edinbarg

edinbarg
City of Edinburgh
city of edinbarg
shahar
upar-baain or se dhadeekram mein: kailtan pahaadi ka drushya; old college, edinbarg vishvavidyaalaya; prinses street se old taaun ka drushya; edinbarg kaasal; kaaailtan pahaadi se prinses street

Flag

Coat of arms
upanaam: "boodhi badbudaar", "ediyena", "uttar ka ethens"
"Auld Reekie", "Edina", "Athens of the North"
skaaaitalaind mein nirdisthiti
nirdeshaank : 55°a57′a11″aN 3°a11′a20″aW / 55.95306°aN 3.18889°aW / 55.95306; -3.18889Erioll world.svgnirdeshaank: 55°a57′a11″aN 3°a11′a20″aW / 55.95306°aN 3.18889°aW / 55.95306; -3.18889
svaayattaya desh Flag of the United Kingdom UK
desh skautalaind
parishad edinbarg nagar
lyootensi kshetr edinbarg
sthaapana 7veen sadi E ke pashchaat
barg chaartar 1125
shahar ka pad 1889
shaasan
• prashaasanik ikaai city of edinbarg kaaunsil
• laaaird provost donald Wilson
saansad(skaaaitish sansad)
saansad(british sansad)
kshetr
shahar 264
ooainchaai[4] 47
janasankhya (2014)
shahar 464[1] 49[2]
• ghanatv 1,828
nagareeya 1[2][3]
• bhaasha(en)
samay mandal jeeemati (UTC ±a00:00)
• greeshmakaaleen (di॰ba॰asa॰) beeesati (UTC+01:00)
daakakshetr koot EH1-17, EH28-30
doorabhaash code 0131
ISO 3166-2 GB-EDH
ONS koot 00QP
ordinens sarve grid refarens NT275735
nats ank 3 UKM25
mukhya vimaanagaah edinbarg havaai aadda
paaund Amreeki daaailar 32.5 arab[5]
prati vyakti amerikee$ 58,437[5]
jaalasthal edinburgh.gov.uk


edinbarg ya edinbara (angreji: Edinburgh,angreji uchchaaran:/ˈɛdɪnbərə/[6] / eऽdinbara / gailik : Dùan Èaaideann dun ediऽnn), Scotland ki rajdhani, evam glaasago ke baad, Scotland ka doosra sabse bada shahar hai. yeh skaaaitalaind ke lothiyn kshetr mein faaairth ke nadamukh ke dakshini tat par sthit hai. varsh 2013 ke hisaab se,is shahar ki aabaadi 5,00,000 ke kareeb hai. [7] 15veen sadi se hi yeh aitihaasik shahar Scotland ki rajdhani hai. shuruaat se hi skaaaitiyaai raajashaahi ke saare mahatvapoorn prashaasanik bhavan isi shahar mein hi sthit hua karte the, parantoo 1603 aur 1707 ke beech, England se vilay ke pashchaat is shahar ki kaafi raajanaitik taakat London chali gayi. 1999 mein skautish sansad ko svaayatt roop se shaahi dhoshana dvaara sthaapit kiya gaya tab se yeh shahar skaaaitalaind ki sansad va skaaaitalaind mein raajagaddi ka aasan hai. Scotland ka raashtreeya sangrahaalaya, Scotland ka raashtreeya pustakaalaya aur Scotland ki anya mahatvapoorn saanskrutik sansthaaon ke mukhyaalaya va national gailari yaheen edinbarg mein sthit hain. aarthik roop se, yeh UK mein London ke baahar ka sabse bada vitteeya kendra hai.[8][9][10] edinbarg ka itihaas kaafi lamba hai, evam yahaan kai aitihaasik imaaraton ko bhi achhi tarah se sanrakshit dekhe ja sakte hain. edinbarg kaasal, haaaileerood pailes, seint jaails kaithedral aur kai anya mahatvapoorn aitihaasik imaaratein yahaan sthit hain. edinbarg ka old taaun aur new taaun, yoonesko vishv dharohar sthal hain. 2004 mein, edinbarg vishv saahitya mein pehla shahar ban gaya. saathi yeh aitihaasik roop se shiksha ka bhi ek viksit kendra raha hai, yahaaain sthit, edinbarg vishvavidyaalaya, Britain ke sabse puraane vishvavidyaalayon mein se ek hai, evam yeh ab bhi duniya ke sheersh siksha sansthaanon mein shaamil hai. iske alaava edinbarg antarraashtreeya film mahotsav aur yahaan aayojit kiye gaye anya saanskrutik kaaryakram bhi vishvavikhyaat samaarohon mein se ek hai. landan ke baad Britain mein, edinbarg doosra sabse bada paryatan kendra hai.[11]

anukram

naamakaran

edinbarg, maanav basti ke praacheenatam gyaat sthalon mein se ek

edinbarg ke naam ka mool shabd-edin (Èaadin) kadaachit britnik-kelteeya bhaashaai mool ki hai, aur kaafi sambhav hai ki yeh kambrik bheesha ya us kshetr ke sabse puraatan, gyaat, sthaaniya logon dvaara bole jaane waali, kambrik bhaasha ke kisi anya, sthaaneeya boli ke mool ki hai. lauh yug ke dauraan us kshetr mein basane waali janajaatiyon ko roman log votaadini (Votadini) kah karte the, jinhein baad mein godauddin(Gododdin) kaha jaane laga. aisa prateet hota hai ki iska naam idyin (Eidyn) naamak us jagah se pada hai, jiska zikr puraani velsh bhaasha ki kavita, yi godaudin (Y Gododdin) mein milta hai.[12][13][14] is kavita mein din idyin (ya din eidyin; Din Eidyn) naamak ek pahaadi kile ka sambodhan dekha ja sakta hai(jahaaain din ka arth hota hai dan; jo ek chhote madhyakaaleen kabaaili kila ko kaha jaata hai) jo ki gododdin ke ilaake bhein padta tha. is naam ka din idyin se edinbarg mein parivrtit hona, sthaaniya bhaasha ka kambrik se ainglo-saiksan(puraani angreji) ke pakshamein parivartan ko darshaata hai. jo ki uttar-madhyakaaleen barneesiya rajavaade ki bhaasha thi. is kaaran, is naam ke keltik ansh din ko puraani angreji ke barks(burh; kila) se badal diya gaya. is madhyakaaleen barg ka pehla dastaaveji pramaan, raaja David (pratham) ki shaahi dhoshana(1124-1127) mein milta hai.[15][16]

anya upanaamon ka sandarbh

is shahar ko kabhi kabhi sthaaniya logon dvaara old reeki (skaaaits:Auld Reekie; matlab "puraani dhuainveindaar" ya "boodhi badabudaar" ya "puraani khataara") bhi kaha jaata hai, old taaun ki khuli naaliyon ke kaaran aane waali badaboo ki vajah se. aur is vajah se bhi, pehle, old taaun ke mahalon, "haveliyon", aur aanya bhavanon ko garm karne ke liye koyala aur lakdi ko jalaaya jaata tha. [17]

saath hi, skaaaitish prabuddhata ke aandolanon me iski ateemahatvapoorn, bauddhik yogadaan ke chalte ise "uttar ka aikropaulis" evam "old greeki"(Auld Greekie) bhi kaha jaata hai(apne aitihaasik mahatva ke kaaran, grees ko yuropiya sabhyata ka shastreeya va baudhik kendra maana jaata hai, jaise Bhaarat mein naalanda ya Varanasi). iske sthalaakruti(topograafi) ko aksar ethens ke aikropaulis se jod kar dekha jaata hai, aur shaayad isi liye kailtan pahaadi par sthit skaaaitalaind ke raashtreeya smaarak ko paarthenain ki aakruti ka banaane ki yojana thi.

edinbarg ko "dunedin"(Dunedin) bhi kaha jaata hai, yeh naam iske puraane skaaaitish naam dun edin se aata hai. new jeelaind ke danedin shahar ko pehle "new edinbarg" kaha jaata tha, aur aaj bhi ise "dakshin ka edinbarg" kaha jaata hai. saath hi kai saahityon mein "Britain ki doosari aaainkh" aur "uttar ki malika" bhi kaha gaya hai.[18][19]

jalavaayoo

Scotland ke adhikaansh bhaagon ki tarah, edinbarg bhi halke samasheetoshn jalavaayu se sambandhit hai. sardiyon mein ausat taapamaan, amooman, shoonya se neeche din hai, lekin Moscow, nyoofaaundalaind garm ka ek hi akshaansh se kam hai. halke garmiyon mein jalavaayu ausat taapamaan shaayad hi kabhi 22 degree celcius (72 ° F) se adhik hota hai. jo sabse adhiktam darj kiya gaya taapamaan hai, vah, tarnahaaus havaai adde mein, 4 August 1975 ko, 31.4 degree celcius (88.5 ° F) tha. evam 14.6 degree celcius (5.7 ° F) December 2010 ko, gogaarabaink mosam station mein, abatak darj, yahaan ka sabse kam taapamaan hai. tatiyta ke kaaran halke jalavaayu aur apatateeya ke kaaran hai, lekin hamaari niktata ki vajah se pahaadi kshetron ke liye aur aksar toofaani, "hava city" pratishtha yadyapi. uttar atalaantik vartamaan baarish aur kohare mein laaya gaya hai, lekin is tarah ke glaasago varsha aur jaise jaise pashchim ke anya shaharon, ke roop mein ke roop mein jyaada naheen hai. ausat vaarshik varsha sthir hai. prati varsh October ke beech May ko Europeeya toofaan se agale varsh. is shahar ki apatatiyta, mausam va tapamaan mein kisi bhi prakaar ke bade badlaav hone ki sambhaavana ko kaafi kam kar deti hai. samudra aur pahaadiyon se dhira hone ke kaaran, edinbarg ko havaadaar shahar hone ki khyati praapt hai. prachalit hava dakshin pashchim ki or se aati hai, joki uttari atalaantik dhaara ki garm asthaar havaaon se sambandhit hai, jo varsha utpann karti hai, haalaanki yeh glaasago jaisi pashchim sthit shaharon se kaafi kam rahata hai. ausat vaarshik varsha sthir hai. prati varsh October aur May ke beech Europeeya toofaanon ka asar edinbarg par pad sakta hai.

raaaiyal botainikl gaardens, edinbarg ke liye mausam jaankaari
maheena January fravari March April May June July August sitmbar October November December varsh
ankit adhik °aC (°aF) 15.0
(59)
15.2
(59.4)
20.0
(68)
22.8
(73)
29.0
(84.2)
27.8
(82)
30.0
(86)
31.4
(88.5)
26.7
(80.1)
24.4
(75.9)
17.3
(63.1)
15.4
(59.7)
31.4
(88.5)
ausat adhiktam °aC (°aF) 7.0
(44.6)
7.5
(45.5)
9.5
(49.1)
11.8
(53.2)
14.7
(58.5)
17.2
(63)
19.1
(66.4)
18.9
(66)
16.5
(61.7)
13.1
(55.6)
9.6
(49.3)
7.0
(44.6)
12.66
(54.79)
ausat nyoonatam °aC (°aF) 1.4
(34.5)
1.5
(34.7)
2.8
(37)
4.3
(39.7)
6.8
(44.2)
9.7
(49.5)
11.5
(52.7)
11.4
(52.5)
9.4
(48.9)
6.5
(43.7)
3.7
(38.7)
1.3
(34.3)
5.86
(42.55)
ankit nyoon. °aC (°aF) -15.5
(4.1)
-11.7
(10.9)
-11.1
(12)
-6.1
(21)
-2.4
(27.7)
1.1
(34)
4.4
(39.9)
2.2
(36)
-1.1
(30)
-3.7
(25.3)
-8.3
(17.1)
-11.5
(11.3)
-15.5
(4.1)
himpaat/varsha mm (inch) 67.5
(2.657)
47.0
(1.85)
51.7
(2.035)
40.5
(1.594)
48.9
(1.925)
61.3
(2.413)
65.0
(2.559)
60.2
(2.37)
63.7
(2.508)
75.6
(2.976)
62.1
(2.445)
60.8
(2.394)
704.3
(27.728)
srot: mausam kaaryaalaya[20]

itihaas

prashaasan

inhein bhi dekhein: city of edinbarg kaaunsil
edinbarg city chembar(nagar kaksh) nagar parishad ka mukhyaalaya hai

1996 mein sthaaneeya prashaasanik punarsangathan ke pashchaat, edinbarg, skaaaitalaind ke 32 prashaasanik, paraashad kshetron mein se ek ko gathit karta hai. skaaaitalaind ke kisi bhi anya prashaasanik ikaaion ki tarah hi, edinbarg mein bhi nagar ke parishad(kaaunsil) ke paas hi sarvaadhik shakti va prabhaar hai, jinmein: aavaas, yojana, sthaaneeya parivaahan, udyaan, arthik vikaas va navanirmaan shaamil hain. edinbarg ke paraashad mein 58 nirvaachit paarshad hain, joki shahar ke 17 bahoo-sadasyeeya wardon se chun kar aate hain. har ward se 3 ya 4 paarshadon ko chaar varshon ki avadhi ke liye chuna jaata hai. prashaasanik tantr ke anusaar, jis raajanaitik dal ke sabse adhik paarshad hote hain, parishad ki kaaryapaalika par usi ka niyantran hota hai. is parishad ki adhyakshata, edinbarg ke laaaird provost ke haath mein hoti hai, jinhein parishad mein se hi chuna jaata hai. varsh 2010 ki sthiteenusaar, edinbarg ki parishad ki kryapaalika mein takareeban 16,341 karmachaari kaam karte the. shahar ka kul chinh san 1732 mein laaaird lyaaain King of aarmas dvaara darj ki gayi thi.

pramukh shahari ilaake

edinbarg ke pramukh shahari ilaakon ka maanachitr
prinses street gaardenas
edinbarg ka nagarakendr: █a█ old taaun, edinbarg █a█ new taaun, edinbarg █a█ vest end, edinbarg

haalaanki edinbarg ka shahari kshetr ab kaafi bade vistaar mein fail chuka hai, parantoo aitihaasik roop se, asal paaramparik edinbarg shahar, maujooda edinbarg ka kendreeya ilaaka hai, joki edinbarg ka sabse puraana evam aitihaasik kshetr hai. yeh mukhyat: do hisso mein prinses street gaardenas dvaara vibhaajit hai, jiske dakshini chhor par old taaun hai, jispar edinbarg kaasal pratyaabhoot hai, evam uttar ke taraf new taaun sthit hai. in donon ke beech sthit harit kshetr(ya maidaan) ko 1816 mein naaair laaaich(skauts : Nor Loch; uttari jheel) naamak jheel ke sookhane se bane daladali bhoomi ko bharne se banaaya gaya tha. kaasal se pashchimi ki or bilkul bagal mein hi hai edinbarg ka mukhya vitteeya kshetr evam banking aur beema sambandhit bhavanein. is kshetr ke sabse pramukh imaaraton mein edinbarg intarnaishanal kaaainfreins center bhi hai.

old taaun

chattaan ki oonchaaiyon par sthit edinbarg kaasal
edinbarg festivl ke samay raaaiyal maail ki tasveer

edinbarg ka old tiun(skauts : Auld Toun; puraana shahar) prachalit taur par edinbarg ke sabse puraatan kshetr ko kaha jaata hai. is madhyakaaleen shahar ne aaj bhi apni praathamik madhyakaaleen aabha va nakshe ko barkaraar rakha hai. yahaan kai madhyakaaleen evam reefaaairameshan-kaaleen(dharmasudhaar kaaleen) imaaraton ko behad achhi haalat mein sanrakshi dekha ja sakta hai.[21] iska ek sira oonchaai par sthit, madhyakaaleen edinbarg kaasal par band hota hai, jahaan se shahar ki mukhya dhamani, raaaiyal maail(shaahi sadak) neeche utarati hai. is mukhya sadak se kai chhoti sadkein, jinhein vind(wynd) ya klojej(closes) kaha jaata hai, sadak ke dono pakshon se chattaani deevaaron ke baraabar niklati hain. ismein kai bade chauraahein sthit hain jo bajaaron ke sthaanon ko chihnit karte hain, ya mahatvapoorn bhavan in chauraahon ke saamane sthit dekhe ja sakte hain jaise ki: seऽnt gleeऽs kaithedral aur vidhi nyaayaalayein. yahaan sthit mahatvapoorn bhavanon mein skaaaitalaind ka shaahi sangrahaalaya, sarjansej haaail aur maikaivan haaail bhi shaamil hain. raaston ka abhinyaas kisi theth madhyakaaleen uttari yuropeeya shahar ka hai, jahaaain shahar ka mukhya durg(kaasal) kisi pahaadi ya chattaan ke oopar hua karta tha aur usapar se mukhya sadak(raaaiyal maail) neeche aati thi, jiske kinaare poora shahar basa hota tha.

old taaun ki mukhya sadak, raaaiyal maail ki tasveer, aparail 2014

pahaadi par base is shahar mein upalabdh seemit jagah ke baavajood iski badi aabaadi kuchh sabse puraani, oonchi mahumanjila rihaaishi imaaraton mein rahati thi. aisi aavaaseeya bhavanein, jinhein kaauntri(country) kaha jaata tha, 16veen sadi se yahaan kaafi aam ho gayi theen. aisi enekon imaaratein abhi bhi yahaaain sanrakshit, dekhi ja sakti hain. yeh aam taur par das ya gyaarah manjila hua karti theen, parantoo ek aisi bhi hai joki chaudah manjila hai. inke alaava, old taaun ki ek vishesh vastu hain, galiyon aur sadkon ke oopar bane anek meharaab, jinmein kabhi log raha karte thein. audyogik kraanti ke dauraan yahaan mukhyaroop se aairish apravaasi basa karte the. yahaan kai tahakhaane bhi abhi tak sanrakshit hein, jinhein aaj bhi edinbarg ka bhoomigat shahar bulaaya ja sakta hai.[22] new taaun ke saath edinbarg ka yeh kshetr yunesko ke vishv dharohar sthalon ki soochi mein shaamil hai.

old taaun ki painoraamik tasveer, bhavalon ki madhyakaaleen banaavat evam aabha ko dakha ja sakta hai. baain or dikh raha pul naaairth brij hai

new taaun

yunesko vishv dharohar sthal
edinbarg ka old aur new taaun
vishv dharohar soochi mein ankit naam
prakaar saanskrutik
maanadand ii, iv
sandarbh 728
yunesko kshetr yurop aur uttari amareeka
shilaalekhit itihaas
shilaalekh 1995 (19th satr)

edinbarg ke new taaun ko 18 veen sadi mein old taaun mein badhti janasankhya ke samaadhaan ke taur par banaaya gaya tha. badhti janasankhya ke kaaran shahar mein aavaas ki asuvidhaaen badh gayi theen. is nae shahar ke nakshe ko taiyaar karne ke liye san 1766 mein, ek vaastupratiyogita ka aayojan kiya gaya, jise James kraig naamak ek 22 saal ke vaastukaar ne jeeta tha. ise poore shahar ko 1767 se 1850 ke beech ke charanon mein banaaya gaya tha. haalaanki praathamik charan ko James kraig naheen banavaaya tha parantu is shahar ke, baad ke charanon ko banaane mein anya kai pramukh Scott vaastukaaron ne apna yogadaan diya hai. is shahar ke nakshe evam imaaraton ko nav-shaastreeya(niyo-klaasikl) va jyaaairjiyn vaastushaili mein banaaya gaya tha jinhein aaj bhi achhi tarah sanrakshit dekha ja sakta hain. ise aksar vishv mein jyaaairjiyn shaili mein nagar nirmaan ke sabse badhiya namoone ke roop mein dekha jaata hai. yojana anusaar is shahar main sadkon ka abhinyaas, gred ke aakaar ka tha, jinhe sadko aur galiyon ke yog se, is tarah taiyaar kiya gaya tha ki ve shahar ke rihaaishi ilaake ko kai vargaakaar tukadon mein baateinge. is pariyojana ke anusaar shahar ki mukhya sadak George street thi joki dhalaan ke baraabar, poorv or se pashchim ki or jaati thi is ke samaanaantar prinses street aur queen street ko nirmit kiya gaya tha in mukhya lambi sadkon ko kai chhoti samakoneeya sadkon se joda gaya tha. jo mil kar ek gred roopees samajhna nirmit karte hain. is ke banane ke baad se hi prinses street edinbarg ka mukhya baajaar va khareedaari saadk ban gaya, jo vah aaj bhi hai. poorvi aur pashchimi chhor par seint aindryooj skvair(Saint Andrews Square; sant aindroo chauk) aur shaarlaaait skvair(Charlotte Square; shaarlaut chauk) sthit hai. shaarlaaait skvair ko Robert aidam ne banaaya tha aur ise aksar jyaaairjiyn shaili main chauk nirmaan ke sabse behatareen namoone ke roop mein dekha jaata hai. byoot house Scotland ke pratham mantri ka aadhikaarik nivaas isi ke uttar mein sthit hai.

old taaun aur new taaun ke beech, kisi semaya, naaair laaaich naamak ek jheel hua karti thi, jise mool rup se shahar ki suraksha ke liye nirmit kiya gaya tha parantu baad mein use naagrikon dvaara apashisht vikraya ke liye bhi upayog kiya jaane laga. 1820 ke samay, yeh jheel sookh gayi. kuchh pariyojanaaon evam dastaavejon ke anusaar yahaan par, uske sthaan saunadarya-nikhaar ke liye, ek nahar banaane ki yojana bhi prastaavit ki gayi thi. parantu kisi vajah se aisa naheen kiya gaya, aur iske bajaae prinses street garden ko banaaya gaya. new taaun ke nirmaan ke liye khanan se praapt ki gayi atirikt mitti ko jheel ke gaddhe mein hi daal diya gaya, jo ki sookh kar dal-dal ban chuki thi, is atirikt mitti se bane teele ko aajkal the maaund ke naam se jaana jaata hai| madhya 19veen sadi mein Scotland ki raashtreeya pradarshani aur raaaiyal skautish academy bilding ko the maaund par nirmit kiya gaya aur vevarli station ko bhi banaaya gaya.[23] new taaun ki pariyojana itni safal rahi thi ki iska kai baar vistaar bhi kiya gaya. haalaanki, aage ke nirmaan kaaryon mein praathamik drudh gred rachana ko thoda dheela chhod diya gaya aur poori tarah anurakshit naheen rakha gaya tha. aaj is shahari nirmaan ko jaurjiyn shaili mein nagar nirmaan ka sabse behatareen namoona maana jaata hai.


edinbarg ke skaaait smaarak par se li gayi painoraamik tasveer, ismein baain or ki imaaratein old taaun hain, aur daahine chhor par new taaun hai. madhya mein dikh rahi seedhi sadak prinses street hai, aur uske baaen paksh par sthit hariyaali, prinses street gaarden hai. beech mein, old taaun ka edinbarg kaasal bhi drushyamaan hai

vest end

vest end ke jyaaairjiyn shaili mein bane ghar

vest end yaani pashchimi chhor, edinbarg ke new taaun ke pashchimi chhod ke hisse ko kaha jaata hai. yahaan ki vishishtata yahaan sthit anek jyaaairjiyn shaili ki imaaratein hain. iski shahari banaavat ka abhinn ang, yahaan ki chaudi sadkein, bade chauk aur jyaaairjiyn shaili mein bani imaaratein hain. yeh kshetr edinbarg ke nagarakeindr se leeth nadi ke beech faila hua hai. yahaan sthit prasiddh sthaanon main Scotland ki aadhunik kala ki raashtreeya pradarshani(skautish national gailari of modern Art), deen gailari, jyaaairjiyn house, church of seint John, seऽnt mereej kaithedral aur vest rajistar house(skaaaitiyaai granthaagaar) shaamil hain.[24]

East end

edinbarg ka East end(poorvi chhor), prinses street ke poorvi chhor par sthit us kshetr ko kaha jaata hai jo kailtan pahaadi aur hauleerood park ke beech sthit hai. is kshetr mein kailtan pahaadi aur portobelo(Portobello) kshetr aate hain, jo ki aarthars seat ke dakshini dhalaanon par sthit hai. portobelo aur kailtan gaanv kisi samay ek chhota sa gaanv hua karta tha iska gyaat itihaas varsh 1750 tak jaana jaata hai. varsh 1896 mein yeh kshetr edinbarg se jud gaya aur dekhte hi dekhte ek prachalit paryatan sthal mein parivrtit bhi ho gaya. isi kshetr ke paas mein Scotland ka shaahi mahal hauleerood pailes aur skautish sansad bhavan bhi sthit hain. iske alaava, kailtan pahaadi par sthit anek smaarakon mein Scotland ka raashtreeya smaarak, nelsan smaarak(jise horaashiyo nelasan ke sammaan mein khada kiya gaya tha), dugal steevart smaarak evam anya smaarak yahaan ke prasiddh darshaneeya sthalon mein shaamil hain. city objrvetari bhi yaheen sthit hai.[25][26]

kaaailtan pahaadi par nelsan smaarak, raashtreeya smaarak evam aanya smaarakon ka drushya, peechhe prushthabhoomi mein leeth ki bandargaah aur faurth nadi ka nadamukh drushyamaan hai.

leeth

leeऽth upanagar(Lieth) edinbarg ke shahari kshetr ke chhor kinaare par sthit hai. yeh aitihaasik taur par edinbarg ka mukhya bandargaah raha hai. edinbarg ke shahari kshetr ke antargat hone ke baavajood is upanagar ne apni swayam ki bhinn pehchaan banaai rakhi hai, jo nauparivhan par aadhaarit hai. paaramparik rup se yahaan ki sthaaneeya arthavyavastha nauparivhan, aayaat-niryaat, pot nirmaan jaise anya bandargaah sambandhit vyavasaayon par aadhaarit thi. 1920 tak yeh kshetr edinbarg se svatantr ek bhinn nagar hua karta tha. edinbarg ke vistaar ke saath hi leeth ka shahari ilaaka edinbarg ke shahari vistaar se mil gaya.[27] aaj bhi edinbarg ki uttari sansadeeya seat ko "edinbarg aind leeth" ke naam se jaana jaata hai. leeth se sammeelan ke baad edinbarg ke raajasv mein kaafi badhotri I thi parantu paaramparik bandargaah sambandhit vyaapaar ke khatm hone se yahaan ki arthavyavastha evam vitteeya sthiti par bura asar pada tha edinbarg vaaaitarafrant development pariyojana ne leeth ke bandargaah se sate ilaakon ko aavaaseeya kshetron mein parivrtit kar diya, sarkaar dvaara kiye gaye kai navavikaas pariyojanaaon ke baad bandargaah ki sthiti mein sudhaar aaya aur ab yahaan se kruj laainar companiyon ka vyaapaar badh gaya hai sahaaain se krooj jahaajein sveedan, Norway, Denmark, Germany, evam Netherland tak jaati hain. leeऽsh upanagar "royal yaach briteniya"(Royal Yatch Britannia) ka sthaaneeya nikaaya bhi hai. saath hi yeh haaibarniyn efsi(Hibernian FC) football club ka gruh maidaan bhi hai.[28]

south side

edinbarg ka south side (dakshin taraf) shahar ka ek jaana maana rihaaishi ilaaka hai ismein: seint liyonaardas, maarchamaaaint, neevingatan(Newington), skeennas(Scienns), greinj(Grange) aur blaikaford ilaake aate hain. mool roop se, old taaun se dakshin ki or sthit ilaakon ko south side ke naam se jaana jaata hai. yahaan par aavaas ka prachalan 1780 ke dashak mein south brij ke khulne ke baad hua tha. is kshetr mein sarkaari evam niji schoolon ki vyaapak sankhya dekhi ja sakti hai. saath hi saath hi yahaan edinbarg aur nepiyr vishvavidyaalayon ke bhi parisar sthit hain, iseeliye yeh kshetr naukri pesha logon ke liye evam parivaaron va chhaatron ke beech bhi prachalit hai. is kshetr mein hotelon ki vyaapak sankhya evam asthaai aavaas ki suvidhaaen upalabdh hai edinbarg par aadhaarit kai saahityik rachanaaon mein bhi hamein is kshetr ka zikr milta hai.

edinbarg ke nelsan smaarak, edinbarg par se li gayi painoraamik tasveer, ismein old taaun aur suth side ka drushya dekha ja sakta hai

janasankhyiki

aankade bataate hain ki 2007 mein edinbarg ke nivaasiyon ki janasankhya 468 070 thi. 2001 mein yeh aankada 448 624 ho gaya, jismein se 354 053 log skauts chamadi ke the aur 51 407 logon anya shvet british jaateeyata ke the. is ke alaava, shahar mein, chhoti sankhya mein aayarish , Pakistaniyon , cheeni , bhaarateeyon aur anya safed aur gair-shvet jaateeya samooh ke log nivaas karte hain.

nimn taalika san 1755 se janasankhya ke aakaar mein parivartan ko darshaati hai (maan hajaar ki sankhya mein maanya hain):[29][30]


edinbarg ki janm ke samay jeevan pratyaasha, 78.7 varsh hai, jismein se mahilaaon ke liye 81 aur purushon ke liye 76.2 hai, jo Scotland, janm ke samay ausat jeevan pratyaasha mein rahane vaale logon ko rokane ke liye hai.

2001 ki janaganana ke anusaar, Scotland ke naagrikon mein 67% logon nein kisi-na-kisi church ke sadasyon ke roop mein khud ki pehchaan ki. janasankhya mein 65% hai isaai , jyaadaatar presbeesteriyn, skautish church ke sadasyon aur aabaadi mein keval 16% roman Catholic hone ka daava karte hain. gair isaai logon ki kul janasankhya 2% hai, jinmein: musalmaanon (45 %), ke baad bauddh (7%), sikh (7%), yahoodiyon (7%), hinduon (6%) aur anya dharmon (28%) shaamil hain. [52] edinbarg vibhinn charchon aur dhaarmik samudaayon ki aadhyaatmik bhaagidaari ke liye edinbarg intar feth association samoohon ko ek saath isaai, yahoodi, muslim, hindu, sikh, bauddh, aur anya chhote samudaayon ke sangh ki sadasyata bhi shaamil kiye gaye hain.

arthavyavastha

keindreeya edinbarg mein bank of skaaaitalaind ka mukhyaalaya

UK mein, landan ke baad, sabse majboot arthavyavastha edinbarg ki hi hai. saath hi peshevaron ki sankhya ke maamale mein bhi edinbarg sabse aage hai, yahaaain ki 45% aabaadi ke paas degree-star ya peshevar-star ki yogyata hai.[31] center faaair international kaaaimpetitivnes(antararaashtreeya pratispardhi kendra) ke aaainkadon ke anusaar yeh aarthik tomar par sabse pratispardhi shahar bhi hai.[32] yahaaain, prati karmachaari, sakal moolya vardhit(Gross value added) ka aaainkada bhi, United kingdam mein, landan ke beed sabse jyaada hai. joki varsh 2010 ki sthateenusaar, £a57,594 ke baraabar hai.[33] 2012-13 ke faainainshiyl times efdeeaai maigajeen puraskaaron mein ise Europe ka bhavishya mein pratyaksh videshi nivesh hetu sarvottam bada shahar evam sarvottam bada shahar, pratyaksh videshi nivesh ki rananeeti hetu ke naamon se navaaja gaya tha. 19veen shataabdi mein aarthik taur par edinbarg ko banking, prakaashan aur madira utpaadan ke liya jaana jaata tha, parantu aajkal iski arthavyavastha vitteeya sevaaeain, vaigyaanik shodh, uchchashiksha aur paryatan par aadhaarit hai.[34] March 2010 mein yahaaain berojgaari darein, ausatan skaaaitish dar, 4.5% se kaafi kam, 3, 6% par tha, aur aabha bhi hai.[35] landan ke baad yeh sanyukt raajashaahi ka doosra sabse jyaada yaatra kiya gaya shahar hai. banking, pichhle kareeb 300 varshon se hi, edinbarg ka mukhyaadhaar raha hai, jab se 1695 mein bank of skaaaitalaind ki sthaapana, skaaaitish sansad ke adhiniyam dvaara. aaj, yahaaain ka majaboot vitteeya kshetr, iski vishesh roop se majaboot beema sevaaon aur nivesh ke kshetr ke saath, skaaaitish vidoऽ aur standard liif jaisi edinbarg-aadhaarit companiyon par tiki hai. yahi kaaran hai ki edinbarg London ke baad Britain ka doosra sabse bada vitteeya kendra hai, evam ikviti sampatti ke maamale mein, Europe ka chautha sabse bada vatteeya kendra hai.[36] raaaiyal bank of skaaaitalaind ne shahar ke pashchim mein gaaaigarabaऱan mein aapana naya vaishvik mukhyaalaya khola hai, tatha, bank of skaaaitalaind, sensbareej bank, tesko bank, teeesabi bank aur varjin mani jaisi vaishvik vitteeya companiyon ke mukhyaalaya bhi yaheen sthateenusaar hain.[37][38][39]

edinbarg ka mukhya vitteeya ilaake mein skaindard laaif ka mukhyaalaya

aitihaasik shahar hone ke kaaran, paryatan yahaaain ki arthavyavastha ka ek mahatvapoorn tatv hai. vishv dharohar sthal hone ke kaaran, yahaaain anek paryatak saalabhar aate rahate hain. pramukh paryatan sthalon mein edinbarg kaasal, haaaileerood pailas, evam old taaun aur new taaun ke vishv dharohar sthal shaamil hain.[35] yeh, yahaaain ki sthaaneeya arthavyavastha ke liye atirikt £a100 million(£a10 karod) se adhik arth utpann karta hai.[40] Scotland ki sarkaar aur kaanooni pranaali ka kendra hone ke kaaran, saarvajanik kshetr(pablik sector), edinbarg ki arthavyavastha mein ek keindreeya bhoomika nibhaata hai. skautish sarkaar ke kai vibhaagon ke kaaryaalaya shahar mein heen sthit hain. anya pramukh niyoktaaon mein, NHS Scotland aur sthaaneeya sarkaari prashaasan shaamil hain. [34]

parivaahan

edinbarg airport ka kantrol tower

edinbarg havaai aadda, skaatalaind ka sabse bada aur vyast havaai aadda evam skaaaitalaind ki rajdhani ka pramukh praveshadvaar hai. yeh prativrsh kareeb 1 karod yaatriyon ki aavaajaahi sanbhaalati hai. 2015 mein yeh aaainkada 11 million (1.1karod) ho gaya tha. is badhte hue yaatriyon ki sankhya ke maddenajr havaai aadda chaalak company(beebae limited) ne havaai aadde ke vistaar ki yojana banaai hai.[41][42]

prinses street par lothiyn basein

edinbarg mein yaataayaat pramukhat: bason dvaara ki jaata hai. lothiyn bas sevaaeain, edinbarg ki sarvaadhik bas sevaaeain, shahar ke kendra se baahari ilaakon tak, sanchaalit karte hain, jinmein jyaada tar root prinses street se ho kar gujrati hain. iski aalaava anya bas sevaaeain, jaise: stejakoch, skaaaitish siteevaaaik, naishanal express kochej aur frst skaaaitalaind East, sent aindryooj square ke aage sthiti edinbarg bas station se havaai aadde tak apni sevaaeain sanchaalit karti hain. edinbarg nagar nigam parivhan vibhaag ke uttaraadhikaari hone ke naate lothiyn bas, shahar ki saari tourist bas sevaaeain aur niit bas sevaaeain bhi sanchaalit karti hai. varsh 2010 mein lothiyn bas sevaaon ne 10.9 karod yaatri darj kiya.[43][44]

edinbarg vevarli station jo ki old aur new taaun ke beech sthit poorv jheel ke gaddadhe mein sthit hai.
edinbarg vevarli station mein, ravaana hone ke liye khadi ek train

edinbarg vevarli railway station, skaaaitalaind ka doosra sabse bada railway station hai. April 2010 aur March 2011 ke beech yaatriyon ke pravesh aur nishkaasan ke aaainkadon ke aadhaarapar yeh London ke baahar paaainchavaaain sabse vyast station hai, evam pletafaarmon ki sankhya ke aadhaarapar yeh UK ka doosra sabse bada station hai. yahaaain se landan jaanevaali kai trainein ravana hoti hain, jo aibeliyo skaaaitarel dvaara sanchaalit ki jaati hain .[45] iske alaava edinbarg park railway station aur heऽmaark railway station bhi shahar mein sthit hain. edinbarg kraaaisarel in dono stationon ko jodati hai. iske alaava yeh bransten railway station aur nyakreghaaail jaise upanagareeya stationon ko bhi jodti hai. inke alaava bhi shahar ke anya upanagaron ko jodnevaali anya aur yaatri laainein hain.[46][47]

edinbarg ki nai traam, prinses street par

31 May 2014 se edinbarg traam chaalanayogya ho gain. jiske kaaran 16 November 1956 mein band hone ke pashchaat traam sevaaeain pun:aaranbh huin . is yojana ko 2007 mein saansadeeya sveekruti praapt hogai thi, aur pratham charan par nirmaan 2008 mein shuroo kiya gaya tha. [48] yojanaanusaar July 2011 tak iski samaapti ki yojana thi,[49] parantu lambe chale thekedaari par muthabhed ke kaaran kaarya der se khatam hua.[50][51][52] jis beech iski kul laagat £a545 million (£a54.5 karod) se badhkar, 2011 mein £a750 million (£a75karod) ho gayi, aur [53] kuchh anumaanon ke mutaabik yeh £a100 karod bhi ho sakta hai. iske poore track ki lambaai 8.7 meal (14.0 kimi) hai.[54]

shiksha

vikhyaat naagrik

jems maiksvel
sar aarthar konan daaaiyal
toni bleyar, Britain ke poorv pradhaanamantri
Charles daarvin
ailekjaindar Graham bail, telifon ke aavishkaarak
je॰ ke॰ roling

edinbarg hamesha se hi kai vikhyaat raajaneetijnya, saahityakaar, geetkaar, sangeetakaar, aavishkaarak, vaigyaanik, manoranjak samet anya maidaanon mein khyaati praapt kar chuke, kai vikhyaat logon ka ghar rah chuka hai evam anya kai vishv prasiddh logon ka gahra sambandh bhi is shahar se hai. saahitya ke kshetr mein sheralaaaik homs ke rachayita sar aarthar konan daaaiyal, inspector reebas ke nirmaata iyan rainkin evam Harry pautar ki lekhak je॰ ke॰ roling, jinhonne apni pehli kitaab edinbarg ki hi ek kaufi shaup mein likhi thi, jaise log shaamil hain. iske alaava arthashaastri Adam smith joki velth of neshans ke lekhak hain, ka janm bhi edinbarg ke paas hi hua tha.

edinbarg, sar shaaain kaunari, joki James baand ka kirdaar ada karne vaale pehle vyakti the, raaainni kaurbet ek haasya kalaakaar evam abhineta, aayarish kaumediyn daayalan moran, vikhyaat kalaakaar evam chitrakaar sar henari raibarn, sar David vilki aur ailan raimseऽ jaise logon ka ghar rah chuka hai. iske alaava, itihaasakaar dagalas Johnson aur aarthar maarvik ke bhi jad is shahar mein hain.[55]

haal mein hi atyant safalta pa chuke sangeetakaaron ka bhi yeh shahar ghar raha hai inmein iyan Anderson, jethro tall band ke freintamain; vaaaiti bachan(Wattie Buchan), the eksplaaaiited namak band ke gaayak; sharli mainsan, gaarabej band ki leed singar evam anya vikhyaat band bhi edinbarg se hi nikle hain.

raajaneetijnyaon mein, United kingadam ke poorv pradhaanamantri, toni bleyar bhi yaheen ke the. ve fettes college ke chhaatr bhi the. [56] raubin haarpar jo skautish green party ke sadasya hain aur John vidraspoon, jo United states diklereshan of Independence(sanyukt raajya ki svatantrata ka dhoshanaapatr) par hastaakshar karne vaale ikalaute paadari the, edinbarg ke hi rahane vaale the. [57]

shodh aur vigyaan mein skaaaitalaind ka ek bahut saraahaneeya itihaas raha hai is sandarbh mein edinbarg kabhi ati mahatvapoorn yogadaan raha hai. jaanemaane vijnyaaanikon Kaur aavishkaaron mein James klark Maxwell, aadhunik vidyutachunbakeeya(ilektromaiganetijm) ke siddhaanton ke janak ka janm bhi yaheen hua tha, evam ve edinbarg academy ke chhaatr rah chuke hain. iske alaava teleefon(doorabhaash) ke aavishkaarak ailekjaindar Graham bail bhi yaheen ke the. [58] jaivikshaastri Charles daarvin jinhonne praakrutik chayan aur kram vikaas ke siddhaanton ki khoj ki thi; evam tarkashaastri itihaasakaar aur arthashaastri ne David hyoom bhi yaheen ke the. saath hi, bhoovijnyaaan ke pita maane jaane vaale jeems hatan aur laghuganak(laaaigaaridm) ke nirmaata jaaain nepiyr bhi yahi ke the. [59] iske alaava, keeth Campbell aur iyan vilmat dvaara, dauli bheind ki kloning bhi edinbarg mein hi hui thi.

sanbandhabaddh nagar

edinbarg nagar 14 antararaashtreeya judvaakaran vyavasthaaon mein 1954 sanchaalit sanmagn hai.[60] inmein se jyaadaatar vyavasthaaon ka pramaachaar 'judaav shahar' ke roop ka hai, parantu kraakov ke saath ka samjhauta 'bhaagidaar shahar' ka hai aur kyoto preefekchar ke saath samjhaute ka pramaachaar 'maitri kadi' ke roop mein hai.

shahar samay
Flag of Germany.svg Germany myoonik, Germany 1954
Flag of France.svg fraans naais, fraans 1958[61][62]
Flag of Italy.svg Italy florens, Italy 1964
Flag of New Zealand.svg nyoojeelaind dunedin, new jeelaind 1974
Flag of Canada.svg Canada vainkoovar, british kolambiya, kaineda 1977[63]
Flag of the United States.svg America sain Diego, kailifaaairniya, America 1977
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg cheen shiyaan, cheen 1985
Flag of Spain.svg Spain segoviya, Spain 1985
Flag of Ukraine.svg Ukraine keev, Ukraine 1989
Flag of Denmark.svg Denmark aalborg, Denmark 1991[64]
Flag of Japan.svg Japan kyoto preefekchar, Japan 1994
Flag of Nepal.svg Nepal kaathamaandu, Nepal 1994
Flag of Poland.svg Poland kraakov, Poland 1995[65]
Flag of Russia.svg roos seint peetarsabarg, roos 1995

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  1. "Mid-2012 Population Estimates for Settlements and Localities in Scotland". nationalrecordsofscotland.gov.uk. http://nationalrecordsofscotland.gov.uk/statistics-and-data/statistics/statistics-by-theme/population/population-estimates/special-area-population-estimates/settlements-and-localities/mid-2012/list-of-tables. abhigman tithi: 25 November 2015.
  2. a aa "Estimated population by sex, single year of age and administrative area, mid-2014" (PDF). National Records of Scotland. http://www.nrscotland.gov.uk/files//statistics/population-estimates/midyear-2014/14mid-year-pe-cahb-tab2.pdf. abhigman tithi: 17 May 2015.
  3. "Edinburgh and South East Scotland City Region". http://www.acceleratinggrowth.org.uk/about-us/. abhigman tithi: 25 November 2015.
  4. Edinburgh, United Kingdom Forecast : Weather Underground (weather and elevation at Queensferry Road, Edinburgh). The Weather Underground, Inc.. http://www.wunderground.com/q/zmw:00000.25.03160. abhigman tithi: 29 September 2013.
  5. a aa "Global city GDP 2014". Brookings Institution. http://www.brookings.edu/research/interactives/global-metro-monitor-3. abhigman tithi: 18 November 2014.
  6. "Definition of Edinburgh in Oxford dictionary. Meaning, pronunciation and origin of the word". oksford vishvavidyaalaya press. 2013. http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/Edinburgh. abhigman tithi: 12 January 2014.
  7. "Edinburgh – A global financial centre". edinbarg jila parishad. http://www.investinedinburgh.com/invest/why_invest_in_edinburgh/global_financial_centre.aspx. abhigman tithi: 1 September 2014.
  8. "Edinburgh-World Heritage Site". VisitScotland. http://www.edinburgh.org/about/about-edinburgh/world-heritage-site. abhigman tithi: 10 February 2013.
  9. "City of Literature". cityofliterature.com. http://www.cityofliterature.com/index.aspx?sec=1&pid=1. abhigman tithi: 27 February 2013.
  10. "The University of Edinburgh". http://www.ed.ac.uk/home. abhigman tithi: 30 September 2013.
  11. "Edinburgh second in TripAdvisor UK tourism poll". BBC News Online. 3 May 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-edinburgh-east-fife-13264345. abhigman tithi: 16 March 2013.
  12. Williams, aaifor (1972). The Beginnings of Welsh Poetry: Studies. vels vishvavidyaalaya press. pa॰ 47. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-7083-0035-9.
  13. chaadavik, nora ke. (1968). The British Heroic Age: the Welsh and the Men of the North. vels vishvavidyaalaya press. pa॰ 107. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-7083-0465-6.
  14. Dumville, David (1994). "The eastern terminus of the Antonine Wall: 12th or 13th century evidence". Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 124: 293–98.
  15. room, aadrian (2006). Placenames of the World. McFarland. pp. 118–119. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-7864-2248-3. https://books.google.com/?id=M1JIPAN-eJ4C. abhigman tithi: 12 August 2011.
  16. bairo, jyaufri. The Charters of King David I: The Written Acts of David I King of Scots .... pa॰ 63. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 978-0851157313.
  17. Scottish Vernacular Dictionary
  18. The Cambridge Companion to Ben Jonson, häaamtat 17 april 2007
  19. Marmion A Tale of Flodden Field by Walter Scott, häaamtat 17 april 2007
  20. "Mean Royal Botanic Gardens Edinburgh Climatic Averages 1981–2010". Met Office. http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/public/weather/climate/royal-botanic-gardens-edinburgh#?tab=climateTables. abhigman tithi: 22 December 2012.
  21. "Edinburgh-World Heritage Site". VisitScotland. http://www.edinburgh.org/about/about-edinburgh/world-heritage-site. abhigman tithi: 10 February 2013.
  22. Donald Campbell (2003). Edinburgh: A cultural and literary history. Oxford: Signal Books. ISBN 1-902669-73-8.
  23. History of princes Street, häaamtad 8 januari 2011
  24. http://www.edinburghguide.com/westendedinburgh
  25. saaaincha:Opcit
  26. "Edinburgh the capital giude - Portobello" (angol mein). paastaaim pablikeshan. http://www.edinburghcapitalguide.co.uk/portobello.htm. abhigman tithi: 2010-08-29.
  27. "The Story of Leith XXXIII. How Leith was Governed". http://www.electricscotland.com/history/leith/33.htm.
  28. "Untitled". Economic and Social Data Service. http://www.esds.ac.uk/doc/4927/mrdoc/pdf/q4927uguide.pdf. abhigman tithi: 14 October 2013--note incorrect date given for Henry Robb shipyard closure
  29. "Edinburgh's Census 2001 - City Trends" (angol mein) (pdf). City of Edinburgh Council. http://download.edinburgh.gov.uk/Census_City_Trends/Citytrends.pdf. abhigman tithi: 2010-08-16.
  30. "Edinburgh History - Population" (angol mein). Edinphoto. http://www.edinphoto.org.uk/1_edin/1_edinburgh_history_-_dates_population.htm. abhigman tithi: 2010-08-16.
  31. "Working in Edinburgh". Archived from the original on 24 February 2013. https://web.archive.org/20130224081523/http://www.edinburgh-inspiringcapital.com:80/live/working_in_edinburgh.aspx. abhigman tithi: 24 March 2013.
  32. "The UK Competitive Index 2010". Centre for International Competitiveness. http://www.cforic.org/pages/ukci2010.php. abhigman tithi: 10 May 2010.
  33. "Edinburgh by Numbers 2012/2013". Edinburgh Inspiring Capital. Archived from the original on 13 November 2013. https://web.archive.org/20131113034902/http://www.edinburgh-inspiringcapital.com/invest/economic_data/publications/edinburgh_by_numbers.aspx. abhigman tithi: 14 January 2014.
  34. a aa "Edinburgh by Numbers" (PDF). http://www.edinburgh.gov.uk//download/downloads/id/1447/edinburgh_by_numbers_2013-14. abhigman tithi: 16 June 2014.
  35. a aa "Edinburgh Economy Watch April 2010". City of Edinburgh Council. Archived from the original on 13 February 2010. https://web.archive.org/20100213181240/http://www.edinburgh-inspiringcapital.com:80/invest/economic_data/publications/edinburgh_economy_watch.aspx. abhigman tithi: 10 May 2010.
  36. "Edinburgh's financial services sector". Edinburgh Brand. Archived from the original on 16 November 2010. https://web.archive.org/20101116235214/http://www.edinburgh-inspiringcapital.com:80/invest/key_business_sectors/financial_services.aspx. abhigman tithi: 11 May 2010.
  37. "Sainsburys-Bank-hires-500-staff-in-travel-money-push". The Telegraph (Edinburgh). 24 June 2014. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/newsbysector/banksandfinance/10920928/Sainsburys-Bank-hires-500-staff-in-travel-money-push.html. abhigman tithi: 24 June 2014.
  38. "Tesco creates 200 banking jobs in Edinburgh". The Scotsman (Edinburgh). 2 March 2009. http://www.scotsman.com/news/tesco-creates-200-banking-jobs-in-edinburgh-1-831884. abhigman tithi: 9 February 2013.
  39. "Virgin Money provides jobs boost for city". The Scotsman (Edinburgh). 13 January 2010. http://news.scotsman.com/virgin/Virgin-Money-provides--jobs.5977175.jp. abhigman tithi: 10 May 2010.
  40. "2004 Festival Economic Impact Study results". Edinburgh Festival Fringe. 14 October 2005. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. //web.archive.org/web/20070927195132/http://www.edfringe.com/story.html?id=923. abhigman tithi: 23 March 2007. [mrut kadiyaaain]
  41. "Edinburgh Airport hails record year". BBC News. 11 January 2016. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-scotland-business-35282128.
  42. "Edinburgh Airport Masterplan July 2011". edinburghairport.com. Archived from the original on 15 February 2013. https://web.archive.org/20130215121919/http://www.edinburghairport.com/docs/pdfs/edair_masterplan.pdf?sfvrsn=2. abhigman tithi: 12 February 2013.
  43. "Our company". Lothian Buses. http://lothianbuses.com/about-us/our-company/. abhigman tithi: 9 February 2012.
  44. "LOTHIAN BUSES plc CONSOLIDATED REPORTS AND ACCOUNTS". Lothian Buses. http://lothianbuses.com/assets/files/Consolidated_Statutory_Accounts_2010.pdf. abhigman tithi: 9 February 2012.
  45. Pigott, Nick, san (June 2012). "Waterloo still London's busiest station". The Railway Magazine (Horncastle, Lincs: Mortons Media Group) 158 (1334): 6.
  46. "Edinburgh CrossRail project". Scottish Government. 4 December 2001. http://www.scotland.gov.uk/News/Releases/2001/12/729. abhigman tithi: 19 February 2013.
  47. "Edinburgh rejects congestion plan". BBC News. 22 February 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/scotland/4287145.stm. abhigman tithi: 8 February 2013.
  48. Wiseman, Richard Joseph Stewart (2005). Edinburgh's Trams: The Last years. Stenlake Publishing. pp. 2–3. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 1-84033-343-X.
  49. "Backing for capital tram system". BBC News. 25 October 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/scotland/edinburgh_and_east/7060835.stm. abhigman tithi: 19 February 2013.
  50. "Train interchange delay threatens to push back tram project". The Scotsman. 18 June 2009. http://thescotsman.scotsman.com/edinburgh/Train-interchange-delay-threatens-to.5471930.jp. abhigman tithi: 25 January 2010.
  51. "Tram testing set to increase". Edinburgh Trams. 17 February 2014. http://www.edinburghtrams.com/news/tram-testing-set-to-increase. abhigman tithi: 21 July 2014.
  52. "Edinburgh trams start date is May 31 – Edinburgh Evening News". Edinburghnews.scotsman.com. 2 May 2014. http://www.edinburghnews.scotsman.com/news/transport/edinburgh-trams-start-date-is-may-31-1-3396537. abhigman tithi: 21 July 2014.
  53. "Scrapping Edinburgh trams would cost £a750m". BBC News. 23 June 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-edinburgh-east-fife-13878300. abhigman tithi: 30 March 2013.
  54. "Edinburgh tram budget poised to hit £a1bn mark". STV Edinburgh. 19 August 2011. Archived from the original on 4 October 2013. https://web.archive.org/20131004215812/http://local.stv.tv/edinburgh/266988-edinburgh-tram-budget-poised-to-hit-1bn-mark/. abhigman tithi: 20 March 2013.
  55. Hannah Stephenson (4 November 2006). will not say goodnight yet .... Scotsman.com. Retrieved 2007-03-23.
  56. [http:// edinburghnews.scotsman.com/index. cfm? id = 1156262006 Blair's birthplace is bulldozed into Edinburgh]. Scotsman.com (9 August 2006). Retrieved 2007-03-23.
  57. W. Craven Frank (1978). [Http://etc.princeton.edu/CampusWWW/Companion/ witherspoon_john.html John Witherspoon]. Princeton University Press. Retrieved 2007-03-23.
  58. [http: //www.biographi.ca/EN/ShowBio.asp?BioId=42027 Alexander Graham Bell]. The University of Toronto. Retrieved 2007-03-23.
  59. J J O'Connor and E. F. Robertson (April 1998). [Http://www- history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Napier.html John Napier]. University of St Andrews. Retrieved 2007-03-23.
  60. "Twin and Partner Cities". City of Edinburgh Council. Archived from the original on 14 June 2012. https://web.archive.org/20120614133841/http://www.edinburgh.gov.uk/info/695/council_information_performance_and_statistics/685/european_international_and_parliamentary_relations/3. abhigman tithi: 16 January 2009.
  61. "Villes jumeléaaes avec la Ville de Nice" (French mein). Ville de Nice. Archived from the original on 29 October 2012. https://web.archive.org/20121029114949/http://nice.fr/Collectivites/La-municipalite/Villes-jumelees-avec-la-Ville-de-Nice. abhigman tithi: 24 June 2013.
  62. "British towns twinned with French towns". Archant Community Media Ltd. http://www.completefrance.com/language-culture/twin-towns. abhigman tithi: 11 July 2013.
  63. "Vancouver Twinning Relationships" (PDF). City of Vancouver. http://vancouver.ca/ctyclerk/cclerk/20080311/documents/a14.pdf. abhigman tithi: 5 December 2009.
  64. "Aalborg Twin Towns". Europeprize.net. http://www.europeprize.net/en/?page_id=5. abhigman tithi: 19 August 2013.
  65. "Krakóaw – Miasta Partnerskie [Krakóaw -Partnership Cities]" (Polish mein). Miejska Platforma Internetowa Magiczny Krakóaw. Archived from the original on 2 July 2013. //web.archive.org/web/20130702010825/http://www.krakow.pl/otwarty_na_swiat/2531,kat,0,5,miasta_partnerskie.html. abhigman tithi: 10 August 2013.

baahari kadiyaaain