efil tauvar

efil tower
The Eiffel Tower, July 24, 2014.JPG

shaimps de maars se efil tower ka drushya


jaankaari
sthiti pairis, France
haal ki sthiti poorn
nirmaan 1887-1889
upayog paryavekshan tauvar
radio prasaaran tauvar
oonchaai
enteena/Spire 324 meter (1,063 fut)
chhat 300.65 meter (986 fut)
sarvochch tal 273.0 mi (896 fut)
companiyaan
vaastukaar guistaav efil
sanrachana
abhiyanta
guistaav efil
maalik फ़्रान्स pairis shahar, fraans (100%)

efil tauvar (fraanseesi: Tour Eiffel‎, /tuʀ ɛaafɛaal/) France ki rajdhani pairis mein sthit ek lauh tower hai. iska nirmaan 1887-1889 mein shaimp-de-maars mein scene nadi ke tat par pairis mein hua tha. yeh tower vishv mein ullekhaneeya nirmaanon mein se ek aur fraans ki sanskruti ka prateek hai. efil tauvar ki rachana gustaav efil ke dvaara ki gayi hai aur unheen ke naam par se efil taunar ka naamakaran hua hai. efil tauvar ki rachana 1889 ke vaishvik mele ke liye ki gayi thi. jab efil tauvar ka nirmaan hua us vakt vah duniya ki sabse ooainchi imaarat thi. aaj ki taareekh mein tauvar ki ooainchaai 324 meter hai, jo ki paaramparik 81 manjila imaarat ki ooainchaai ke baraabar hai. bagair entena shikhar ke yeh imaarat fraans ke miyo (fraanseesi: Millau‎) shahar ke fool ke baad doosari sabse ooainchi imaarat hai. yeh teen manjila tauvar paryatakon ke liye saal ke 365 din khula rahata hai. yeh tauvar paryatakon dvaara ticket khareedake dekhi gayi duniya ki imaaraton mein avval sthaan pe hai.

antararaashtreeya star par taaj mahal jaise Bhaarat ki pehchaan hai, vaise hi efil tauvar fraans ki pehchaan hai.

anukram

itihaas

1889 mein, fraanseesi kraanti ke shataabdi mahotsav ke avsar par, vaishvik mele ka aayojan kiya gaya tha. is mele ke pravesh dwaar ke roop mein sarkaar ek tower banaana chaahati thi. is tower ke liye sarkaar ke teen mukhya shartein theen :

  1. tower ki ooainchaai 300 mitr honi chaahiye
  2. tower lohe ka hona chaahiye
  3. tower ke chaaron mukhya sthanbh ke beech ki doori 125 mitr honi chaahiye.

sarkaar dvaara ghoshit ki gain teenon shartein poori ki gayi ho aisi 107 yojanaaon mein se gustaav efil ki pariyojana manjoor ki gayi. mauris kochlin (fraanseesi: Maurice Koechlin‎) aur emil nugiyer (fraanseesi: Éaamile Nouguier‎) is pariyojana ke sanrachanaatmak injiniyr the aur sthefeinn sauvestre (fraanseesi: Stephen Sauvestre‎) vaastukaar the. 300 majadooron ne milke efil tower ko 2 saal, 2 maheene aur 5 dinon mein banaaya jiska udghaatan 31 March 1889 mein hua aur 6 May se yeh tower logon ke liye khula gaya. [1]

haalaaainki efil tower us samay ki audyogik kraanti ka prateek tha aur vaishvik mele ke dauraan aam janta ne ise kaafi saraaya, fir bhi kuchh naami hastiyon ne is imaarat ki aalochna ki aur ise "naak mein dam" kahake bulaaya. us vakt ke sabhi samaachaar patra pairis ke kala samudaaya dvaara likhe gaye ninda patron se bhare pade the. vidanbana ki baat yeh hai ki jin naami hastiyon ne shuruaati daur mein is tower ki ninda ki thi, un mein se kai hastiyaaain aisi theen jinhonne badalate samay ke saath apni rai badli. aisi hastiyon mein naamak sangeetakaar shaarl guno (fraanseesi: Charles Gounod‎) jinhonne 14 fravari 1887 ke samaachaar patra "Le Temps " mein efil tower ko pairis ki beijtti kaha tha, unhonne baad mein isse prerit hokar ek "concerto " (Europeeya sangeet ka ek prakaar) ki rachana ki.[2]

shuruaati daur mein efil tower ko 20 saal ki avadhi ke liye banaaya gaya tha jise 1909 mein nasht karna tha. lekin in 20 saal ke dauraan tower ne apni upayogita vaigyaanik aur takaneeki kshetr mein saabit karne ke kaaran aaj bhi efil tower pairis ki shaan banake khada hai.

pratham vishv yuddh mein hui maarn ki ladaai mein bhi efil tower ka bakhoobi istemaal pairis ki teksiyon ko yuddh morche tak bhejane mein hua tha.

aakaar

efil tower ek varg mein bana hua hai jiske har kinaare ki lanbaai 125 meter hai. 116 aitena samet tower ki ooainchaai 324 meter hai aur samudra tat se 33,5 meter ki ooainchaai par sthit hai.

bhoomitl

tower ke chaaron stambh chaar pramukh dishaaon mein bane hue hain aur unheen dishaaon ke anusaar stambhon ka naamakaran kiya gaya hai jaise ki : uttar stambh, dakshin stambh, poorab stambh aur pashchim stambh. filhaal, uttar stambh, dakshin stambh aur poorab stambh mein ticket ghar aur pravesh dwaar hai jahaaain se log ticket khreedaar tower mein pravesh kar sakte hain. uttar aur poorab stambhon mein lift ki suvidha hai aur dakshin stambh mein seedhiyaan hain jo ki paheli aur doosari manjil tak pahuainchaati hain. dakshin stambh mein anya do niji lift bhi hain jinmein se ek service lift hai aur doosari lift doosari manjil par sthit la juls vernes (fraanseesi: Le Jules Vernes‎) naamak restaurant ke liye hai. munendra kumar panday

pehli manjil

57 meter ki oonchaai par sthit efil tower ki pratham manjil ka kshetrafal 4200 varg meter hai joki ek saath 3000 logon ko samaane ki kshamata rakhata hai. manjil ki chaaron or baahari taraf ek jaaleedaar chhajja hai jismein paryatakon ki suvidha ke liye painoramik table or doorabeen rakhe hue hain jinse paryatak pairis shahar ke doosari aitihaasik imaaraton ka najaara dekh sakte hain. gustaav efil ki or se shraddhaanjali ke roop mein pehli manjil ki baahari taraf 18 veen aur 19 veen sadi ke mahaan vaigyaaniko ka naam bade svarn aksharon mein likha gaya hai jo neeche se dikhaai deta hai. bachchon ke liye ek faulau gas (fraanseesi: Suivez Gus‎) naamak pradarshani hai, jismein khel-khel mein bachchon ko efil tower ke baare mein jaankaari di jaati hai. badon ke liye bhi kai tarah ke pradarshanon ka aayojan hota hai jaise ki : tasveeron ka, efil tower ka itihaas aur kabhi-kabhi sardiyon mein aais-sketing bhi hoti hai. kaanch ki deevaar wala 58 Tour Eiffel naamak restaurant bhi hai, jinmein se paryatak khaate hue shahar ki khoobsoorti ka lutf utha sakte hain. saath mein ek kaifeteriya bhi hai jismein thande-garam khaane peene ki cheejein milti hain.

doosari manjil

115 mi. ki oonchaai par sthit efil tower ki doosari manjil ka kshetrafal 1650 varg mitr hai jo ki ek saath 1600 logon ko samaane ki kshamata rakhata hai. doosari manjil se pairis ka sabse behtar najaara dekhne ko milta hai, jab mausam saaf ho tab 70 ki. mi. tak dekh sakte hai. isi manjil par ek kaifeteriya aur suvanir khareedne ki dukaan sthit hai. doosari manjil ke oopar ek up-manjil bhi hai jahaaain se teesari manjil ke liye lift le sakte hai. yahaaain, la juls vernes naamak restaurant sthit hai, yahaaain sirf ek niji lift ke dvaara hi pahuncha ja sakta hai. jin pravaasiyon ne doosari manjil tak ki ticket khareedi hai aise pravaasi agar teesari manjil ka lutf uthaana chaahate hain to unke liye ek ticket ghar bhi hai jahaaain se ve teesari manjil ki ticket khreed sakte hain.

teesari manjil

275 mi. ki ooainchaai par efil tower ki teesari manjil ka kshetrafal 350 varg mitr hai jo ki ek saath 400 logon ko samaane ki kshamata rakhata hai. doosari se teesari manjil tak sirf lift ke dvaara hi ja sakte hai. is manjil ko chaaron or se kaanch se band kiya hai. yahaaain gustaav efil ki ofis bhi sthit hai jinhe kaanch ki kaibin ke roop mein banaaya gaya hai taaki pravaasi ise baahar se dekh sake. is ofis mein gustaav efil ki mom ki moorti rakhi hai. teesari manjil ke oopar ek up-manjil hai jahaaain par seedhiyon se ja sakte hai. is up-manjil ki chaaron or jaali ladi hui hai aur yahaaain pairis ki khoobsoorti ka najaara lene ke liye kai doorabeen rakhe hain. is ke oopar ek doosari up manjil hai jahaaain jaana nishedh hai. yahaaain radio aur telivijn ki prasaaran ke aintene hai.

anya jaankaari

paryatak

pichhle kai saalon se har saal takreeban 65 lakh se 70 lakh pravaasiyon ne efil tower ki sair ki hai. sabse zyaada 2007 mein 69,60 lakh logon ne tower mein pravesh kiya tha. 1960 ke dashak se jab se maas toorijm ka vikaas hua hai tab se paryatakon ki sankhya mein badhotri hui hai. 2009 mein hue sarve ke anusaar us saal jitne paryatak aae the, unamein se 75% paradesi the jinme se 43% pashchim Europe se or 2% Asia se the. [3]

raat ki roshani

har raat ko andhera hone ke baad 1 baje tak (aur garmiyon mein 2 baje tak) efil tower ko roshan kiya jaata hai taaki door se bhi tower dikh sake. 31 December 1999 ki raat ko nai sadi ke aagaman ke avsar par efil tower ko anya 20 000 balbon se roshan kiya gaya tha jisse har ghante kreeb 5 minute tak tower jhilmilaata hai. choonki logon ne is jhilmilaahat ko kaafi saraaya isliye aaj ki taareek mein bhi yeh jhilmilaahat andhere hone ke baad har ghante ham dekh sakte hain. [4]

paheli manjil ka naveekaran

2012 se 2013 tak pehli manjil ka naveekaran ki prakriya hone waali hai jiske falasvaroop vah zyaada aadhunik aur aakarshik ho jaaegi. kai tarah ke badlaav honge jinme se mukhya aakarshan yeh hoga ki uske frsh ka ek hissa kaanch ka banaaya jaaega jispar khade hokar paryatak 60 mitr neeche ki jameen dekh sakeinge.


chitr deergha

baahari kadiyaaain