ekeekrut paripth

aitamel (Atmel) ki ek aaisi jismein smruti block, nivesh nirgam (input-outaput) evam tark ke block dekhe ja sakte hain. yeh ek hi chip mein poora tantr (System on Chip) hai.
sookshmachip (microchip) company ki iprom (EPROM) smruti ke ekeekrut paripth
aadhunik sarafes maaunt aaisi

elektrauniki mein ekeekrut paripth ya ekeepari (inteegreted sarkit (IC)) ko sookshmaparipth (maaikrosarkit), sookshmachip, silikaun chip, ya keval chip ke naam se bhi jaana jaata hai. yeh ek ardhachaalak padaarth ke andar bana hua elektraunik paripth hi hota hai jismein pratirodh, sandhaaritr aadi paisiv kamponent (nishkriya ghatak) ke alaava daayod, traanjistar aadi ardhachaalak avayav nirmit kiye jaate hain. jis prakaar saamaanya paripth ka nirmaan alag-alag (diskreet) avayav jodkar kiya jaata hai, aaisi ka nirmaan vaise na karke ek ardhachaalak ke bheetar sabhi avayav ek saath hi ek vishisht prakriya ka paalan karte hue nirmit kar diye jaate hain. ekeekrut paripth aajkal jeevan ke har kshetr mein upayog mein laaye ja rahe hain. inke kaaran elektraanik upakaranon ka aakaar atyant chhota ho gaya hai, unki kaarya kshamata bahut adhik ho gayi hai evam unki shakti ki jaroorat bahut kam ho gayi hai.

sankar ekeekrut paripth bhi laghu aakaar ke ekeepari (ekeekrut paripth) hote hain kintu ve alag-alag avayavon ko ek chhote board par jodkar evam epauksi aadi mein jadkar (imbed karke) banaaye jaate hain. at: ye monolithik I si se bhinn hain.

anukram

parichay

sookshmachip, ekeepari ki ek chip hoti hai, jo ki silikaun se bani hoti hai. yeh progaam laujik aur computer memori ke liye banaai jaati hai. vartamaan mein sookshmachip computer, mobile, peedeee aur maaikrovev ovan sahit kai electronic upakaranon ka aavashyak ang ban chuki hain.[1] sookshmachip apne 50 varsho ki yaatra poorn kar chuki hai. 1958 mein iska avishkaar Robert nauyas aur Jack kilbe ne kiya tha. ye donon alag-alag companiyon mein kaam karte the aur donon hi companiyaan is shodh ko apne drushtikon se kar rahi thi. is shodh ke uparaant baad donon hi companiyon ne iske peteint ke liye aavedan kiya. baad mein donon companiyon ko sammilit roop se iska license diya gaya aur iska sammilt peteint diya gaya. pehli baar sookshmachip 1961 mein logon ko upalabdh hui. jik kilbe ne hi baad mein portebal kailakuletar ka aavishkaar kiya. tab se lekar ab tak sookshmachip mein kai badlaav aa chuke hain. pehli sookshmachip mein jahaan ek traanjistar, ek kaipesitr aur teen rajistar the, vaheen aaj ki sookshmachip mein ek chhote si jagah mein lagbhag 125 million traanjistar samaae hote hain.

sookshmachip ke kai aur laabh bhi hain. vartamaan mein sookshmachip ka prayog jaivik pranaaliyon (bauyolaujikl system) mein hota hai. iska prayog jeevan bachaane mein bhi hone laga hai. hrudaya rogiyon ke liye pesamekar mein bhi sookshmachip rahati hai. pesamekar hrudaya gati niytrint rakhata hai. sookshmachip ka prayog ghadiyon, mobile phone se lekar space shatal tak mein ho raha hai.

itihaas

san 1947 mein traanjistar ke aavishkaar ke baad ekeepari (ekeekrut paripth) ke ke vikaas ka raasta saaf ho gaya tha. san 1958-59 mein do vyaktiyon ne lagbhag ek hi tarah ki I si lagbhag ek hi samay viksit ki. ve alag-alag kaam kar rahe the aur ek-doosare ke kaam se anbhigya the. ye vyakti the - Texas instrooments mein kaaryarat Jack kilbi (Jack Kilby) aur feyarachaaild semeekandaktar Corporation ke sah-sansthaapak Robert nauyas (Robert Noyce). dono hi vidyut engineer the aur dono hi is baat ka hal nikaalne mein jute he the ki anekaanek sankhyaaon vaale paripthon ko kaise vishvasaneeya roop se nirmit kiya jaaya aur unka aakaar kaise chhota kiya jaaya. aaj ham kah sakte hain ki yadi traansistar ka aavishkaar na hota to ekeepari na hota; aur ekeepari na hota to computer aur anya elektraunik upakaran na hote jinka paripth karodon-arabon avayavon se bana hota hai.

laabh

ekeepari (ekeekrut paripth) ke vikaas se nimnalikhit laabh hote hain-

  • laakhon, karodon ya arabon avayavon vaale paripth bhi vishvasaneeya roop se kaam karte hain.
  • itne saare avayavon (components) ko aapas mein jodne me lagne wala samay ab naheen lagta.
  • paripth ka aakaar bahut chhota ho jaata hai jisse chhote aakaar ke elektraunik cheejein banaayi ja sakateen hain.
  • bade paripth is prakaar yojana kiye ja sakte hain ki ve kam se kam shakti (power) se kaam kar sakein.

vargeekaran

aaisi dvaara prasanskrut sanket ke aadhaar par-

ekeekrut paripthon ko unke andar ke paripth ki prakruti ke aadhaar par teen bhaagon mein baanta jaata hai-

  • enaalaug aaisi (Analog IC) - jinka paripth kisi enaalaug prakruti ke kaam ke liye bana hota hai. jaise uA741 (aapareshanal emplifaayar) ek enaalaug aaisi hai.
  • digital aaisi (Digital IC) - jinka paripth aankik prakruti ka hota hai. sabhi laujik aaisi, maaikroprosesar, DSP aadi digital aaisi hai.
  • mishrit sanket aaisi (Mixed signal IC) - in ekeekrut paripthon par enaulaug aur digital dono hi paripth maujood hote hain. udaaharan ke liye kuchh maaikrokantrolaron par dono tarah ke paripth hote hain. edeesi (ADC) tatha deeesi (DAC) ke ekeepari (ekeekrut paripth) is shreni mein aate hain.
traanjistaron ki sankhya ke aadhaar par-

digital ekeekrut paripthon ko unamein prayukt traanjistaron ki sakhya ke aadhaar par smaal skel inteegreted (SSI), midiym skel inteegreted (MSI), laarj skel inteegreted (LSI), veri laarj skel inteegreted (VLSI), ultra laarj skel inteegreted (ULSI) aadi mein baanta jaata hai.

nirmaan praudyogiki ke aadhaar par-
kisi paripth mein lagi ek sankar (haaibrid) aaisi (naarangi rang ki epauksi mein)
  • monolithik aaisi (monolithic ICs)
  • thik film aaisi (Thick fil ICs)
  • thin film aaisi (Thin film ICs)
  • haaibrid ya malteechip aaisi (Hybrid or multi-chip ICs)

kuchh prasiddh ekeekrut paripth

  • 555 taaimar aaisi - lokapriya taaimar aaisi hai. yeh anya kaamon ke alaava mukhyat: A-stebal malteevaaibretar evam mono-stebal malteevaaibretar banaane ke liye kaam aata hai.
  • 741 operational pravardhak
  • 7400 series TTL logic building blocks (taarkik nirmaan block)
  • 4000 series, the CMOS counterpart to the 7400 series
  • MOS Technology 6502 aur Zilog Z80 maaikroprosesar jo 1980 ke dashak mein anekon ghareloo kampyootaron mein prayukt hue.

inhein bhi dekhein

saamaanya vishay
  • computer abhiyaantriki
  • vidyut abhiyaantriki
sambandhit yuktiyaan evam shabd
  • emaemaaaisi
  • haayabrid inteegreted sarkit
  • printed sarkit board
  • inteegreted sarkit vaikyoom tube
IC device technologies
  • Integrated injection logic
  • Transistor–transistor logic (TTL)
  • Bipolar junction transistor
  • Emitter-coupled logic (ECL)
  • mausafet
  • NMOS
  • seemaus
  • BiCMOS
  • BCDMOS
  • GaAs
  • SiGe
  • Mixed-signal integrated circuit
  • RC delay
Other
  • Chip art
  • Memristor
  • Microcontroller
  • Moore's law
  • Semiconductor manufacturing
  • Simulation
  • Sound chip
  • SPICE, HDL, Automatic test pattern generation
  • ZIF
  • DatasheetArchive
  • Three-dimensional integrated circuit

sandarbh

  1. sookshmachip. Hindustan live. 21 December 2009

baahari kadiyaaain

saamaanya

Author S.P. Marsh

shravya-drushya (Audio video)

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