eds

[

upaarjit pratirkshi apoornata sahalakshan (eds)
vargeekaran evam baahya saadhan
Red Ribbon.svg
laal feeta: eds ka antarraashtreeya chinh
aaiseedi-10 B24.
aaiseedi-9 042
dijeej-deebi 5938
medalaain plas 000594
imedisin emerg/253
M.iesaech D000163
eds sambandhit laghunaam

AIDS: ekvaayard emyunodefishiyeinsi sindrom
HIV: maanaveeya pratirkshi apoornata vishaan
CD4+: CD4+ ti sahaayak koshikaaen
CCR5: chemokin (C-C motif) riseptar 5
CDC: rog rokathaam evam nivaaran kendra
WHO: vishv svaasthya sangathan
PCP: nyoomosistis nimoniya
TB: tapedik
MTCT: maan-se-santaan prasaar
HAART: uchch sakriya enteeritroviyl chikitsa
STI/STD: yaun prasaarit sankraman/rog

upaarjit pratirkshi apoornata sahalakshan ya u.pr.a.s. (angreji:eds) maanaveeya pratirkshi apoornata vishaanu [ma.pr.a.s.] (H.I.vi) sankraman ke baad ki sthiti hai, jismein maanav apne praakrutik pratirkshan kshamata kho deta hai. eds swayam koi beemaari nahi hai par eds se peedit maanav shareer sankraamak beemaariyon, jo ki jeevaanu aur vishaanu aadi se hoti hain, ke prati apni praakrutik pratirodhi shakti kho baithata hai kyonki H.I.vi (vah virus jisse ki eds hota hai) rakt mein upasthit pratirodhi padaarth laseeka-kosho par aakraman karta hai. eds peedit ke shareer mein pratirodhak kshamata ke kramash: kshaya hone se koi bhi avasaravaadi sankraman, yaani aam sardi jukaam se le kar kshaya rog jaise rog tak sahajata se ho jaate hain aur unka ilaaj karna kathin ho jaata hain. H.I.vi. sankraman ko eds ki sthiti tak pahunchane mein 8 se 10 varsh ya isse bhi adhik samay lag sakta hai. H.I.vi se grast vyakti anek varshon tak bina kisi vishesh lakshanon ke bina rah sakte hain.

eds vartamaan yug ki sabse badi svaasthya samasyaaon mein se ek hai yaani ki yeh ek mahaamaari hai. eds ke sankraman ke teen mukhya kaaran hain - asurakshit yaun sanbandho, rakt ke aadaan-pradaan tatha maaain se shishu mein sankraman dvaara. raashtreeya upaarjit pratirkshi apoornata sahalakshan niyantran kaaryakram aur [1] sanyukt raashtrasangh upaarjit pratirkshi apoornata sahalakshan] donon hi yeh maanate hain ki Bhaarat mein 80 se 85 pratishat sankraman asurakshit vishmalingi/vishmalaingik yaun sambandhon se fail raha hai[1]. maana jaata hai ki sabse pehle is rog ka vishaanu: H.I.vi, Africa ke khaas praajaati ki bandar mein paaya gaya aur vaheen se ye poori duniya mein faila. abhi tak ise laailaaj maana jaata hai lekin duniya bhar mein iska ilaaj par shodhakaarya chal rahe hain. 1981 mein eds ki khoj se ab tak isse lagbhag 30 karod log jaan ganva baithe hain.


anukram

eds aur H.I.vi mein antar

H.I.vi ek atisookshm vishaanu hain jiski vajah se eds ho sakta hai. eds swayam mein koi rog naheen hai balki ek sanlakshan hai. yeh manushya ki anya rogon se ladne ki naisargik pratirodhak kshamata ko ghata deta hain. pratirodhak kshamata ke kramash: kshaya hone se koi bhi avasaravaadi sankraman, yaani aam sardi jukaam se le kar fuffus pradaah, teebi, kshaya rog, kark rog jaise rog tak sahajata se ho jaate hain aur unka ilaaj karna kathin ho jaata hain aur mareej ki mrutyu bhi ho sakti hai. yahi kaaran hai ki eds pareekshan mahatvapoorn hai. sirf eds pareekshan se hi nishchit roop se sankraman ka pata lagaaya ja sakta hai.

Bhaarat mein eds

british medical journal mein haal ke ek adhyayan ke anusaar, Bhaarat mein lagbhag 14-16 lakh log echaaaivi / eds se prabhaavit hai[2]. haalaanki 2005 mein mool roop se yeh anumaan lagaaya gaya tha ki Bhaarat mein lagbhag 55 lakh echaaaivi / eds se sankramit ho sakte the. 2007 mein aur adhik sateek anumaan Bhaarat mein echaaaivi / eds se prabhaavit logon ki sankhya ko 25 lakh ke aas-paas darshaati hai. ye nae aankade vishv svaasthya sangathan aur you.N.eds dvaara samarthit hain[3]. sanyukt raashtra ki 2011 ke eds report ke anusaar, pichhle 10 varshon Bhaarat mein nae echaaaivi sankramanon ki sankhya mein 50% tak ki giraavat I hai[4].

Bhaarat mein eds se prabhaavit logon ki badhti sankhya ke sambhaavit kaaran

  • aam janta ko eds ke vishay mein sahi jaankaari na hona
  • eds tatha yaun rogon ke vishyon ko kalankit samjha jaana
  • shiksha mein yaun shikshan va jaagrukta badhaane vaale paathyakram ka abhaav
  • kai dhaarmik sangathanon ka garbh nirodhak ke prayog ko anuchit thaharaana aadi.

eds ke lakshan

aksar H.I.vi se sankramit logon mein lambe samay tak eds ke koi lakshan naheen dikhte. deergh samay tak (3, 6 maheene ya adhik) H.I.vi bhi aushadhik pareeksha mein naheen ubharate. adhikaanshat: eds ke mareejon ko jukaam ya vishaanu bukhaar ho jaata hai par isse eds hone ki pehchaan naheen hoti. eds ke kuchh praarambhik lakshan hain:

  • bukhaar
  • sirdard
  • thakaan
  • haija
  • matali va bhojan se aruchi
  • laseekaaon mein soojan

dhyaan rahe ki ye samast lakshan saadhaaran bukhaar ya anya saamaanya rogon ke bhi ho sakte hain. at: eds ki nishchit roop se pehchaan keval aur keval, aushadheeya pareekshan se hi ki ja sakti hai va ki jaani chaahiye. echaaaivi sankraman ke teen mukhya charan hain: teevr sankraman, naidaanik ​a​avilanbata evam eds.

teevr sankraman

echaaaivi ki praarambhik avadhi jo ki uske sankraman ke baad praarambh hoti hai use teevr H.I.vi ya praathamik H.I.vi ya teevr retrovaayaral sindrom kehte hain[5].kai vyaktiyon mein 2 se 4 saptaah mein inflooenja jaisi beemaari ya mononyukliosis jaisi beemaari ke lakshan dikhne lagte hain aur kuchh vyaktiyon mein aise koi vishesh lakshan naheen dikhte. 40% se 90% maamalon mein is beemaari ke lakshan dikhne lagte hain jisme sabse pramukh lakshan bukhaar, badi nivida limf nods, gale ki soojan, chakkate, sir dard ya muainh aur jananaangon ke ghaav aadi hain[6]. chakkate 20%-50% maamalon mein dikhte hain[7]. kuchh logon mein is star par avasaravaadi sankraman bhi viksit ho jaata hai. kuchh logon mein jatharaantr ki beemaariyaaain jaise ulti, michli ya dast aur kuchh mein paridheeya nyooropaithi ke snaayavik lakshan aur jullain barre sindrom jaisi beemaariyon ke lakshan dikhte hain. lakshan ki avadhi aam taur par ek ya do saptaah hoti hai. apne vishisht lakshan na dikhne ke kaaran log inhein aksar echaaaivi ka sankraman naheen maanate. kai saamaanya sankraamak rogon ke lakshan is beemaari mein dikhne ke kaaran aksar Doctor aur hauspitl mein bhi is beemaari ka galat nidaan kar dete hain. isliye yadi kisi rogi ko bina kisi vajah ke baar baar bukhaar aata ho to usaka echaaaivi pareekshan kara liya jaana chaahiye kyoki ya H.I.vi. sankraman ka ek lakshan ho sakta hai[8].

naidaanik vilanbata

is rog ke praarambhik lakshan ke agale charan ko naidaanik vilanbata, sparshonmukh echaaaivi ya puraani echaaaivi kehte hain[9]. upachaar ke bina echaaaivi sankraman ka doosra charan 3 saal se 20 saal tak rah sakta hai (ausatan 8 saal)[10][11][12]. aam taur par is charaan mein kuchh ya koi lakshan naheen dikhte hai jabki is charan ke ant ke kai logon ko bukhaar, vajan ghatna, gaistrointestaainal samasyaaen aur maansapeshiyon mein dard anubhav hota hai[13]. lagbhag 50-70% logon mein 3-6 maheene ke bheetar laaseeka granthiyon (jaangh ki bagal waali laseeka granthiyon ke aalaava) mein soojan ya vistaar bhi dekha jaata hai[14]. haalaaainki HIV-1 se sankramit adhiktar vyaktiyon mein pata lagaane yogya ek vaayaral lod hota hai lekin ilaaj ke aabhaav mein vah antat: badh kar eds mein badal jaata hai jabki kuchh maamalo (lagbhag 5%) mein bina enteeretrovaairal therepi (eds ki chikitsa padyati) ke CD4+ T-koshikaaen 5 saal se adhik shareer mein bani rahati hain[15][16]. jin vyaktiyon mein is prakaar ke maamale saamane aate hai unhein echaaaivi niyantrak ya lambi avadhi vrudhiviheen ke roop mein vargeekrut kiya jaata hai aur jin vyaktiyon mein bina retrovaayaral virodhi chikitsa ke vaayaral lod kam ya naheen pata lagaane yogya star tak bana rahata hai unhein abhijaat varg ka niyantrak ya abhijaat varg ka daman karne wala kehte hain[17].

eds

eds ko do prakaar se paribhaashit kiya gaya hai ya to jab CD4+ ti koshikaaon ki sankhya jab 200 koshikaaen prati μaL se kam hoti hain ya to tab jabki echaaaivi sankraman ke kaaran koi rog vyakti ke shareer mein utpann ho jaata hai[18]. vishisht upachaar ke abhaav mein echaaaivi se sankramit aadhe logon ke andar das saal mein eds viksit ho jaata hai[19]. sabse aam praarambhik sthiti jo ki eds ki upasthiti ko ingit karti hai vo hai nyumosaaitis nimoniya (40%), kamjori jaise ki vajan ghatna, maansapeshiyon mein khichaav, thakaan, bhookh mein kami ityaadi (20%) aur sofaagel kaindidiaasis (graas nali ka sankraman) hoti hai. iske aalaava aam lakshan mein shvaas nalika mein kai baar sankraman hona bhi hai[20]. avasaravaadi sankraman baikteeriya, virus, kavak aur parajeevi ke kaaran ho sakte hain jo ki aam taur par hamaare pratirksha pranaali dvaara niyantrit ho jaate hain[21]. bhinn bhinn vyaktiyon mein bhinn bhinn prakaar ke sankraman hote hai jo ki is baat par nirbhar karta hai ki vyakti ke aas paas vaataavaran mein kaun se jeev ya sankraman aam roop se paae jaate hai[22]. ye sankraman shareer ke har ang pranaali ko prabhaavit kar sakte hain[23].

H.I.vi. ka prasaar

duniya bhar mein is samay lagbhag chaar karod 20 lakh log H.I.vi ka shikaar hain. inmein se do tihaai sahaara se lage afreeki deshon mein rahate hain aur us kshetr mein bhi jin deshon mein iska sankraman sabse zyaada hai vahaaain har teen mein se ek vayask iska shikaar hai. duniya bhar mein lagbhag 14,000 logon ke pratidin iska shikaar hone ke saath hi yeh dar ban gaya hai ki ye bahut jaldi hi Asia ko bhi poori tarah chapet mein le lega. jab tak kaaragar ilaaj khoja naheen jaata, eds se bachana hi eds ka sarvottam upachaar hai.

H.I.vi. teen mukhya maargon se failata hai

  • maithun ya sambhog dvaara (guda, yonik ya maukhik)
  • shareer ke sankramit taral padaarth ya ootakon dvaara (rakt sankraman ya sankramit suiyon ke aadaan-pradaan)
  • maata se sheeshu me (garbhaavastha, prasav ya stanapaan dvaara)

mal, naak sraavon, laar, thook, paseena, aaainsoo, mootr, ya ulti se H. I. vi. sankramit hone ka khatra tabatak naheen hota jabatak ki ye H. I. vi sankramit rakt ke saath dooshit na ho[24].

maithun ya sambhog dvaara H. I. vi. sankraman

echaaaivi sankraman ki sabse jyaada vidha sankramit vyakti ke saath yaun sampark ke maadhyam se hai. duniya bhar mein H. I. vi. prasaar ke maamalon ke sabse adhik maamale vishmalaingik sampark (yaani vipreet ling ke logon ke beech yaun sampark jaise ki purush evam stri ke beech) ke maadhyam se hote hain. haalaanki, H. I. vi. prasaar bhinn bhinn deshon mein bhinn bhinn tareekon se hua hai. sanyukt raajya America mein 2009 tak[25], sabse adhik H. I. vi. prasaar un samalaingik purushon mein hua jo ki sabhi nae maamalon ki 64% aabaadi ke baraabar thi[26]. asurakshit vishmalingi yaun sanbandho ke maalame mein anumaanat: pratyek yaun sambandh mein echaaaivi sankraman ka jokhim kam aay vaale deshon mein uchch aay vaale deshon ki tulana se chaar se das guna jyaada hota hai[27]. kam aay vaale deshon mein sankramit mahila se purush mein sankraman ka jokhim 0.38% hai jabki purushon se mahila mein sankraman ka jokhim 0.30% hai. uchcha aay vaale desho mein yahi jokhim mahila se purush mein 0.04% tatha purush se mahila mein 0.08% hai. guda sambhog dvaara H. I. vi. sankraman ka jokhim vishesh roop se jyaada hota hai jo ki vishmalingi tatha samalingi donon prakaar ke yaun sambandhon mein 1.4-1.7% tak hota hai[28][29]. mukh maithun ke dvaara H. I. vi. sankraman ka khatra thoda kam hota hai lekin khatm naheen hota[30].

shareer ke sankramit taral padaarth ya ootakon dvaara (rakt sankraman ya sankramit suiyon ke aadaan-pradaan)

echaaaivi ke sankraman ka doosra sabse bada srot rakt aur rakt utpaad ke dvaara hain[31]. rakt ke dvaara sankraman nasheeli davaao ke sevan ke dauraan suiyon ke saajha prayog ke dvaara, sankramit sui se chot lagne par, dooshit rakt ya rakt utpaad ke maadhyam se ya un medical suiyon ke maadhyam se jo H. I. vi. sankramit upakaranon ke saath hote hain. dava ke injekshan aapas mein baaaint kar lagaane se iske failaane ka jokhim 0.63-2.4% hota hai, joki ausatan 0.8% hota hai[32]. echaaaivi sankramit vyakti ke dvaara istemaal ki hui sui ke maadhyam se echaaaivi hone ka jokhim 0.3% pratishat hota hai (333 mein 1) aur shleshma jhilli ke khoon se sankramit hone ka jokhim 0.09% hota hai (1000 mein 1). sanyukt raajya America mein 2009 mein 12% maamale aise logon ke aae hain jo ki nason mein nasheeli davaaon ka upayog karte the[33] aur kuchh kshetron mein nasheeli davaaon ka sevan karne vaalon mein se 80% se jyaada log echaaaivi pojitiv mile[34]. H. I. vi. sankramit rakt ka prayog karne se sankraman ka jokhim 93% tak hota hai[35]. viksit deshon mein sankrimit rakt se echaaaivi prasaar ka jokhim bahut hi kam hai (5,00,000 baar mein se 1 baar se bhi kam) kyoki vah rakt dene vaale vyakti ki H. I. vi. jaanch usaka rakt lene ke pehle ki jaati hai[36]. Britain mein jokhim ausatan pachaas lakh mein se 1 se bhi kam ki hai[37]. haalaanki, kam aay vaale deshon mein rakt ka istemaal karne ke pehle keval aadhe rakt ki uchit roop se jaaainch hoti hai (2008 ke report ke anusaar)[38]. yeh anumaan hai ki in kshetron mein 15% echaaaivi sankraman ka aadhaar rakt ya rakt utpaadon se hota hai, jo ki vaishvik sankraman ka 5-10% hai[39][40]. up sahaara Africa mein echaaaivi ke prasaar mein ek mahatvapoorn bhoomika asurakshit chikitsa suiyaan nibhaate hain. 2007 mein is kshetr mein sankraman (12-17%) ka kaaran asurakshit chikitsa suiyaan hi thi. vishv svaasthya sangathan ke anumaan ke anusaar chikitsa suiyon ke dvaara H. I. vi. sankraman ka jokhim Africa mein 1.2% maamalon mein hota hai[41]. taitoo banaane ya banavaane, khurachane se bhi saiddhaantik roop sankraman ka jokhim bana rahata hai lekin abhi tak kisi bhi aise maamale ke pushti naheen hui hai. machhar ya anya keede kabhi echaaaivi sanchaarit naheen kar sakte hain[42].

maaain se bachche mein H. I. vi. sankraman

echaaaivi maaain se bachche ko garbhaavastha ke dauraan, prasav ke dauraan aur stanapaan ke dauraan preshit ho sakta hai[43][44]. echaaaivi duniya bhar mein failane ka yeh teesara sabse aam kaaran hai[45]. ilaaj ke aabhaav mein janm ke pehle ya janm ke samay iske sankraman ka jokhim 20% tak hota hai aur stanapaan ke dvaara yahi jokhim 35% tak hota hai[46]. varsh 2008 tak bachcho mein echaaaivi ka sankraman 90% maamalon mein maaain ke dvaara hua. uchit upachaar hone par maaain se bachchche ko hone vaale sankraman ko kam kar ke yeh jokhim 90% se 1% tak laaya ja sakta hai[47]. maaain ko garbhaavastha aur prasav ke dauraan enteeretrovaairal dava de kar, vaikalpik shalyakriya (operation) dvaara prasav karke, navajaat shishu ko stanapaan se na kara ke tatha navajaat shishu ko bhi enteeritrovaairal aushadhiyon ki khuraak dekar maaain se bachche mein H. I. vi. ka sankraman roka jaata hai[48]. halaanki inmein se kai upaaya abhi bhi vikaasasheel deshon mein naheen hain. yadi bhojan chabaane ke dauraan sankramit rakt bhojan ko dooshit kar deta hai to yeh bhi H. I. vi. sancharan ka jokhim paida kar sakta hai[49].

eds se kaise bachein

  • apne jeevanasaathi ke prati vafaadaar rahein. ek se adhik vyakti se yaunasanbandh na rakhein.
  • yaun sambandh (maithun) ke samay kandom ka sadaiv prayog karein.
  • yadi aap H.I.vi sankramit ya eds grasit hain to apne jeevanasaathi se is baat ka khulaasa avashya karein. baat chhupaaye rakhanein tatha isi sthiti mein yaun sambandh jaari rakhanein se aapka saathi bhi sankramit ho sakta hai aur aapki santaan par bhi iska prabhaav pad sakta hai.
  • yadi aap H.I.vi sankramit ya eds grasit hain to raktadaan kabhi na karein.
  • rakt grahan karne se pehle rakt ka H.I.vi pareekshan karaane par jor dein.
  • yadi aap ko H.I.vi sankraman hone ka sandeh ho to turant apna H.I.vi pareekshan kara lein. ullekhaneeya hai ki aksar H.I.vi ke keetaanu, sankraman hone ke 3 se 6 maheenon baad bhi, H.I.vi pareekshan dvaara pata naheen lagaaye ja paate. at: teesare aur chhathe maheene ke baad H.I.vi pareekshan avashya doharaayein.

yaun sampark

yaun sampark ke dauraan kandom ka lagaataar istemaal echaaaivi sankraman ke jokhim ko lagbhag 80% tak kam kar deta hai[50]. jab jodi mein se ek saathi echaaaivi se sankramit hai tab kandom ka lagaataar istemaal karne se asankramit vyakti ko echaaaivi sankraman hone ki sambhaavana prati varsh 1% se kam ho jaati hai[51]. in baaton ke bhi pramaan mile hai ki mahilaaon ka kandom istemaal karna bhi purooshon ke kandom istemaal karne ke saamaan suraksha pradaan karta hai[52]. ek adhyayan ke anusaar afreeki mahilaaon mein sex ke turant pehle tenofovir naamak jail ka yoni par istemaal karne se H. I. vi sankraman ka jokhim 40% tak kam hua[53]. jabki iske vipreet spermisid nonoksynol 9 (spermicide nonoxynol 9) sakraman ke jokhim ko badha dete hain kyonki yoni aur guda mein jalan badhaana iski apni pravrutti hai[54]. up sahaara Africa mein sunnat vishmalaingik purushon mein H.I.vi sankraman ke dar ko 38%-66% maamalon mein 24 maheenon tak kam kar deta hai[55]. in adhyanon ke aadhaar par varsh 2007 mein vishv svaasthya sangathan aur you.N.eds ne mahila se purush mein echaaaivi sankraman se bachane ka upaaya purush khatana bataaya tha[56]. yadhapi isse purush se mahila mein sankraman ko roka ja sakta hai yeh vivaadaspad hai[57][58] aur purush khatana viksit deshon mein kaaragar hoga ya naheen evam samalaingik purushon mein iska koi prabhaav padega ya naheen ye baat abhi anirdhaarit hai[59][60][61]. kuchh visheshagyon ko dar hai ki khatana purushon ke beech asuraksha ki kam dhaarana yaun jokhim ko badhaava de sakti hai jo ki apne nivaarak prabhaav ko kam kar deti hai[62]. jin mahilaaon ka maada jananaang kat chuka hota hai unamein echaaaivi ki vruddhi ka jokhim badh jaata hai[63]. yaun sanyam ko bataane vaale kaaryakram bhi echaaaivi ke badhate jokhim prabhaavit karte naheen dikhaai dete[64]. school mein vyaapak roop se yaun shiksha dene par iske vyaapakata mein kami aa sakti hai[65]. yuva logon ka ek bada samooh echaaaivi / eds ke baare mein jaankaari hone ke baavajood bhi is pratha mein sanlagn hai ki vah khud apne ko echaaaivi se sankramit hone ke jokhim ko ye kam aaainkata hai[66].

eds in kaaranon se naheen failata

  • H.I.vi sankramit ya eds grasit vyakti se haath milaane se
  • H.I.vi sankramit ya eds grasit vyakti ke saath rahane se ya unke saath khaana khaane se.
  • ek hi bartan ya rasoi mein svasth aur H.I.vi sankramit ya eds grasit vyakti ke khaana banaane se.

praarambhik avastha mein eds ke lakshan

  • teji se atyaadhik vajan ghatna
  • sookhi khaansi
  • lagaataar jvar ya raat ke samay atyadhik/asaadhaaran maatra mein paseene chhootana
  • janghaana, kakshe aur gardan mein lambe samay tak sooji hui lasikaayein
  • ek hafte se adhik samay tak dast hona. lambe samay tak gambhir haija.
  • fuffus pradaah
  • chamadi ke neeche, muainh, palakon ke neeche ya naak mein laal, bhoore, gulaabi ya baingani rang ke dhabbe.
  • nirantar bhulakkadpan,

eds rog ka upachaar

aushadhi vigyaan mein eds ke ilaaj par nirantar sanshodhan jaari hain. Bhaarat, Japan, amareeka, yuropeeya desh aur anya deshon mein is ke ilaaj va isse bachane ke teekon ki khoj jaari hai. haalaanki eds ke mareejon ko isse ladne aur eds hone ke baavajood kuchh samay tak saadhaaran jeevan jeene mein saksham hain parantu ant mein maut nishchit hain. eds laailaaj hain. isi kaaran aaj yeh Bhaarat mein ek mahaamaari ka roop haasil kar chuka hai. Bhaarat mein eds rog ki chikitsa mahangi hai, eds ki davaaiyon ki keemat aam aadmi ki aarthik pahuainch ke pare hai. kuchh virl mareejon mein sahi chikitsa se 10-12 varsh tak eds ke saath jeena sambhav paaya gaya hai, kintu yeh aam baat nahi hai.

aisi davaaiyaaain ab upalabdh hain jinhein prati uttkram-pratilipi-kinvak vishaanu chikitsa [anti reverse transcript enzyme viral therapy or anti-retroviral therapy] davaaiyon ke naam se jaana jaata hai. Cipla ki traayomyoon jaisi yeh davaaiyaaain mahaingi hain, prati vyakti saalaana kharch takareeban 15000 rupaye hota hai aur ye har jagah aasaani se bhi naheen milti. inke sevan se beemaari tham jaati hai par samaapt naheen hoti. agar in davaaon ko lena rok diya jaaye to beemaari fir se badh jaati hai, isliye ek baar beemaari hone ke baad inhein jeevan bhar lena padta hai. agar dava na li jaayein to beemaari ke lakshan badhte jaate hain aur eds se grast vyaktiyon ki mrutyu ho jaati hai.

ek achhi khabar yeh hai ki Cipla aur hetero jaise pramukh bhaarateeya dava nirmaata H.I.vi peediton ke liye sheegra hi pehli ek mein teen mishrit nidhik anshagoliyaaain banaane ja rahe hain jo ilaaj aasaan bana sakega (Cipla ise vaairaade ke naam se pukaarega). inhein aahaar va aushadh mantri-mandal [FDA] se bhi manjoori mil gayi hai. in davaaiyon par prati vyakti saalaana kharch takareeban 1 lakh rupaye hoga, sanbal yahi hai ki vaishvik keemat se yeh 80-85 pratishat sasti hongi.

eds grast logon ke prati vyavahaar

eds ka ek bada dushprabhaav hai ki samaaj ko bhi sandeh aur bhaya ka rog lag jaata hai. yaun vishyon par baat karna hamaare samaaj mein varjana ka vishay raha hai. ni:sandeh shaturamurg ki naai is samvedansheel masale par ret mein sar gaade rakh anajaan bane rahana koi hal naheen hai. is bhayaavah sthiti se nipatne ka ek mahatvapoorn paksh saamaajik badlaav laana bhi hai. eds par prastaavit vidheyak[67] ko agar bhaarateeya sansad kaanoon ki shakl de sake to yeh Bhaarat hi naheen vishv ke liye bhi eds ke khilaaf chhidi jang mein mahati saamarik kadam siddh hoga.

sandarbh

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