56; pimlaut, pru. 101, 137
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  24. braidaford, pru. 61
  25. braindareth, pru. 240–241; lesi, pru. 166; pimlaut, pru. 169–172
  26. braindareth, pru. 245–247; lesi, pru. 166; pimlaut, pru. 173–176; shaukraus, pru.16
  27. bauujfeeld & tofauli, pru. 72; kaarteris ka pimlaut ke pru. 179 mein uddharan aur shaukraus pru. 17
  28. pimlaut , pru. 178–179
  29. pimlaut , pru. 186–187
  30. braidaford, pru. 80; braindareth, pru. 253–254; lesi, pru. 172–173; pimlaut, pru. 183–185
  31. London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 41948, p. 1003, 5 February 1960. Retrieved 19 June 2010.
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  35. briggs, pru. 420 ff.; pimlaut, pru. 207; raubarts, p. 82
  36. lesi, pru. 182
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  49. braidaford, pru. 123, 154, 176; pimlaut, pru. 301, 315–316, 415–417
  50. pimlaut, pru. 449
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  56. bond, pru. 115; pimlaut, pru. 487
  57. shaukraus, pru. 127
  58. lesi, pru. 297–298; pimlaut, pru. 491
  59. baund, pru. 188; pimlaut, pru. 497
  60. pimlaut, pru. 538
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  64. braindareth, pru. 377; pimlaut, pru. 558–559; raubarts, pru. 94; shaukraus, pru. 204
  65. braindareth, pru. 377
  66. braidaford, pru. 229; lesi, pru. 325–326; pimlaut, pru. 559–561
  67. braidaford, pru. 226; haardamain, pru. 96; lesi, pru. 328; pimlaut, pru. 561
  68. pimlaut, pru. 562
  69. braindareth, pru. 356; pimlaut, pru. . 572–577; raubarts, pru. 94; shaukraus, pru. 168
  70. the indipeindeintsamaachaarapatr ke liye mori ka sarvekshan, March 1996, pimlaut ke pru. 578 mein sandarbhit aur O'sulivaan, Jack (5 March 1996). "Watch out, the Roundheads are back". the indipeindeint. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/watch-out-the-roundheads-are-back-1340396.html. abhigman tithi: 17 sitmbar 2011.
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  72. braindareth, pru. 357; pimlaut, pru. 577
  73. braindareth, pru. 358; haardamain, pru. 101; pimlaut, pru. 610
  74. baund, pru. 134; braindareth, pru. 358; mauऱ, pru. 338; pimlaut, pru. 615
  75. baund, pru. 134; braindareth, pru. 358; lesi, pru. 6–7; pimlaut, pru. 616; raubarts, pru. 98; shaukraus, pru. 8
  76. braindareth, pru. 358–359; lesi, pru. . 8–9; pimlaut, pru. 621–622
  77. a aa baund, pru. 134; braindareth, pru 359; lesi, pru. 13–15; pimlaut, pru. 623–624
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sandarbh granth

sabhi pustakein angreji mein

  • baund, Jenny (2006). Elizabeth: Eighty Glorious Years. London: Carlton Publishing Group. ISBN 1-84442-260-7
  • baaujfeeld, aarthar; tofoli, Gary(2002). Fifty Years the Queen. Toronto: Dundurn Press. ISBN 1-55002-360-8
  • braidaford, saaraah (2012). Queen Elizabeth II: Her Life in Our Times. London: Penguin. ISBN 978-0-670-91911-6
  • braindareth, gaails (2004). Philip and Elizabeth: Portrait of a Marriage. London: Century. ISBN 0-7126-6103-4
  • brigs, esa (1995). The History of Broadcasting in the United Kingdom: Volume 4. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-212967-8
  • Campbell, John (2003). Margaret Thatcher: The Iron Lady. London: Jonathan Cape. ISBN 0-224-06156-9
  • krauford, mairiyn (1950). The Little Princesses. London: Cassell & Co.
  • Hardman, Robert (2011). Our Queen. London: Hutchinson. ISBN 978-0-09-193689-1
  • Heald, Tim (2007). Princess Margaret: A Life Unravelled. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 978-0-297-84820-2
  • Hoey, Brian (2002). Her Majesty: Fifty Regal Years. London: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-00-653136-9
  • Lacey, Robert (2002). Royal: Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II. London: Little, Brown. ISBN 0-316-85940-0
  • Macmillan, Harold (1972). Pointing The Way 1959–1961 London: Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-12411-1
  • Marr, Andrew (2011). The Diamond Queen: Elizabeth II and Her People. London: Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-74852-1
  • Neil, Andrew (1996). Full Disclosure. London: Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-64682-7
  • Nicolson, Sir Harold (1952). King George the Fifth: His Life and Reign. London: Constable & Co.
  • Petropoulos, Jonathan (2006). Royals and the Reich: the princes von Hessen in Nazi Germany. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-516133-5
  • Pimlott, Ben (2001). The Queen: Elizabeth II and the Monarchy. London: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-00-255494-1
  • Roberts, Andrew; Edited by Antonia Fraser (2000). The House of Windsor. London: Cassell & Co. ISBN 0-304-35406-6
  • Shawcross, William (2002). Queen and Country. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart. ISBN 0-7710-8056-5
  • Thatcher, Margaret (1993). The Downing Street Years. London: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-00-255049-0
  • Trudeau, Pierre Elliott (1993). Memoirs. Toronto: McLelland & Stewart. ISBN 0-7710-8588-5
  • Williamson, David (1987). Debrett's Kings and Queens of Britain. Webb & Bower. ISBN 0-86350-101-X
  • Wyatt, Woodrow; Edited by Sarah Curtis (1999). The Journals of Woodrow Wyatt: Volume II. London: Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-77405-1

baahari kadiyaaain