ekaanki

ek ank vaale naatakon ko ekaanki kehte hain. angreji ke "van aikt play" shabd ke liye hindi mein "ekaanki naatak" aur "ekaanki" donon hi shabdon ka samaan roop se vyavahaar hota hai.

pashchim mein ekaanki 20 veen shataabdi mein, visheshat: pratham mahaayuddh ke baad, atyant prachalit aur lokapriya hua. hindi aur anya bhaarateeya bhaashaaon mein usaka vyaapak prachalan is shataabdi ke chauthe dashak mein hua.

iska yeh arth naheen ki ekaanki saahitya ki sarvatha aabhijaatyaheen vidha hai. poorv aur pashchim donon ke naatya saahitya mein uske niktavarti roop milte hain. saskrunt naatyashaastr mein naayak ke charit, itivrutt, ras aadi ke aadhaar par roopakon aur uparoopakon ke jo bhed kiye gaye unamein se anek ko dau॰ keeth ne ekaanki naatak kaha hai. is prakaar "dasharoopak" aur "saahityadarpan" mein varnit vyaayog, prahasan, bhaag, veethi, naatika, goshthi, sattak, naatayaraasak, prakaashika, ullaapya, kaavya preinkhan, shreegadit, vilaasika, prakaranika, halleesh aadi roopakon aur uparoopakon ko aadhunik ekaanki ke nikat sambandhi kehna anuchit na hoga. "saahityadarpan mein "ekaank" shabd ka prayog bhi hua hai :

bhaan : syaad dhoortacharito naanaavasthaantaraatmak :.

ekaank ek evaatr nipun : pandito vit:..

aur

khyaatetivrutto vyaayog: svalpastreejanasanyut:.

heeno garbhavimrshaabhyaan narairbahubhiraashrit:..

ekaankakashch bhavet‌...

pashchim ke naatyasaahitya mein aadhunik ekaanki ka sabse praarambhik aur aviksit kintu niktavarti roop "intaralyood' hai. 15veen aur 16veen shataabdiyon mein prachalit sadaachaar aur naitik shikshaapoorn angreji morailiti naatakon ke kore upadesh se paida hui oob ko door karne ke liye prahasanapoorn ansh bhi jod diye jaate hain. aise hi khand intaralyood kahe jaate the. kramash: ye morailiti naatakon se svatantr ho gaye aur ant mein unki parinti vyangya-vinod-pradhaan teen paatron ke chhote naatakon mein hui.

"karten rejr' ya patonnaayak kaha jaanevaala ekaanki, jiski tulana sanskrut naatakon ke arthopakshepak ya prekshanak se ki ja sakti hai, pashchim mein aadhunik ekaankiyon ka niktatam poorvavarti tha. raatri mein der se khaana khaane ke baad rangashaalaaon mein aanevaale sanbhraant saamaajikon ke kaaran samay se aanevaale saadhaaran saamaajikon ko badi asuvidha hoti thi. rangashaalaaon ke maalikon ne is beech saadhaaran saamaajikon ko manoranjan mein vyast rakhane ke liye dvipaatreeya prahasanapoorn samvaad prastut karna shuroo kiya. is prakaar ke svatantr samvaad ko hi "karten rejr' kaha jaata tha. ismein kathaanak evam jeevan ke yathaarth aur naatakeeya dvandv ka abhaav rahata tha. baad mein "karten rejr' ke sthaan par yathaarth jeevan ko lekar sugathit kathaanak aur naatakeeya dvandvavaale chhote naatak prastut kiye jaane lage. inke vikaas ka agala kadam aadhunik ekaanki tha.

ekaanki itna lokapriya ho utha ki bade naatakon ki raksha karne ke liye vyaavasaayik rangashaalaaon ne use apne yahaaain se nikaalna shuroo kiya. lekin usamein prayog aur vikaas ki sambhaavnaaon ko dekhkar pashchim ke kai deshon mein avyaavasaayik aur prayogaatmak rangamancheeya aandolanon ne use apna liya. London, peris, barlin, dablin, Chicago, New York aadi ne is nae dhang ke naatak aur uske rangamanch ko aage badhaaya. iske atirikt ekaanki naatak ko pashchim ke anek mahaan‌ ya sammaanit lekhakon ka bal mila. aise lekhakon mein roos ke chekhv, gorki aur ekareenov, France ke jiraaudo, saartr aur enaail, Germany ke taalar aur brekht, Italy ke piraindeli tatha England, Ireland aur amareeka ke aaskar wild, gaalsavardi, J.M.bairi, laard danasaini, sinj, shiaaain O' KC, yoojeen O'neel, noel kaavard, ti.S.iliyt, kristofr fraai, graiham green, Miller aadi ke naam ullekhaneeya hain. rangamancheeya aandolanon aur in lekhakon ke sammilit evam adamya prayogaatmak saahas aur utsaah ke falasvaroop aadhunik ekaanki sarvatha nai, svatantr aur suspasht vidha ke roop mein pratishthit hua. unki krutiyon ke aadhaar par ekaanki naatakon ki saamaanya visheshataaon ka adhyayan kiya ja sakta hai.

anukram

rachanaavidhaan

satah par hi bade naatakon aur ekaankiyon ka aakaaragat antar spasht ho jaata hai. ekaanki naatak saadhaaranat: 20 se lekar 30 minute mein pradarshit kiye ja sakte hain, jabki teen, chaar ya paaainch ankonvaale naatakon ke pradarshan mein kai ghante lagte hain. lekin bade naatakon aur ekaankiyon ka aadhaarbhoot antar aakaaraatmak na hokar rachanaatmak hai. pashchim ke teen se lekar paaainch ankonvaale naatakon mein do ya do se adhik kathaanakon ko gooainth diya jaata tha. is prakaar unamein ek pradhaan kathaanak aur ek ya kai upakathaanak hote the. sanskrut naatakon mein bhi aise upakathaanak hote the. aise naatakon mein sthaan ya drushya, kaal aur ghatnaakram mein anvarat parivartan svaabhaavik tha. lekin ekaanki mein yeh sambhav naheen. ekaanki kisi ek naatakeeya ghatna ya maanasik sthiti par aadhaarit hota hai aur prabhaav ki ekaagrata usaka mukhya lakshya hai. isliye ekaanki mein sthaan, samay aur ghatna ka sankalanatraya anivaarya sa maana gaya hai. kahaani aur geet ki tarah ekaanki ki kala ghanatv ya ekaagrata aur mitvyayata ki kala hai, jismein kam se kam upakaranon ke sahaare jyaada se jyaada prabhaav utpann kiya jaata hai. ekaanki ke kathaanak ka pariprekshya atyant sankuchit hota hai, ek hi mukhya ghatna hoti hai, ek hi mukhya charitra hota hai, ek charamotkarsh hota hai. lambe bhaashanon aur vistrut vyaakhyaaon ki jagah usamein sanvaadalaaghav hota hai. bade naatak aur ekaanki ka gunaatmak bhed isi se spasht ho jaata hai ki bade naatak ke kalevar ko kaat chhaaaintakar ekaanki ki rachana naheen ki ja sakti, jis tarah ekaanki ke kalevar ko kheench taanakar bade naatak ki rachana naheen ki ja sakti.

sanskrut naatyashaastr ke anusaar bade naatak ke kathaanak ke vikaas ki paaainch sthitiyaaain maani gayi hain : aarambh, prayatn, praaptyaasha, niytaapti aur falaagam. pashchim ke naatyashaastr mein bhi inheen se bahut kuchh milti julati sthitiyon ka ullekh hai : aarambh ya bhoomika, charitron aur ghatnaaon ke ghaat pratighaat ya dvandv se kathaanak ka charamotkarsh ki or aaroh, charamotkarsh, avaroh aur ant. pashchim ke naatakashaastr mein dvandv par bahut jor diya gaya hai. vastut: naatak dvandv ki kala hai; katha mein charitron aur ghatnaaon ke kramik vikaas ki jagah bade naatak mein kuchh charitron ke jeevan ke dvandvon ko udghaatit kar kathaanak ko charamotkarsh par pahuainchaaya jaata hai. ekaanki mein is charamotkarsh ki dhuri keval ek dvandv hota hai. bade naatak ke kathaanak mein dvandvon ka vikaas kaafi dheema ho sakta hai, jismein saari ghatanaaeain rangamanch par prastut hoti hain, ya us ghatna se kuchh hi poorv hota hai jo bade veg se dvandv ko charamotkarsh par pahuaincha deti hai. aksar yahi charamotkarsh ekaanki ka ant hota hai. jeevan ki samasyaaon ke yathaarthavaadi aur manovaigyaanik chitran ke atirikt rachanaavidhaan ki yeh visheshata aadhunik ekaanki ko sanskrut aur pashchimi naatya saahitya mein uske niktavarti roopon se pruthak‌ karti hai.

aksar abhinay ke liye kahaaniyon ke roopaantar se yeh bhram paida hota hai ki ekaanki kahaani ka abhineya roop hai. lekin rachanaavidhaan mein ghanatv aur mitvyayata ki aadhaarbhoot samaanata ke baavajood kahaani aur ekaanki mein shilpagat bhed hai. rangamanch ki vastu hone ke kaaran ekaanki mein abhinay aur kathopakathan ka mahatva sabse jyaada hai. inheen ke maadhyam se ekaanki charitrachitran, kathaanak aur uske dvandv, vaataavaran aur ghatnaaon ke anubandh ka nirmaan karta hai. kahaani ki tarah ekaanki varnan ka aashray naheen le sakta. lekin abhinay ki ek mudra kahaani ke lambe varnan se adhik prabhaavashaali ho sakti hai. isliye rangamanch ekaanki ki seema aur shakti donon hai. iski pehchaan na hone ke kaaran anek safal kahaaneekaar asafal ekaankeekaar rah jaate hain.

isi prakaar kisi vishay par rochak sanbhaashan ya kathopakathan ko ekaanki samajhna bhramamaatr hai. jeevan ke yathaarth, ghatna ya kathaanak, charitron ke dvandv, sankalanatraya ityaadi ke abhaav mein sanbhaashan keval sanbhaashan rah jaata hai, use ekaanki ki sanjnyaa naheen di ja sakti.

ekaanki ki adbhut sambhaavnaaon ke kaaran aadhunik kaal mein usaka vikaas anek dishaaon mein hua hai. radio roopak, sangeet tatha kaavyaroopak aur monolog ya svagat naatya in nai dishaaon ki kuchh mahatvapoorn upalabdhiyaaain hain. radio ke maadhyam se in sabke kshetr mein nirantar prayog ho rahe hain. rangamanch, sadeh abhinetaaon aur abhinetriyon, unke abhinay aur mudraaon ke abhaav mein radio roopak ko shabd aur unki dhvani tatha chitraatmak shakti ka adhik se adhik upayog karna padta hai. moort upakaranon ka abhaav radio roopak ke liye sarvatha baadha hi naheen, kyonki shabd aur dhvani ko unke moort aadhaaron se pruthak‌ kar naatakakaar shrotaaon ke dhyaan ko charitron ke aantarik dvandvon par keindrit kar sakta hai. radio roopak mushkil se 50 varsh puraana roop hai. praarambhik avastha mein ismein kisi kahaani ko anek vyaktiyon ke svaron mein prastut kiya jaata tha aur rangamanch ka bhram utpann karne ke liye paatron ki aakrutiyon, veshabhoosha, saaj sajja, ruchiyon ityaadi ke vistrut varnan se yathaarth vaataavaran ke nirmaan ka prayatn kiya jaata tha. amareeka, Germany, England aadi pashchimi deshon mein radio ekaanki ke prayogon ne uske roop ko viksit kiya aur nikhaara. radio ke liye kai prasiddh Amreeki aur angrej kaviyon ne kaavyaroopak likhe. unamein maikleesh, steefen Vincent bene, kaarl, saindavarg, taairom gthruaai, looi maikanees, saikavil vest, paitrik dikinsan, deelan taamas aadi ke naam ullekhaneeya hain. in prayogon se prerana grahan kar hindi aur anya bhaarateeya bhaashaaon ke ekaankeekaaron ne bhi radio roopak, geetinaatya aur kaavyaroopak prastut kiye hain. par inmein abhi anek trutiyaaain hain.

hindi ekaanki ka itihaas

hindi saahitya ke itihaasakaar ekaanki ka praarambh bhaarateinduyug se maanate hain. prasaad ke "ek ghooaint' (1929 E.) se doosra charan, bhuvaneshvaraprasaad ke "kaaravaaain' (1935 E.) se teesara tatha dau॰ Ramkumar varma ke "reshami taai' (1941 E.) sankalan se chauthe charan ki shurooaat kahi gayi hai. kintu ukt kaalavibhaajan mein un ekaankeekaaron ko sammilit naheen kiya gaya hai, jinhonne 1955 E. ke aaspaas likhna praarambh kiya hai aur aaj bhi likh rahe hain. at: hindi ekaanki ka adyatan itihaas sankshep mein is prakaar hai :

(1) bhaarateindukaal mein do prakaar ke ekaanki likhe gaye. pratham, anoodit ya chhaayaankit ekaanki tatha dviteeya, maulik ekaanki. pehli koti mein bhaarateindu ka baigala ke "bhaaratamaata' ka anuvaad "Bhaarat janani'; raadhaacharan Goswami dvaara baingala ke "bhaarater yavan' ka anuvaad "bhaaratavarsh mein yavan log', kaanchanaachaarya krut "dhananjaya vijay' ka chhaayaavisht roopak, ayodhyasihan upaadhyaaya ka "pradyumnavijya vyaayog' aadi hain. doosari koti mein bhaarateindukrut "vishsyavishmaushadham‌', "premajogini' (apoorn), geetiroopak "neeladevi' tatha "sateeprataap' (apoorn); raadhaacharan Goswami krut "tanamanadhan gosaai ke arapan', "sati chandraavali', "amarasinh Rathore', evam "shreedaama'; kishoreelaal Goswami ka "chaupat chapet'; raadhaakrushnadaas ka "du:khineebaala'; anbikaadatt vyaas rachit "kaliyug aur ghi' tatha "man ki umang'; shreesharan ka "baalavivaah'; baalakrushn bhatt ke "kaliraaj ki sabha', "rel ka vikt khel' tatha "baal vivaah'; prataapanaaraayan mishr ka "kalikautuk'; devakeenandan tripaathi krut "jaya narasinh ki'; kaasheenaath khatri ke "sindhu desh ki raajakumariyaaain', gunnaur ki raani' evam "lajabo ka svapn'; laala shreenivaasadaas ka "prahlaad charit'; badareenaaraayan premaghan ka "prayaag raamaagaman'; krushnasharan Singh gopakrut "maadhuri' aadi ekaanki aate hain.

aitihaasik aakhyaan tatha samaajasudhaar ke prasang hi uparyukt ekaankiyon ke vishay hain. inhein aadhunik ekaanki ka praanrabhik roop kaha ja sakta hai. kala ka viksit roop inmein naheen milta; shailiyaaain paraspar kuchh bhinn hain par parampara ek hi hai. ukt ekaanki abhineya ki apeksha paathaya adhik hain. lekhakon ka jhukaav jeevan ki sthoolata ka varnan karne ki or hai; vruttiyon ki sookshm vivrutti inmein naheen milti. prarochana, prastaavana, sootradhaar, naandi, mangalaacharan, ekaadhik drushyayojana, bharatavaakya aadi ke prayog kaheen hain, kaheen naheen bhi hain. aakaar sarvatr lambe hain, ank bhi drushya aur drushya bhi garbhaak jaise ho gaye hain. sankalanatraya ke nirvaah ka abhaav hai, shithil sanvaadon ka baahulya evam vikaas tatha vinyaasaheen kathaayojana ka aadhikya hai. inmein se kuchh prahasan ke roop mein likhe gaye hain, par unamein nirmal haasya na hokar vyangya ki maatra hi adhik hai. ekaanki ke liye apekshit pramukh gun kaarya (aikshan) ka inmein abhaav hai.

(2) ekaanki ke doosare yug mein jayashankar prasaad ka "ek ghooaint' likha gaya jispar sanskrut ka bhi prabhaav hai aur baingala ke maadhyam se aae paashchaatya ekaanki shilp ka bhi. prasaad ji ne isi beech "kalyaani parinya' bhi likha, par vah abhi tak aprakaashit hai. saath hi, ise unke "chadrangupt' naatak ka ek bhaag bhi kaha ja sakta hai. fraanseesi naatakakaar moliyr ke kuchh prahasanon ka bhi is dauraan hindi mein anuvaad hua. "ek ghooaint' mein ekaanki ke kamobesh lagbhag sabhi aadhunik lakshan mil jaate hain. vivaah samasya ka vivechan evam samaadhaan bhaavukataapoorn shaili mein kiya gaya hai. parantu "ek ghooaint' ek hi rah gaya; anya lekhakon ko yeh ekaanki lekhan ki or pravrutt na kar saka.

(3) ekaanki ka teesara charan bhuvaneshvaprasaad ke "kaaravaaain' sangrah se shuroo hota hai jismein chhah ekaanki hain. 1938 E mein "hans' ka ekaanki ank prakaashit hua. ismein tatkaaleen pratinidhi ekaanki prastut kiye gaye. isi beech Satyendra ka "kunaal', pruthveenaath sharma ka "duvidha', Ramkumar varma ka "pruthveeraaj ki aaainkhein'; sooryasharan paareek ka "bailaavan ya pratijnyaaapoorti' aadi prakaashit hue. udayashankar bhatt, seth govindadaas prabhruti ekaankeekaar bhi isi kaal mein ekaanki lekhan ki or pravrutt hue aur unke kai sashakt ekaanki prakaash mein aae.

is yug mein prakhyaat aur utpaadya donon prakaar ke kathaanakon ko lekar ekaanki likhe gaye. inmein vivaahaadi saamaajik tatha saamyaavaadaadi raajaneetik samasyaaeain pramukh roop se ubhari hain. praacheen vichaaradhaara ki vakaalat jordaar shabdon mein ki gayi hai, parantu iske saath naveen ko apnaane ka aagrah bhi spasht dikhaai padta hai. pashchimi vichaar or shaili ke prabhaav ko lekar ekaanki ne apne roop rang mein paryaapt parivartan kiya aur iski takaneek mein yatkinchit‌ sthirta I. dekha jaae, to yeh kaal ekaanki vidha ka parimaarjan kaal tha. lekhakon ne is samay ka sadupayog kar apne haath saadhe. san‌ 1935 E. se radio prasaaranon ke antargat ekaankiyon ko bhi sthaan diya jaane laga tha, at: radio ekaanki athva dhvaninaatak bhi kaafi sankhya mein likhe jaane lage.

(4) chaturth charan tak pahuainchate-pahuainchate ekaanki ka svaroop, shilp aadi poori tarah sthir ho jaate hain, unka praamaanik roop saamane aata hai. isse pehle to vah apna sahi roop talaashane mein laga tha. dau॰ Ramkumar varma ke "reshami taai' ekaankeesangrah se is yug ka sootrapaat hua, yeh pehle hi bataaya ja chuka hai. iske atirikt varma ji ke "aiktres', "Rajni ki raat', "ek tole afeem ki keemat', "pareeksha', "naheen ka rahasya', "kahaaain se kahaaain', "chaarumitra', "das minute' aadi ekaanki prasiddh hain. pahaadi ka "yug yug dvaara shaktipooja'; bhuvaneshvar ke "shaitaan', "strike', "asar', "taaainbe ke keede'; bhagavateecharan varma ke "sandeh ka ant', "do kalaakaar', "sabse bada aadmi'; upeindranaath ashk krut "jonk', "samjhauta', "ghadi', "chhatha beta', "lakshmi ka svaagat', "vibha', "tauliye', "aadimaarg'; udayashankar bhatt ke "do atithi', "var nirvaachan', "munshi anokhelaal', "asli nakali', "neta', "seth bhaalachand', "manumaanav', "aadim yug'; seth govindadaas rachit "viteman', "adhikaar lipsa', "vah mara kyon', "hangar strike', "kangaal naheen', "Eid aur holi'; paandeya bechan sharma ugr ke "Ram kare so hoya', "miyaaain bhaai', "Afzal vadh'; vrundaavanalaal varma krut "peele haath', "sagun' "jahaaaindaar shaah', "Kashmir ka kaaainta', "maanav'; S.pi. khatri ke "chauraaha', "maaain', "machhue ki maaain', "thaakur ka ghar', "bandar ki khopadi'; vishnu prabhaakar ke "maaain ka hrudaya', "sanskaar aur bhaavana', "raktachandan', "maaain baap'; jagadeeshachandr maathur ke "bhor ka taara', "reedh ki haddi', makadi ka jaala', "kalingavijya', "khandahar'; lakshmeenaaraayan mishr ka "ek din'; sadgurusharan avasthi ke "mudrika', "kaaleevadh'; ganeshaprasaad Dwivedi ke "sohaag ki bindi', "doosra upaaya hi kya hai', "sharma ji', "sarvasv samarpan' aadi pramukh ekaanki isi kaal ki den hain.

is yug ke ekaanki svatantr evam sachesht bhaav se likhe gaye hain. at: vishay ki apeksha shilp unamein vishesh hai. bauddhik utsukata, maanasik vishleshan, antardvandv ki abhivyakti, haasya tatha chuteele vyangya, sanvaadon ki kasaavat, maarmik sthalon ka chayan, yathaarth prastuteekaran ke prati aagrah, manovaigyaanik kaaryavyavahaar, padya ka lagbhag abhaav, saamaanya naayak ki sveekruti, rangasanket aadi uttarottar badhte gaye hain. yug ki vibhinn evam vividh abhiruchiyon ke anusaar is samay ke ekaankiyon ke vishay bhi anek rahe hain, jinmein prem, vivaah, ghruna, kroorata, hatya, pauraanik aakhyaan, lokagaathaatmak evam lokavishrut veeron tatha raajaaon ke krutya, saamaajik kureetiyaaain, vargasangharsh, deshbhakti, hindu-musalmaan-bhraatrutv, satyaagrah, yaunaakarshan aadi pramukh hain. dhvani naatak bhi is beech adhik sankhya mein likhe gaye hain.

(5) hindi ekaanki paaainchavaaain athva antim charan ekaanki ki vividh vidhaaon ko lekar praarambh hota hai jinmein manch evam dhvani ekaanki ke alaava "open air ekaanki', "chitr ekaaki' (telivijn par dikhaae jaanevaale) "gali ekaanki' aadishshsammilit kiye ja sakte hain. dau॰ lakshmeenaaraayan krut "basant ritu ka naatak', "mammi thakuraain', "raajaraani'; devaraaj dinesh ke "samasya sulajh gayi', "tulaseedaas', "rishvat ke anek dhang'; jayanaath nalin rachit "bhakton ki deenata'; Satyendra sharat‌ krut "navajoti ki nai hiroin'; vinod rastogi ka "bahoo ki vida'; chiranjeet ke "chakravyooh' "dhol ki pol', (dhvani naatak), paaainch prahasan' (sankalan); revateesharan sharma krut "talaak'; vimla loothara ka "apna ghar'; jnyaaanadev agnihotri ka "roteevaali gali'; krushnakishor shreevaastav ke "satyakirn', "machhali ke aaainsoo', "aasteen ke saaainp'; indushekhar ka "mahalle ki aabaroo'; svaameenaath krut I.A.S.'; raajeindrakumaar sharma ke "parda uthane se pehle', "ret ki deevaar', "ataichi case', Arun rachit "relagaadi ke dibbe', "bhor ki kirnein'; shreekrushn krut "maaain ji', "tarakash ke teer'; mukta shukl ke "parde aur parachhaaiyaaain'; "bheetari chhaaya', Kumar raajeindr krut "aadamakhor' (open air ekaanki); kanchanakumaar likhit "sooar baade ka jamaadaar' (gali ekaanki) aadi is kheve ki pramukh rachanaaeain hain.

is kaal mein kuchh bemaani (aibsard) ekaanki bhi likhe gaye hain jinmein satyadev dube krut "thodi der pehle aur thodi der baad'; dharmachandr jain ka "cheharon ke chehare'; mohan Rakesh ka beej naatak "shaayad' aadi ullekhya hain. dau॰ lakshmeenaaraayan laal, mohan Rakesh, vishnu prabhaakar, gangaadhar shukl, vinod rastogi, upeindranaath ashk, kamaleshvar tatha manahar chauhaan ne idhar bahut se chitraekaanki bhi prastut kiye hain.

paaainchavein charan ke ekaankiyon mein ya to paashchaatya rachanaaprakriya ko kathorata ke saath grahan kiya gaya hai athva usamein pratibha aur buddhi se nae vastuvidhaan, nai abhivyanjana dvaara maulik roop ka nirmaan kar liya gaya hai. geeton ka inmein ekaant abhaav hai, prakaash ka jamkar upayog kiya gaya hai, jismein pardo ki jaroorat bahut kuchh samaapt ho gayi hai. samvaad atyant kase hue tatha chuteele hain. jeevan ke nae dhang, usaki aashaaon, niraashaaon, chhoti chhoti samasyaaon tatha prati din ki saamaanya ghatnaaon ko lekar ye ekaanki rache gaye hain. chitr ekaankiyon ne "out-dor-heenata' ko toda hai. ismein ab pahaadi nadi ki chanchalata, sadkon par bhaagati kaarein, samudra mein chalte yaan, aakaash mein shatruvimaanon se joohjte "nait' aadi dikhaae jaate hain. gali ekaanki ne manch ko toda hai to bemaani ekaankiyon ne darshakon ko hi manchapar laakar khada kar diya hai.

sandarbh granth

  • Sydney box : the tekaneek ov‌ the eksaperimeintal van aikt plej ;
  • jaan born : the van aikt play in‌ England;
  • ailen hyoojej : the van aikt play in‌ the United states;
  • vhaal gaaigald : the van aikt play aind the radio.

baahari kadiyaaain