echaaaivi

echaaaivi athva kaposi saarkoma prabhaavit mahila ki naak ka chitr

echaaaivi (hyuman imyunadifishiyenshi virus) ya maanaveeya pratirkshi apoornata vishaanu [ma.pr.a.s.] ek vishaanu hai jo shareer ki rog-pratirksha pranaali par prahaar karta hai aur sankramanon ke prati usaki pratirodh kshamata ko dheere-dheere kam karta jaata hai. yeh laailaaj beemaari eds ka kaaran hai. mukhyat: yaun sambandh tatha rakt ke jariye failane wala yeh vishaanu shareer ki shvet rakt kanikaaon ka bhakshan kar leta hai. ismein uchch aanuvanshik parivrtanasheelata ka gun hai. yeh visheshata iske upachaar mein bahut badi baadha utpann karta hai.[1]

anukram

pramukh prakaar

iske do pramukh prakaarahain- echaaaivi -1 aur echaaaivi 2. echaaaivi -1 chimpaanji aur pashchimi Africa mein rahane vaale gorila mein paae jaanevaale vishaanu hain, jabki echaaaivi -2 saaainvale mangabeyon mein paae jaane vaale vishaanu hain.[2] echaaaivi -1 ko aur samoohon mein vibhaajit kiya ja sakta hai. echaaaivi -1 M group vishaanu prabal hota hai aur eds ke liye jimmedaar hai. aanuvanshik anukram byaure ke hisaab se group M aur kai roopon mein ubvibhaajit ho sakta hai. upaprakaaron mein se kuchh adhik ugr hote hain ya alag davaaon se pratirodhi rahe hain. isi tarah, echaaaivi - 2 virus kam ugr aur echaaaivi -1 kam sankraamak maana gaya hai, haalaanki 2 echaaaivi 2 bhi eds ka kaaran maana gaya hai.


echaaaivi -1

echaaaivi -1 vishaanu aam aur sarvaadhik rogajanak hai. ise (samooh M) aur do ya do se adhik saadhaaran samoohon mein rakha jaata hai. pratyek samooh ke baare mein maana jaata hai ki vah maanav jaati mein echaaaivi ke svatantr prasaar (ek group ke bheetar upaprakaar ko chhodkar) ka pratinidhitv karte hain.[2]

samooh M

yeh echaaaivi-1 ki tarah aam taur par paaya jaane wala prakaar naheen hai. yeh echaaivi-1 ke punarsanyojan se viksit roop hai.

samooh N

'N' ka matlab "gair - M, gair - O" samooh se hai. is samooh ki khoj 1998 mein hui aur yeh keval Cameroon mein hi paaya gaya hai. 2006 E. tak group N ke keval 10 sankraman paae gaye hain.

samooh O

O samooh aam taur par pashchim - madhya Africa ke baahar naheen dekha gaya hai. yeh Cameroon mein sabse aam hai. 1997i. mein vahaaain kiye gaye ek sarvekshan mein echaaaivi dhanaatmak namoonon mein lagbhag 2% samooh O samooh se sambandhit paae gaye the. is samooh se sambandhit vishaanu echaaaivi -1 pareekshan ki praarambhik prakriya ke dvaara chinhit naheen kiye ja sakte hain. haalaaainki adhik viksit echaaaivi pareekshan dvaara ab O aur N donon samoohon ke vishaanuon ka pata lagaaya ja sakta hai.

samooh pi

2009i. mein, ek nae prakaar ki echaaaivi pai gayi jo lagbhag usi samay jangali gorilon mein paae gaye echaaaivi vishaanu ke samaan tha. yeh chinpaanjiyon mein paae jaane vaale echaaaivi se bhinn tha. yeh vishaanu keval France mein rahanevaali kaimarooni mahila mein 2004 E. mein echaaaivi -1 sankraman ke taur par paaya gaya tha.

echaaaivi -2

echaaaivi -2 Africa ke baahar vyaapak roop se naheen dekha gaya hai. sanyukt raajya America mein yeh vishaanu pehli baar 1987 mein paaya gaya tha. 2010 E. tak echaaaivi -2 (ke samooh A se H) tak se sambandhit kul 8 maamale saamane aae hain. iname se keval A aur bi mahaamaari hain. echaaaivi-2 mukhyat: pashchim Africa se faila hai. is ke chhah upaprakaar hain jinke kam-se-kam ek ek vyaktiyon mein paae jaane ki pushti ho chuki hai.

prasaar kshetr

echaaaivi-1 ka upaprakaar A pashchim Africa mein aam hai[3].

  • upaprakaar bi Europe, America, Japan, Thailand aur Australia mein pramukh roop hai[4].
  • upaprakaar si dakshini Africa, Bhaarat aur Nepal mein pramukh roop hai[4].
  • aam taur par keval upaprakaar di se poorvi aur madhya Africa mein dekhi gayi hai[4].
  • (up E) na ghul-mil paanevaale roop mein keval CRF01_AE ke roop mein up prakaar ek saath dobaara milaadi gayi hai[4].
  • upaprakaar ef madhya Africa, dakshin America aur poorvi Europe mein hai.
  • upaprakaar ji (aur CRF02_AG) Africa aur madhya Europe mein hai.
  • upaprakaar H keindreeya Africa tak hi seemit hai.
  • (upaprakaar I) mool roop se hai ki ab CRF04_cpx ke roop ke liye jimmedaar hai kai upaprakaaron mein se ek "jatil" hai.
  • upaprakaar J mukhya roop se uttar, madhya aur pashchim Africa mein aur kairibiyn mein hai.
  • upaprakaar ke lokataantrik ganaraajya kaango aur Cameroon tak seemit hai.

in upaprakaaron kabhi kabhi aur bhi vibhaajan jaise A1 aur A2 ya F1 aur F2 up-upaprakaaron mein vibhaajit kiya jaata hai. yeh ek poorn ya antim soochi ke roop mein naheen hai aur aage prakaar ke paae jaane ki sambhaavana hai[5].

2002 mein echaaaivi -1 up prakaar prasaar

echaaaivi-2 ka samooh A mukhya roop se pashchim Africa mein faile hone ke saath hi angola, mojaambik, Brazil, Bhaarat aur bahut simit roop se Europe tatha America mein bhi paaya gaya hai. samooh bi mukhya roop se pashchim Africa tak hi seemit hai.

upachaar

echaaaivi abhi tak ek laailaaj beemaari maani jaati hai.[6] shodh chal rahe hain, haalaanki abhi tak poornat: ilaaj viksit kar paane mein safalta naheen mil paayi hai. vartamaan mein baajaar kuchh upachaar echaaaivi rogiyon ke liye upalabdh hain jo aanshik roop se unki peeda ko kam karne tatha unke jeevan ko svasth, utpaadak aur deergh karne mein sahaayak ho sakte hain.

ayurvedik

echaaaivi ke dushprabhaav ko kam karne waali evam rog pratirodhak kshamata tantr ko majaboot karne waali anek aushadhiyaaain hain. ye echaaaivi vishaanu ko mita to naheen sakti hain lekin uske mareej ko adheek lambi avadhi tak jeevit rakhane mein sahaayak hain.

sandarbh

  1. Robertson DL, Hahn BH, Sharp PM (March 1995). "Recombination in AIDS viruses". J. Mol. Evol. 40 (3): 249–59. doi:10.1007/BF00163230. PMID 7723052.
  2. a aa doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a006841
    This citation will be automatically completed in the next few minutes. You can jump the queue or expand by hand
  3. Bobkov AF, Kazennova EV, Selimova LM, et al. (October 2004). "Temporal trends in the HIV-1 epidemic in Russia: predominance of subtype A". J. Med. Virol. 74 (2): 191–6. doi:10.1002/jmv.20177. PMID 15332265.
  4. a aa i E Goudsmit, Jaap. Viral Sex; The Nature of AIDS. Oxford University Press. New York, New York, 1997. Pg. 51-58. Retrieved May 25, 2008.
  5. HIV types, subtypes, groups & strains
  6. "Is HIV the Only Incurable Sexually Transmitted Disease?" (web). Thebody Website. http://www.thebody.com/content/art2301.html. abhigman tithi: 2012-05-30.