dviteeya vishv yudgh

vishv yuddh II, athva dviteeya vishv yuddh,[1] (isko sankshep mein WWII ya WW2 likhte hain), ye ek vaishvik sainya sangharsh tha jismein, sabhi mahaan shaktiyon samet duniya ke adhikaansh desh shaamil the, jo do paraspar virodhi sainya gathabandhanon mein sangathit the: mitr raashtra evam dhuri raashtra.is yuddh mein 10 karod se jyaada sainya karmi shaamil the, is vajah se ye itihaas ka sabse vyaapak yuddh maana jaata hai."poorn yuddh" ki avastha mein, pramukh sahabhaagiyon ne naagrik aur sainya sansaadhanon ke beech ke antar ko mita kar yuddh prayaas ki seva mein apni poori audyogik, aarthik aur vaigyaanik kshamataaon ko jhok diya.ismein saat karod se adhik log maare gaye the, jinmein se adhikaansh saadhaaran naagrik the, isliye isko maanav itihaas ka sabse khooni sangharsh maana jaata hai.[2]

yuddh ki shuruaat ko aam taur par 1 sitmbar 1939 maana jaata hai, Germany ke Poland ke oopar aakraman karne aur parinaamasvaroop british saamraajya aur raashtramandal ke adhikaansh deshon aur France dvaara Germany par yuddh ki ghoshana ke saath.[3][4] kai desh is taareekh se pehle hi yuddharat the, anya ghatnaaon ke parinaamasvaroop aur kai jo shuruaat mein shaamil naheen the baad mein yuddh mein shaamil ho gaye. yuddh ki kuchh mukhya ghatanaaeain hain Marco polo pul haadasa (raashtravaadi cheen aur Japan ke beech lada gaya), operation baarabosa (Germany dvaara soviat sangh par aakraman) ki shuruaat aur parl haarbar aur british aurdach kaaloniyon par dakshin poorv Asia mein hamla.

1945 mein mitr raashtron ki vijay ke saath yuddh samaapt ho gaya.soviyt sangh aur sanyukt raajya America yuddh ke baad duniya ki mahaashaktiyon ke roop mein ubhare, jisse sheet yuddh ki prushthabhoomi taiyaar hui, jo ki agale 45 varshon tak chali.sanyukt raashtra ek aur aise sangharsh ko rokane ki aasha mein banaaya gaya.aatm nirdhaaran ki sveekruti ne Asia aur Africa mein gair upaniveshavaad aandolanon ko gati pradaan ki, jabki pashchimi Europe swayam ekeekaran ki or badhana shuroo ho gaya.

anukram

prushthabhoomi

pratham vishvayuddh ke pashchaat, paraajit Germany ne varsaaya ki sandhi par hastaakshar kiye.[5] iski vajah se Germany ko apni bhoomi ke ek bade hisse se haath dhona pada, doosare raajyon par kabja karne ki paabandi laga di gayi, unki sena ka aakaar seemit kar diya gaya aur bhaari kshatipoorti thop di gayi. roos ke gruhayuddh ne soviyt sangh ka nirmaan kiya, jo ki jald hi Joseph staalin ke niyantran mein aa gaya. Italy mein benito musolini ne ek faasist taanaashaah ke roop mein satta par kabja kiya "naya roman saamraajya" banaane ka vaada karte hue.[6] 1920 ke dashak ke madhya mein cheen ke kuomintaang(KMT) dal ne sthaaneeya saradaaron ke khilaaf ek ekeekaran abhiyaan shuroo kiya aur kuchh had tak cheen ko ekeekrut bhi kar diya, lekin jald hi apne poorv cheeni communist sahayogiyon ke saath ye gruh yuddh mein ulajh gayi. 1931 mein, teji se badh rahe sainyavaadi Japani saamraajya, jiski cheen par prabhaav daalne ki lambe samay se mansha thi, Asia par shaasan karne ke adhikaar ke liye, apne pehle kadam ke roop mein[7], mukaden haadase ko manchooriya par aakraman ke auchitya ke roop mein prayog kiya; donon deshon ne 1933 mein hui taangoo sandhi tak kai chhote sangharsh Shanghai, rehe aur heebei mein lade iske baad cheeni swayamsevak balon ne manchooriya aur chaahaar aur suiyaan mein Japani aakraman ke prati apna pratirodh jaari rakha.

1935 ki nyooremabarg rally mein jarman sainik dal

edaulf hitlar, 1923 mein jarman sarkaar ko giraane ke ek asafal prayaas ke baad, 1933 mein Germany ke neta bane. unhonne lokatantr ko samaapt kar diya aur duniya ke liye ek kattarpanthi jaativaadi prerit najariye ke sanshodhan ko badhaava dena shuroo kiya.[8] isse France aur Britain chintit ho gaye, kyonki pichhle yuddh mein ve bahut kuchh haar chuke the, saath hi Italy bhi, jise apni kshetreeya mahatvaakaankshaaon ko Germany ke dvaara khatra mahasoos hone laga.[9] apne gathabandhan ko surakshit karne ke liye France ne Italy ko ithiyopiya, jis par vo vijay paana chaahata tha, mein khuli chhoot de di.1935 ke shuroo mein yeh sthiti bahut bigad gayi jab saaralaind kaanooni roop se Germany ke saath fir se mil gaya aur hitlar ne varsaail sandhi ko asveekaar kar diya, hathiyaarabandi bhi teji se badhane lagi aur sena mein jabari bharti ki shuruaat kar di.Germany ko rokane ki mansha se, Britain, France aur Italy ne streesa morcha banaaya.poorvi Europe ke vishaal kshetron ko hathiyaane ke Germany ke lakshya ke kaaran soviyt sangh chintit tha, isliye usane France ke saath paarasparik sahaayata ki ek sandhi ki.

haalaanki, is freinko-soviyt sandhi ko prabhaav lene se pehle league of nations ki naukarashaahi ke maadhyam se jaana anivaarya tha, isliye ye bina kisi prabhaav ki hokar rah gayi.[10][11] June 1935 mein, United kingadam ne Germany ke saath ek svatantr nausena karaar kiya aur poorv ke pratibandhon mein dheel de di.Europe aur Asia ki ghatnaaon ke kaaran chintit sanyukt raajya America ne August mein tatasthata adhiniyam paarit kiya.[12] October mein, Italy ne ithopiya par aakraman kiya, Germany akela aisa pramukh Europeeya desh tha jisne is aakraman mein usaka samarthan kiya. Italy ne Germany ke ostriya ko ek anuchar raajya banaane ke uddeshya se aapattiyon ko hata liya.[13]

varsaail tatha lokaarno sandhiyon ke seedhe ullanghan mein, hitlar ne March 1936 mein raainalaind ko pun: hathiyaarband kar diya. use anya Europeeya shaktiyon se naamamaatr hi pratisaad praapt hua .[14] jab July mein speni gruhayuddh praarambh hua, hitlar aur musolini ne gruh yuddh mein soviyt samarthit Spain ke ganaraajya ke khilaaf faasist janaralijmon Francisco freinko ki raashtravaadi taakaton ka samarthan kiya. donon pakshon ne nae hathiyaaron aur yuddh ke tareekon ka pareekshan karne ke liye sangharsh ka istemaal kiya[15]. aur 1939 ke shuruaat mein hi raashtravaadi vijayi saabit ho gaye.

badhte tanaav ke saath, shakti ko sangathit aur sudrudh karne ke prayaas hone lage. October mein, Germany aur Italy ne rom-barlin dhureebanaai aur ek maheene ke baad Germany aur Japan, donon ne is vishvaas ke saath ki saamyavaad aur vishesh roop se soviyt sangh se khatra hai, komintarn virodhi sandhi par hastaakshar kiye, jismein Italy aane vaale saal mein shaamil ho gaya. cheen mein, kuomintaang aur saamyavaadi shaktiyaan Japan ka virodh karne ke liye ek sanyukt morcha pesh karne ke iraade se yuddhaviraam par sahamat ho gayeen.[16]

kaalakram

yuddh ki shuruaat ko aam taur par 1 sitmbar 1939 ko Germany ke Poland par aakraman ke saath maana jaata hai. yuddh ki shuruaat ke liye anya taareekhon mein shaamil hain 13 September 1931 mein manchuriya par Japani aakraman,[17] dviteeya cheen-Japan yuddh ki 7 July 1937 ko shuruaat,[18][19] ya anya kai ghatnaaon mein se ek. anya strot A. pi. J. Taylor ka hi paalan karte hain, jiska maanana hai ki poorv Asia mein usi samay cheen- Japan yuddh jaari tha aur Europe aur uske upaniveshon mein dviteeya Europeeya yuddh chal raha tha, lekin ve 1941 mein vilay se pehle vishv yuddh ka roop naheen le paae; is bindu se yuddh 1945 tak jaari raha.yeh anuchhed paaramparik tithiyon ka istemaal karta hai.[20]

yuddh ke ant ki bhi kai tithiyaaain hain. kuchh sootron ka kehna hai 14 August 1945 ke yuddhaviraam se iska ant hua, Japan ke aupachaarik aatmasamarpan ke bajaay (2 sitmbar 1945); kuchh Europeeya itihaason mein yeh vi-E diwas (8 May 1945) ko samaapt hua. Japan ke saath shaanti sandhi par 1951 tak hastaakshar naheen hue the.

yuddh ki disha

inhein bhi dekhein: Timeline of World War II

cheen mein yuddh

vuhaan ke yudgh ke dauraan Japani senaayein

1937 ke madhya mein,Marco polo pul haadase ke baad, Japan ne cheen par sampoorn aakraman praarambh kar diya.soviyt sangh ne tunrat hi cheen ka samarthan kar diya, isi ke saath cheen ka Germany ke saath sahayog prabhaavi dhang se samaapt ho gaya.Shanghai se shuroo karte hue, jaapaaniyon ne cheeni sena ko peechhe dhakel diya aur December mein rajdhani nainajing par adhikaar jama liya. June 1938 mein cheeni senaaon ne peeli nadi (Yellow River) mein baadh laakar jaapaaniyon ke kadamon ko rok diya; yadyapi isse unhein vuhaan shahar mein suraksha ki taiyaari karne ke liye samay mil gaya, lekin fir bhi October tak shahar unke haath se nikal gaya.[21] is samay ke dauraan, Japani aur soviyt senaaon mein ek maamoolijhadap khaasan jheel par jaari thi; May 1939 mein, unamein ek adhik gambhir seema yuddh shuroo ho gaya[22] jiska ant 15 September ko ek sangharsh viraam samjhaute par hastaakshar aur yathaasthiti bahaali ke saath hua.[23]

Europe mein yuddh ki shuruaat

Europe mein, Germany aur Italy adhik nirbheek hote ja rahe the. March 1938 mein, Germany ne aastriya par kabja kar liya, ek baar pun: anya Europeeya shaktiyon dvaara naam maatr ki hi pratikriya hui.[24] protsaahit hokar, hitlar ne sudetenalaind, chekoslovaakiyaaka ek hissa jahaaain par mukhya roop se jaatigt jrman aabaadi rahati thi, par jrman adhikaar ke liye dabaav badhaava shuroo kar diya; France aur Britain ne usako ye bhoomi, chekoslovaakiya sarkaar ki ichha ke viruddh, is shart par lene di ki aage usaki koi maang naheen hogi.[25] haalaanki, uske baad jaldi hi, Germany aur Italy ne chekoslovaakiya ko baadhya kar diya ki vo Hungary aur Poland ko atirikt bhoomi de. March 1939 mein Germany ne chekoslovaakiyaake pichhle hisse par aakraman kar diya aur use jarman sanrakshit bohemiya va moraaviya aur jarman samarthak slovaak ganaraajya mein vibhaajit kar diya.

bhayabheet ho kar, aur hitlar dvaara ki gayi daanjig par aage ki maangon ke kaaran, France aur Britain ne polish ki aajaadi ke liye samarthan dene ka aashvaasan de diya; jab April, 1939 mein Italy ne albaaniya par vijay praapt ki, yahi aashvasav romaaniya aur grees ko bhi pradaan kar diya gaya.[26]freinko-british dvaara Poland ko di gayi pratijnyaaaon ke fauran baad, Germany aur Italy ne ispaat ki sandhi (Pact of Steel) ke saath apne gathajod ko aupachaarik banaaya.[27]

August 1939 mein Germany aur soviyt sangh ne gair aakraamakata sandhi par hastaakshar kiye.[28] is sandhi mein ek gupt protokol shaamil tha jiske anusaar Poland aur poorvi Europe ko alag alag prabhaav vaale kshetron mein vibhaajit karne ki yojana shaamil thi.[29]

chitr:German Soviet.jpg
Poland, September 1939 mein soviyt aur jarman adhikaariyon.

1 sitmbar 1939 ko, edaulf hitlar ne Poland par aakraman kiya aur dviteeya vishv yuddh shuroo ho gaya. France, Britain aur raashtramandal ke deshon ne Germany par yudd ghoshit kar diya, lekin Poland ko koi sainya sahaayata pradaan naheen ki, saaralaind pe ek chhote fraanseesi hamle ke sivaaya.[30] 17 September 1939, ko Japan ke saath ek yuddhaviraam par hastaakshar karne ke baad par, soviyt sangh ne Poland par apne aakraman ki shurooaat ki.[31] October ki shuruaat tak, abhiyaan ki samaapti Poland ke Germany, soviyt sangh, lithuaaniya aur Slovakia[32] ke bich vibhaajan ke saath hui, haalaaainki adhikaarik taur par Poland ne kabhi bhi aatmasamarpan naheen kiya tha.

Poland mein ladaai ke dauraan, Japan ne chaangsha, ek rananeetik roop se mahatvapoorn cheeni shahar, ke khilaaf apna pehla hamla kiya, lekin October tak hi usako peechhe dhakel diya gaya.[33]

Poland ke aakraman ke baad, soviyt sangh nebaaltik raajyon mein sainikon ko aage badhaana shuroo kar diya.November ke ant mein soviyt sangh dvaara daale gaye isi tarah ke dabaav ke viruddh finishon ke pratirodh ke kaaran sheetakaaleen yuddh aarambh hua, jo ki finish riyaayaton ke saath hi samaapt hua.[34] France aur Britain ne, Finland par soviyt hamle ko Germany ki or ke yuddh mein pravesh karne ke samaan maanate hue, soviyt aakraman ka javaab league of nations se uske nishkaasan ke roop mein diya. haalaaainki cheen ke paas isko rokane ka adhikaar tha, lekin khud ko pashchimi shaktiyon ya soviyt sangh se vimukh karne ke liye taiyaar na hone ke kaaran usane swayam ko vimukh kar liya. soviyt union isse aprasann ho gaya aur parinaam svarup cheen ko saari sainya sahaayata ko nilambit kar diya.[35] June 1940 tak, soviyt sashastr balon ke baaltik raajyon ke kabje ko poora kar liya.[36]

France ke patan ke baad peris mein jarman sainya dal.

pashchimi Europe mein, british sainikon ko mahaadveep mein tainaat kiya gaya, lekin Germany aur mitr raashtron donon mein se kisi ne bhi ek doosare par seedhe prahaar naheen kiye.soviyt sangh aur Germany ne fravari 1940 mein ek vyaapar sandhi mein pravesh kiya, iske anusaar soviyt ko Germany ke sainya aur audyogik upakaran praapt hue, iske badle mein unhein british naakaabandi ko naakaam karne ke liye Germany ko kachche maal ki aapoorti karni padi.[37] April mein, Germany ne sveedan se lauh-ayask ki shipmeint, jisko mitr raashtra nasht karne ki koshish karte, ko surakshit karne ke liye Denmark aur Norway par aakraman kiya. Denmark ne tunrat hi aatm-samarpan kar diya aur mitr raashtron ke samarthan ke baavajood, Norway bhi do maheene ke bheetar hi dharaashaayi ho gaya.[38] Britain ka naarvejiyn abhiyaan ke prati asantosh vinstan charchil ke dvaara 10 May 1940 ko kiye gaye pradhaanamantri nevile chembaralin ke pratisthaapan ka kaaran bana.[39]

dhuri raashtra badhte hain

usi din, Germany neFrance aur nichle deshon par aakraman kar diya.needaralainds aur Belgium ko kuchh hafton mein toofaani hamle ki rananeeti ka upayog karke dharaashaayi kar diya gaya. France ki forteefaaid maiginot rekha ko aardenes kshetr, jisko France ke dvaara galati se bakhtaraband vaahanon ke khilaaf ek abhedya praakrutik baadha maana ja raha tha, ko gher liya gaya. british sainikon ko mahaadveep ko, maheene ke ant tak bhaari upakaranon ko chhod kar, danakirk mein khaali karne ke liye majaboor kar diya gaya. 10 June ko, Italy ne France aur Britain donon par hamle ki ghoshana karke aakraman kiya;[40] baarah dinon ke baad France ne aatm-samarpan kiya aur use tunrat jarman aur itaalavi adhikaar kshetron mein vibhaajit kar diya gaya[41] aur vishi shaasan ke tahat ek anadhikrut avashisht bhaag rakha gaya. 14 July ko, Britain ne Algeria sthit fraanseesi bed par aakraman kar diya taaki usaki sambhaavit jabti ko roka ja sake.[42]

RAF suparamareen spitfaayar, jiska Britain ke yuddh ke dauraan bade paimaane par istemaal kiya gaya

France ki paraajaya ke baad, Germany ne ek aakraman ke liye taiyaari karne ke liye Britain par havaai shreshthata abhiyaan shuroo kar diya (Britain ki jang).[43] abhiyaan vifal raha aur sitmbar mein aakraman yojanaaon ko radd kar diya gaya. nav-adhikrut fraanseesi bandaragaahon ka upayog karte hue, jarman nausena ne royal nausena ke viruddh safalta paayi, atalaantik mein british poton ke viruddh you-naavon ke upayog ke dvaara.[44] Italy ne bhoomadhya mein apna abhiyaan praarambh kiya, June mein maalta ki gheraabandeeki, August mein british somaaleelaind par vijay praapt ki aur sitmbar ke shuroo mein british-adhikrut misr ke oopar chadhaai ki. Japan ne sitmbar mein, ab-pruthak hue fraanseesi hindacheen ke uttari bhaag mein kai sthaanon ko hadp kar, cheen par naakaabandi badha di.[45]

is poori avadhi ke dauraan, tatasth sanyukt raajya ne cheen aur pashchimi mitr raashtron ki sahaayata ke liye upaaya kiye.November 1939 mein, America ka tatasthata adhiniyam mitr raashtron dvaara 'nakad aur mudrik' khareed ki anumati ke liye sanshodhit kar diya gaya.[46] 1940 mein, peris mein jarman kabje ke baad, sanyukt raajya America ki nausena ke aakaar mein ullekhaneeya vruddhi ki gayi aur hindacheen par Japan ke aakraman ke baad, sanyukt raajya America ne Japan ke viruddh loha, ispaat aur yaantrik bhaagon ki ghaatabandhi kar di.[47] September mein, America ne british thikaanon ke liye sanyukt raajya America ke vidhvansakon ke vyaapaar ko aur aage badhaane ke liye sahamati di.[48] fir bhi, ameriki janta ka ek bada bahumat 1941 tak mein sangharsh mein kisi bhi pratyaksh sainya hastakshep ka virodh karta raha tha.[49]

sitmbar ke ant mein Japan, Italy aur Germany ke beech tripksheeya sandhi (Tripartite Pact) ne dhuriya shaktiyon ko aupachaarikta pradaan ki. sandhi ke anusaar, koi desh, soviyt sangh ke aalaava, jo yudd mein nahi hai agar usane dhruveeya shaktiyon par aakraman kiya, to usako teenon ke khilaaf yuddh mein jaane ke liye majaboor kiya jaaega.[50] soviyt sangh ne tripksheeya sandhi mein shaamil hone mein ruchi dikhaai. usane November mein Germany ko ek sanshodhit masauda bheja, jismein ek bahut jrman-anukool aarthik sauda prastaavit kiya,[51] haalaaainki Germany pehle vaale masaude ke liye to chup raha, par usane baad vaale saude ko sveekaar kar liya.[52] sandhi ke baavajood, America cheen aur Britain ka samarthan karta raha. iske liye usane udhaar aur kiraaye par dene ki neeti ko prastaavit kiya[53] aur ek suraksha kshetr ki sthaapana ki jiska vistaar lagbhag aadhe atalaantik mahaasaagar mein tha aur jahaaain ameriki nausena british dalon ko suraksha pradaan karti thi.[54] parinaamasvaroop, October 1941 tak uttari atalaantik mein Germany aur America nirantar ek, bhale hi aghoshit, nausainik sangharsh mein ulajhe rahe, haalaaainki aadhikaarik taur par America tatasth hi bana raha.[55]

dhuri raashtron ne November 1940 mein apna vistaar kiya jab Hungary, Slovakia aur romaaniya tripksheeya sandhi mein shaamil ho gaye.[56][56] mein[56] in deshon ne soviyt sangh ke oopar baad ke aakraman mein bhaag liya hai, jismein roomaaniya ka sabse bada yogadaan tha soviyt sangh se apni adhigraheet bhoomi ko chhudaane ke liye aur apne neta aayan entoneskyoo ke saamyavaad ke prati ladne ki ichha ke liye.[57]

October mein, Italy ne grees par aakraman kiya lekin kuchh hi dinon mein albaaniya mein vaapas khaded diya gaya, jahaaain ek gatirodh utpann ho gaya.[58] iske fauran baad, Africa mein, raashtramandal senaaon ne misr aur operation kampaasitaalavi poorvi Africa ke viruddh aakraman shuroo kiya. 1941 ki shuruaat mein, raashtramandal dvaara itaalavi senaaon ka Libya mein vaapas dhakele jaane ke saath, charchil ne yoonaaniyon ke samarthan ke liye Africa se senaaon ki ravaanagi ke liye aadesh diya.Italy ki nausena ko bhi mahattvapoorn jhatke lage, taaranto mein vaahak hamle ke dvaara teen itaalavi jangi jahaajon ko raayal nausena dvaara nishkriya kar diya gaya aur kep mataapan mein anya kai yuddhapoton ko nishkriya kar diya gaya.[59]

jarman pairaatrooparon ka kreet par aakraman

jarman ne jald hi Italy ki sahaayata karne ke liye hastakshep kiya. February mein hitlar ne jarman senaaon ko Libya ke liye bheja aur March ke ant tak unhonne ghate hue raashtramandal balon ke khilaaf aakraman shuroo kiya.ek maheene ke andar, raashtramandal balon ko ghire hue tobruk bandargaah ke sivaaya, vaapis misr mein dhakel diya gaya. raashtramandal ne pehle May mein aur firdobaara June mein dhureeya senaaon ko hataane ka prayaas kiya, lekin donon hi maukon mein asafal raha.April ki shuruaat mein Germany ne usi prakaar balkans mein hastakshep kiya, grees auryoguslaaviya par aakraman karke; yahaaain bhi unhonne ne teji se pragati ki aur antat: May ke ant tak Germany ke dvaara kreet ke yoonaani dweep par vijay praapt karne ke baad mitr raashtron bhaagane ke liye vivsh kar diya.[60].

haalaanki is samay ke dauraan bhi mitr raashtron ne kuchh safalataaeain praapt ki hain.madhya poorv mein, raashtramandal balon ne pehle Iraq mein satta palat ki cheshta ko naakaam kiya jiska vishi-niyantrit Syria ke bheetari thikaanon ke jarman vimaan dvaara samarthan kiya ja raha tha,[61] fir, aajaad France ki sahaayata se, aage is tarah ki ghatnaaon ko rokane ke liye Syria aur Lebanon par aakraman kiya.[59] atalaantik mein, british ne jarman ke pramukh bismaarkk jahaaj ko dubokar janta ke manobal ko bhaari maatr mein badhaava diya.[62] shaayad sabse mahatvapoorn baat yeh hai, royal air fors ne looftavaaf ke hamle ka safalataapoorvak pratirodh kiya aur 11 May 1941 ko hitlar ne Britain ke bamabaari abhiyaan ko samaapt kar diya.[63]

Asia mein, donon pakshon dvaara kai hamlon ke baavajood, 1940 tak cheen aur Japan ke beech ke yudd mein gatirodg utpann ho gaya. us varsh ke August mein, cheeni kamyuniston ne central cheen mein ek aakraman shuroo kiya; pratishodh mein, Japan ne kamyuniston ke liye maanav aur bhautik sansaadhanon ko kam karne ke liye adhikrut kshetron mein kathor upaayon (three auls ki neeti) ko sansthaapit kiya.[64] January 1941 mein cheeni communist aur raashtravaadi taakaton ke beech nirantar chal raha tanaav sashastr jhagadon mein tabdeel ho gaya, parinaamasvaroop prabhaavi roop se unka aapasi sahayog samaapt ho gaya.[65]

Europe aur Asia ki tulanaatmak sthir sthiti ke saath, Germany, Japan aur soviyt sangh ne taiyaariyaan shuroo keen.soviyt sangh ke Germany ke saath badhte tanaav ke saath aur dakshin poorv Asia mein sansaadhan samruddh Europeeya adhikrut kshetron par kabje dvaara Europeeya yuddh se laabh uthaane ki Japan ki yojana ke saath, April, 1941 mein donon shaktiyon ne soviyt-Japan tatasthata karaar par hastaakshar kiye.[66] iske vipreet, jarman, soviyt seema par senaaen ekatrit karte hue, soviyt sangh par ek hamle ke liye taiyaari kar rahe the.[67]

yuddh vaishvik ho jaata hai

chitr:Ger Inf Russia 1941 HDSN9902655.JPEG
soviyt sangh ke aakraman mein jarman sainik, 1941

22 June 1941 ko Germany ne anya yooropiyn dhuri raashtra sadasyon aur Finland ke saath mil kar, operation baarbosa ke tahat soviyt sangh par aakraman kar diya. is akasmaat chadhaai[68] ke praathamik lakshya baaltik kshetr, Moscow aur Ukraine the. jabki kaispiyn aur shvet saagar ko jodne waali A-A rekha ke nikat is 1941 ke abhiyaan ko samaapt karna iska antim lakshya tha. hitlar ke uddeshya the soviyt sangh ko ek sainya shakti ke roop mein samaapt karna, saamyavaad ka vinaash, sthaaneeya logon[69]. se chheen kar ek 'rahane ke sthaan'[70] ka nirmaan karna aur Germany ke bache hue shatruon ka vinaash karne ke liye saamarik sansaadhanon ki upalabdhata ke prati aashvast hona.[71] haalaaainki yuddh se pehle laal sena rananeetik javaabi hamle ki taiyaari kar rahi thi[72] baarbosa ne soviyt ki sarvochch kamaan ko rananeetik suraksha apnaane ke liye majaboor kar diya. garmiyon ke dauraan, dhuri raashtron ne soviyt kshetron mein mahattvapoorn safalataaeain arjit keen, vastuon aur logon ko bhaari kshati pahunchaai.haalaanki, August ke madhya tak, jarman sena haai kamaan ne kshatigrast sena samooh kendra ke aakraman ko sthagit karne ka faisala kar liya aur dviteeya paanjer samooh ko sentral Ukraine aur leningraad ki taraf badh rahi sena ko majabooti pradaan karne ke liye unki taraf mod diya.[73]keev ka aakraman atyant safal raha, parinaamat: chaar soviyt senaaon ka gher kar safaaya kar diya gaya aur kreemiya aur audhogik roop se viksit poorvi Ukraine (khaarkov ki pratham ladaai) mein aur aage badhne ko sambhav bana diya.

khreshchaatyk, keev ki mukhya sadak, jarman bamabaari ke baad.

dhuri raashtra senaaon ke teen chauthaai hisse ko central bhoomadhya aur France se hataakar poorvi morche[74] par bhejane ke faisale[75], ne Britain ko apni grand rananeeti par punarvichaar karne par baadhya kiya.[76] July mein, Britain aur soviyt sangh ne Germany ke khilaaf ek sainya gathabandhan ka gathan kiya[77] aur kuchh hi samay ke baad sanyukt roop se faarasi galiyaare aur Iran ke tel kshetron ko surakshit karne ke liye Iran par hamla kiya.[78] August mein, United kingadam aur sanyukt raajya America ne sanyukt roop se atalaantik ghoshanaapatr jaari kiya.[79] November mein, raashtramandal balon ne ek javaabi hamla kiya, operation kroosedar, uttari Africa mein aur Germany aur Italy dvaara jeete gaye sabhi hisson ko vaapas chhuda liya.[80]

Japan ne pichhle varsh dakshini indochaayana par sainya kabja kiya tha, iska ek kaaran aapoorti maargon ko avaruddh karke cheen par dabaav badhaana tha aur isliye bhi taaki pashchimi shaktiyon se yuddh ki sthiti mein Japani senaaon ko behtar sthiti mein rakha ja sake.Japan, Europe mein Germany ki safalta ka faayda uthaane ki ummeed se, dach East Indies ke tel ki ek sthir aapoorti sahit kai maangein rakhata hai;haalaaainki ye prayaas June 1941 mein vifal ho gaye.[75] America, Britain aur anya pashchimi sarkaaron ne Japan ke indochaaina par kabje ka virodh Japani parisampattiyon par rok ke saath kiya. jabki America ne (jo ki Japan ke tel ki 80% aapoorti karta tha)[81]. ne usapar poorn tel nishedh thop kar iska javaab diya.[82] cheen ke viruddh apne abhiyaan ko aur Asia mein apni mahatvaakaanksha ko chhod dena, ya fir jin praakrutik sansaadhanon ki usako jarurat thi unapar bal poorvak kabja karna- moolat: Japan ko in donon mein se kisi ek ka chunaav karne ke liye baadhya hona pada; Japani sena pehle vaale ko ek vikalp ke taur par naheen maanati thi aur kai adhikaari un par thope gaye tel ghaatabandhi ko ek aghoshit yuddh ki tarah maanate the.[83] central prashaant tak vistrut ek badi surakshaatmak paridhi banaane ke liye, Japani impeeriyl general mukhyaalaya ne Asia mein Europeeya kaaloniyon par teji se kabja karne ki rananeeti banaayeen; is prakaar Japani dakshin poorv Asia ke sansaadhanon ka dohan karne ke liye svatantr rahate, jabki ghati hui shakti vaale mitr raashtron ko ek surakshaatmak ladaai ke dvaara thaka diya jaata. paridhi ko suraksha pradaan karte samay ameriki hastakshep ko rokane ke liye, shuruaat se hi sanyukt raajya ke paisifik bede ko beasar karne ki yojana banaayi gayi.[84]

October tak, jab dhuri raashtra ke Ukraine aur baaltik kshetron ke lakshyon ki poorti ho chuki thi, keval leningraad[85] aur sevaastopolaki ladaai hi jaari thi[86], Moscow ke khilaaf ek bade aakraman ka naveekaran kiya gaya. do maheene ki bheeshan ladaai ke baad, jarman sena Moscow ke lagbhag baahari upanagar tak pahuainch gayi, lekin vaha par thaki hui senaaon[87] ko apna aakraman nilambit karne ke liye majaboor hona pada.[88] prabhaavashaali praadeshik badhat ke baavajood, dhuriya abhiyaan apne mukhya uddeshyon ko haasil karne mein asafal raha: do pramukh shahar soviyt ke hi paas rahe, soviyt ki virodh ki kshamata khtam naheen hui aur soviyt sangh apni sainya kshamata ke ek mahatvapoorn hissa ko banaaye rakh saka. Europe mein dviteeya vishv yuddh ke toofaani hamle ke charan ka samaapan ho gaya tha. [89]

Japani sainikon Kuala Lumpur se badhte.

December ki shuruaat tak, taaje jutaae gaye bhandaaron[90] ne soviyt ko dhuriya senaaon ke saath sankhyaatmak samata praapt karne mein madad ki.[74] isne aur saath hi saath is khufiya jaanakaareene ki soviyt ki poorv mein kam se kam itni sena maujood hai jo ki Japan ki kvaantung senaake hamle ko rok sakti hai,[91] ne soviyt ko 5 December ko apni 1000 kimi ki seema par ek vishaal javaabi hamla karne aur jarman sena ko 100-250 kimi pashchim ki taraf peechhe dhakelane ki anumati pradaan ki.[92]

do din baad, 7 December ko (8 December Asiaee samay kshetr ke anusaar), Japan ne british, dach aur ameriki thikaanon par hamla kiya aur lagbhag saath hi saath thekshin poorv Asia aur prashaant central ke khilaaf bhi morcha khol diya.iname shaamil the parl haarbar mein ameriki bede par hamla aur Thailand aur malaaya mein utarana.

in hamlon ne sanyukt raajya America, United kingadam, Australia, anya pashchimi sahayogiyon aur cheen (jo ki pehle se hi dviteeya cheen-Japan yuddhalad raha tha) ko Japan par aupachaarik roop se yuddh ki ghoshana karne ke liye ukasaaya.Germany aur tripksheeya sandhi ke anya sadasyon ne sanyukt raajya America par hamle ki ghoshana ke dvaara pratikriya vyakt ki.January mein, sanyukt raajya America, United kingadam, soviyt sangh, cheen aur baais chhoti athva nirvaasit sarkaaron ne sanyukt raashtra dvaara ghoshana jaari ki jisne atalaantik chaartaraki pushti kar di.[93] soviyt sangh ne ghoshana patra ka paalan naheen kiya, Japan ke saath ek tatasthata samjhaute ko banaaye rakha[94][95] aur khud ko svanirdhaaran ke siddhaant se mukt kar liya.[79]

px225British jehaadi tank ko uttari Africa abhiyaan ke dauraan sthaan ke liye aage badh.

is beech, April 1942 ke ant tak, Japan ne lagbhag poori tarah se barma, fileepeens, malaaya, dach East Indies, Singapore,[96] aur raabaul ke ek mahattvapoorn thikaane par kabja kar liya tha, is dauraan usane mitr deshon ki senaaon ko gambhir nuksaan pahuainchaaya aur badi sankhya mein bandi banaaye. Japani senaaon ne dakshin cheen saagar, jaava saagar aur hind mahaasaagar mein bhi nausena jeet haasil ki[97] aur mitr raashtron ke daarvin, Australia sthit nausena base par bamabaari ki.Japan ke khilaaf mitr raashtron ki ekamaatr safalta January, 1942 ki shuruaat mein aayi chaangshoo ki vijay thi.[35] taiyaari rahit virodhiyon ke oopar mili in aasan vijyon se Japan ka aatm vishvaas kuchh jyaada ki badh gaya, saath hi saath sansaadhanon ke maamale mein bhi tanaav aa gaya.[tathya vaanchhit]

Germany ne bhi pahal ko banaaye rakha. ameriki nausena ke sandigdh faisalon se faayda lete hue, jarman nausena ne ameriki atalaantik tat par mahatvapoorn sansaadhanon ko nasht kar diya.[98] bhaari kshati ke baavajood, Europeeya dhuri raashtra ke sadasyon ne central aur dakshini roos mein soviyt ke ek vishaal hamle ko rok diya aur pichhle varshon ke dauraan praapt hue sabhi praadeshik laabhon ko bachaae rakhane mein safal rahe.[74] uttari Africa mein, Germany ne January mein ek aakraman shuroo kiya aur farabari ki shuruaat tak britishon ko gajaala rekha ke addon tak peechhe khaded diya,[99]. iske baad yuddh mein ek asthaayi viraam aaya jiska upayog Germany ne aagaami hamlon ki taiyaari ke liye kiya.[100]

paasa palatata hai

midve ke yudgh mein ameriki gota bam.

May ke shuroo mein, Japan ne dvidha gativaale hamle ke jariye port moresbi par kabja karne ke liye operation shuroo kiye aur is prakaar sanyukt raajya America aur Australia ke beech sanchaar ki rekha kaat di. tathaapi, mitr raashtron ne Japani nausainik balon ko roka aur vaapas bhej diya, is prakaar aakraman ko rok diya gaya.[101] Japan ki agali yojana, tokyo par poorv ki bamabaari dvaara prerit, midve etol ko jabt karne aur America ke vaahakon ko fansa kar nasht karne ki thi; bhatakaane ke liye, Japan ne ailyooshiyn dweep par kabja karne ke liye bhi senaaon ko bheja.[102] Japan ne June ki shuruaat mein apne opreshans ko kriyaanvit kiya lekin ameriki, Japani nausena ke kooton ko May ke ant tak tod chukane ke kaaran, poori tarah se unki yojanaaon aur bal vyavasthaayon se parichit the aur shaahi Japani nausena par ek nirnaayak jeet paane ke liye is gyaan ko istemaal kiya.[103] midve ki ladaai ke parinaam ne aakraamak kaaravaai ke liye unki kshamata ko bahut kam kar diya, isliye Japan ne paapuaa ke kshetramein thalachar abhiyaan dvaara port moresbi par kabja karne ke liye ek vilmbit prayaas par dhyaan keindrit karne ko chuna.[67] amerikiyon ne dakshin mein soloman dveepasamooh mein Japani gatividhiyon ke khilaaf, mukhya roop se guaadalakainaal, rabaul, jo ki dakshin poorv Asia mein Japan ka mukhya aadhaar hai, par kabje ke pehle kadam ke roop mein, javaabi hamle ki yojana banaai.[104] donon yojanaaen July mein shuroo huin, lekin sitmbar ke madhya tak, guaadalakainaal ke liye ladaai jaapaaniyon ke liye praathamikta ban gayi aur new gini mein sainikon ko aadesh diya gaya ki ve moresbi port kshetr se hatkar dweep ke uttari bhaag mein chale jaaeain, jahaaain par unka saamana byoona-gona ki jangamein Australia aur America ki faujon se hua.[105] guaadalakainaal jald hi sangharshan ki ladaai mein sainikon aur jahaajon ki bhaari pratibddhataaon ke saath donon pakshon ke liye ek kendra bindu ban gaya. 1943 ke praarambh tak, Japani dweep par haar gaye aur unhonne apne sainikon ko vaapas bula liya.[106]

barma mein, raashtramandal balon ne do operation shuroo kiye. pratham, 1942 ke ant mein araakan kshetr mein ek aakraamak anarthakaari ho gaya, iski vajah se May 1943 tak vaapis Bhaarat aane ke liye majaboor hona pada.[107] doosra February mein Japani frant-laainon ke peechhe aniyamit balon ki pravishti thi jisse April ke ant tak sandigdh parinaam haasil hue.[108]

Germany ke poorvi morchepar, khaarkov mein tatha kerch praayadveepamein mitr raashtron ne soviyt aakramanakaariyon ko haraaya[109] aur fir June, 1942 mein, kaakeshas ke tel kshetron ko jabt karne ke liye, dakshini roos June ke viruddh unke mukhya greeshm aakraman ko shuroo kiya. soviyt sangh ne stelingraad par, jo badhati jarman senaaon ke raaste mein tha, par apna morcha banaane ka nishchaya kiya. November ke madhya tak jarman ne ek chhoti ladaai mein lagbhag stelingraad ko hathiya liyaajab soviyt sangh ne stelingraad mein jarman balon ki gheraabandi[110] karni shuroo karte hue, apna doosra sheetakaaleen javaabi-hamalaaaur Moscow ke nikat rjhev pramukh par hamla shuroo kiya, yadyapi uttaraarddh ko niraashaajanak asafalata mili.[111] February ke shuroo tak, jarman sena ka bhari nuksaan hua tha; stelingraad mein unke sainikon ko aatm-samarpan karne ke liye majaboor kar diya gaya aur garmiyon ke aakraman se pehle unke agrim morche ko uske sthaan se peechhe dhakel diya gaya. madhya February mein, soviyt sangh ke dabaav ke kam hone ke baad, jarmanon ne khaarkov par ek aur hamla kiya, roos ke kursk shahar ke aaspaas apne agrim morche mein ek seliyentaka nirmaan kiya.[112]

pashchim mein, is baat ki chinta ki Japani vichi adhikrut medaagaaskar ke addon ka upayog kar sakte hain, kaaran bani Britain ke May 1942 ki shuruaat mein dweep par aakraman ki.[113] ye safalta jaldi hi hava ho gayi jab dhuri raashtron ne Libya par aakraman kiya aur mitr raashtron ko mistr tak tab tak peechhe dhakelate rahe jabatak dhureeya shaktiyon ko L alaameen mein rok naheen diya gaya.[114] mahaadveep par, rananeetik thikaanon par mitr raashtron ke commando ke chhape, jinka samaapan vinaashakaari deeep chhaapon[115] .se hua, isne kaafi behtar taiyaari, upakaranon aur parichaalan suraksha ke bina hi mahaadveepeeya Europe par aakraman karne ki pashchimi sahayogiyon ki asamarthata ka pradarshan kiya.[116] August mein, mitr raashtra L alaameen ke khilaaf doosare hamle ko rokane mein safal rahe aur, adhik keemat par, ghire hue maalta ke liye ati aavashyak aapoorti ko pahuainchaane mein kaamayaab rahe.[117] kuchh maheenon ke baad dhureeya senaaon ko baahar karte hue aur Libya ke paar pashchim mein pravesh ki shuruaat karte hue, mitr raashtron ne apne bal par hi misr par ek hamle ki shuruaat ki.[118] iske kuchh hi der baad fraanseesi uttari Africa par aangl-ameriki aakraman hua, jiske parinaamasvarup ye kshetr mitr raashtron ke saath shaamil ho gaye.[119] French upanivesh ke pala badalne ki pratikriya mein hitlar ne vichi France ke adhigrahan[119][120] Africa mein dabaav mein I dhureeya senaaon ko tyoonishiya mein bhaag jaana pada, jise May 1943 mein mitr raashtron dvaara jeet liya gaya.[121]

mitr raashtron ko gati mili

british sainikon ne imfaal yuddh ke dauraan ek mortar firing.

mukhya bhoomi Asia mein, Japan ne do pramukh aakramanon ka shubhaarambh kiya. pehla, jiski shuruaat March 1944 thi, Bhaarat ke asam mein british thikaanon ke khilaaf[122] tha, isne jald hi imfaal aur kohima mein raashtramandal ke thikaanon ko jaapaaniyon ke adhigraheet kar diya;[123] haalaaainki May tak, anya Japani dalon ko cheeni dalon, jinhonne 1943 ke ant mein uttari barma par aakraman kiya tha, dvaara mitkina mein gher liya gaya tha.[124] aur doosra cheen mein tha, jiska lakshya tha cheen ke mukhya sainya balon ko nasht karna, Japan adhigraheet kshetron mein railway ko surakshit karna aur mitr raashtron ke havaai kshetron par kabja karna.[125] June tak jaapaaniyon ne henaan praant par vijay praapt kar li thi aur hunaan praant mein chaangsha ke khilaaf ek naveen hamle ki shuruaat kar di thi.[126]

guaadalakainaal abhiyaan ke baad mitr raashtron ne Japan ke khilaaf prashaant mein kai aapareshanon ki shurooaat ki.1943 May mein, ameriki senaaon ko alyooshiyans se Japani balon ko samaapt karaneke liye bheja gaya,[127] aur iske tunrat baad hi aaspaas ke dveepon par kabjon ke dvaara raabaul ko alag thalag karne ke liye aur maarshal dweep samooh mein Japani central prashaant paridhi ko bhang karne ke liye, pramukh sanchaalan shuroo kiye.March, 1944 ke ant tak, mitr raashtron ne in donon uddeshyon ko poora kar liya aur iske atirikt kairoleen dweep samooh mein ek anya pramukh Japani aadhaar ko kriyaaheen kar diya.April mein, mitr raashtron ne pashchimi new gini ko fir se haasil karne ke liye ek operation ki shuruaat ki.[128]

bhoomadhya mein, mitr raashtra senaaon ne July 1943 ke shuroo mein sisili par ek aakraman ki shuruaat ki.itaalavi mitti par hamle, pichhli viflataaon ke saath, ke parinaam svaroop musolini us maheene ke ant tak bedakhal aur giraftaar haagaya.[129] mitr raashtron ke saath Italy ke yuddaviraam ke baad, sitmbar ki shuruaat mein hue Italy ki mukhya bhoomi par mitr raashtron ne jald hi aakraman kiya.[130] jab 8 sitmbar ko yeh yuddaviraam saarvajanik hua, Germany ne iski pratikriya mein, itaalavi senaaon ko shastraheen kiya, itaalavi kshetron ke sainya niyantran par kabja kiya,[131] aur rakshaatmak laainon ki ek shrrunkhala ki sthaapana ki.[132] 12 sitmbar ko, jarman ke vishesh balon ne musolini ki aur adhik raksha ki jisne fir jald hi jarman kabje vaale Italy mein ek nae graahak raajya ki sthaapana ki.[133] mitr raashtron ko madhya November mein mukhya jarman rakshaatmak pankti tak pahuainchane se pehle kai jagahon par ladaai ladni padi.[134] January 1944 mein, mitr raashtron ne monte kesino ki line ke khilaaf hamlon ki shrrunkhala praarambh ki aur NGO par utar kar usako gherane ka prayaas kiya. May ke ant tak ye donon aakraman safal hue aur, kai jarman diveejanon ko vaapis jaane ki anumati ki keemat par, 4 June ko rom par kabja kar liya gaya.[135]

atalaantik mein jarman operation bhi prabhaavit hue. May 1943 tak, jarman panadubbi ke nuksaan itne adhik the ki nausena abhiyaan ko asthaayi taur par ek viraam de diya gaya kyonki mitr raashtron ke javaabi-upaaya kaafi prabhaavit saabit ho rahe the.[109]

soviyt sangh mein, jarmanon ne kursk ke kshetr mein ek bade aakraman ke liye taiyaariyaan karte hue 1943 ke basant aur garmiyon ko bitaaya; soviyt sangh is tarah ki kaarravaai ki apeksha kar raha tha aur usane apne kshetr ko drudh karne mein apna samay bitaaya.[136] 4 July ko, jarmanon ne apne hamle ki shuruaat ki, yadyapi keval ek hafte ek hafte baad hi hitlar ne operation radd kar diya.[137] fir soviyt sangh ek vishaal javaabi hamla karne mein saksham ho gaya aur, July 1944 tak, dhureeya balon ko soviyt sangh se bade paimaane par nishkaasit kiya aur romaaniya par aakraman kiya.[138]

1943 November mein, freinkalin di. roojavelt aur vinstan charchilkairo mein chyaang kaai shek ke saath aur fir Tehran mein Joseph staalin ke saath mile.pehle vaale sammelan mein, Japani kshetr ke yudd ke baad ki vaapasi ko nirdhaarit kiya gaya aur baad vaale sammalen mein, yeh tay kar liya gaya ki 1944 mein pashchimi sahayogi Europe par aakraman kareinge aur soviyt sangh Germany ki haar ke teen maheene ke bheetar Japan par yuddh ki ghoshana karega.

January 1944 mein, soviyt ne leningraad se jarman senaaon ko ukhaad feinka, is prakaar itihaas ke sabse lambi aur ghaatak gheraabandi ka ant hua.iske baad ke soviyt aakramanako yuddh poorv estoniya ki seema par jarman sena samooh uttar dvaara, estoniya, jise raashtriya svatantrata pun: praapt karaneki ummeed thi, ki madad se rok diya gaya. is deri ki vajah se soviyt ke baaltik saagar kshetr mein hone vaale opareshans par prabhaav pada.[139]

mitr raashtra nikat aae

normaande par mitr raashtron ka aakraman.

6 June 1944 ko (D-diwas ke roop mein jaana jaata hai), pashchimi mitr raashtron ne uttari France par aakramanakiya aur, Italy se anekon sainya tukadiyon ke punarnirdhaaran ke baad, dakshini France par bhi aakraman kiya.[140] ye abhiyaan safal rahe the aur France mein jarman sainya tukadiyon ki haar ka kaaran bane. peris 25 August koaajaad kara liya gaya[141] aur varsh ke uttaraardh mein, pashchimi pashchimi Europe mein jarman senaaon ka mitr raashtron dvaara peechhe dhakela jaana jaari raha. haulaind mein ek havaai hamle ki aguvaai mein uttari Germany par chadhaai karne ki ek koshish hui, haalaaainki ye safal naheen hui.[142] mitr raashtron ne bhi Italy par apni agrim ko jaari rakha, tab tak jab tak ki unka saamana vahaan jarman ki antim pramukh suraksha pankti se naheen ho gaya.

June 22 ko, soviyt sangh ne Belarus ("operation bagreshan"ke roop mein jaana jaata hai) par ek rananeetik aakraamak shuroo kiya jiske falasvaroop jarman sena samooh kendra ka lagbhag poora vinaash ho gaya.[143][144] uske tunrat hi baad pashchimi Ukraine aur poorvi Poland se jarman senaaon ko ek aur soviyt rananeetik hamle ne majaboor kar diya. Poland mein pratirodhi shaktiyon ko soviyt ke safal abhiyaan se bal mila aur unhonne kai bagaavaton ko praarambh kiya. haalaaainki inmein se jo sabse badi thi, vaursau mein, saath hi dakshin mein slovaak kraanti, unako soviyt ka samarthan naheen praapt tha isliye unhein jarman senaaon dvaara daba diya gaya.[145] laal sena ke poorvi romaaniya mein rananeetik aakraman ne vahaan sthit bhaari jarman senaaon ko nasht kar diya aur romaaniya aurbalgaariya meinek safal takhtaapalat ki neenv daali, iske pashchaat ye desh mitr deshon ke paale mein aa gaye. sitmbar 1944 mein, soviyt laal senaaen romaaniya mein badheen aur grees, albaaniyaaaur yugoslaav frantyoogoslaaviyaamein jarman sena ke E aur ऍf samoohon ko teji se peechhe hatne par majaboor kar diya taaki unako alag thalag padne se bachaaya ja sake. is samay tak, yugoslaaviya ki adhikaansh bhoomi ka niyantran saamyavaadi netrut paartijns josip broj teeto ke adheenasth tha aur sudoor dakshin mein jarman senaaon ko rokane mein prayaasarat tha. uttari Serbia mein, balgeriyn senaaon ki seemit madad ki sahaayata se laal sena ne 20 October ko rajdhani shahar belagred ko ek sanyukt abhiyaan mein svatantrata dilaane ke liye saathiyon ko sahaayata pradaan ki. kuchh dinon baad, soviyt ne jarman adhikrut Hungary ke viruddh ek bhaari hamla kiya jo ki February 1945 mein budaapest ke dharaashaayeehone tak jaari raha.[146]

baalakans mein shaanadaar soviyt safalataaon ke vipreet, kaareliyn isthamus mein soviyt aakramanake finish dvaara sakht pratirodh ne soviyt ko Finland par kabja karne se rok diya, parinaam svaroop apekshaakrut halaki sharton par hi soviyt-finish yuddhaviraam par hastaakshar ho gaye[147][148] aur Finland mitr deshon ke paale mein pahuainch gaya.

July ki shuruaat tak, dakshin poorv Asia mein raashtramandal balon ne asam mein Japani gheraabandi ko vaapas dhakel diya, jaapaaniyon ko chindvin nadi[149] tak vaapis jaana pada jabki cheen ne myitkyina par kabja kar liya. cheen mein, Japan ne June ke madhya tak chaangsha par aur August ki shuruaat tak heingayaang par poorn roop se kabja karke adhik safalta rajit ki.[150] uske tunrat baad, unhonne aage guaangji ke praant par aakraman kiya aur November ke ant tak guilin aur liujhooo[151] mein cheeni senaaon ke khilaaf pramukh ladiyaan jeeteen aur December ke madhya tak cheen aur hindacheen mein apne balon ko safalataapoorvak joda.[152]

prashaant mein ameriki senaaon ne Japani paridhi ko peechhe dhakelana jaari rakha. 1944 mein June ke madhya mein, unhonne maariaana aur palaaoo dveepon ke khilaaf apna aakramanashuroo kiya aur kuchh hi dinon mein Philippine saagar mein Japani senaaon ke khilaaf ek nirnaayak jeet haasil kar li. in paraajayon ke parinaam svaroop Japani pradhaanamantri tojo ko isteefa dena pada aur Japan ke gruh dveepon par gahan aur bhaari bamabaari karne ke liye America ko havaai pattiyaaain upalabdh ho gayeen. October ke ant mein, Amreeki senaaon ne leyet ke filipino dweep par chadhaai ki; iske tunrat baad, mitr deshon ke nausena balon ne leyet khaadi ki jang, jo ki itihaas ki sabse badi nausainik jang hai, ke dauraan ek aur badi safalta haasil ki.[153]

dhuri raashtron ka patan, mitr raashtron ki vijay

ameriki aur soviyt sainya dal elbe nadi ke poorv miltein hain.
hiroshima par parmaanu visfot

16 December 1944 ko jarman senaaon ne ardeinnes mein pashchimi sahayogiyon par javaabi hamla kiya. mitr raashtron ko hamle par vijay paane mein chh: hafte lage. soviyt sangh ne Hungary se hamla kiya, jabki jarman ne grees aur albaaniya ka tyaag kar diya aur paartijnsake dvaara unako dakshini yoogoslaaviya se bahaar khaded diya gaya.[67] Italy mein, pashchimi sahayogi jarman rakshaatmak pankti ko bhed naheen paae. 1945 January madhya mein, soviyt sangh Poland par hamla kiya, vistula se Germany mein odar nadi tak khadeda, aur poorv prushiya par kabja kar liya.[136]

4 fravari ko, America, Britain aur soviyt neta yaalta mein mile.ve yudd pashchaat jarman adhigrahan ke liye sahamat ho gaye,[154] aur soviyt sangh Japan ke khilaaf ladaai mein kab shaamil hoga ispar bhi sahamat ho gaye.[155]

February mein, pashchimi sahayogiyon ki senaaon ne Germany mein pravesh kiya aur raain nadi ko band kar diya, jabki soviyt sangh ne pomereniyaaaur silesiya par aakraman kiya.March mein, pashchimi mitr raashtron ne jarman senaaon ki ek badi sankhya ko gherate hue ruhr ke uttari aur dakshini raain ko paar kar liya, jabki soviyt sangh viyna ki aur badha. April ke shuroo mein pashchimi sahayogi antat: Italy ki aur badheaur pashchimi Germany ko nasht kar diya, jabki April ke ant mein soviyt senaaen barlin par toot padeen; 25 April ko donon senaaen elba nadi par mileen.

is avadhi ke dauraan netrutv mein kai parivartan hue.12 April ko, ameriki raashtrapati roojaveltaka dehaant ho gaya, unke sthaan par Harry troomain aaye. 28 April ko musolini ko itaalavi paarteejns dvaara maar diya gaya[156] aur do dinon ke baad hitlar ne aatmahatya kar li, grand Admiral kaarl donitj unke sthaan par aaye.[157]

jarman senaaon Italy mein 29 April ko aur pashchimi Europe mein 7 maiko aatmasamarpan kar diya.[158] haalaanki, poorvi kshetr mein tab tak ladaai jaari rahi jab tak Germany ne 8 May ko vishesh roop se soviyt sanghake aage aatm-samarpan naheen kar diya.praag mein, jarman ke avasheshon ka pratirodh 11 May tak jaari raha.

prashaant theatre mein, American senaaen 1944 ke ant mein lete ko samaapt kar, fileepinsaki or badheen.ve January 1945 mein lujon par aur March meinmindaanaao par utare.[159] british aur cheeni senaaon ne October se March tak uttari barma mein jaapaaniyon ko haraaya, fir british 3 May tak rangoon ki or badh chale.[160] Amreeki senaaen bhi Japan ki aur badheen, March meinivo jima aur June mein okinaava ko le liya.[161] ameriki bamon ne Japani shaharon ko nasht kar diya aur ameriki panadubbiyaan Japani aayaat ko kat diya.[162]

11 July ko, mitr raashtron ke neta potsdam, Germany mein mile.unhonne Germany ko lekar kiye gaye pehle ke samajhoton ki pushti ki,[163] aur Japan dvaara bina shart samarpan ki maang ko doharaaya, vishesh roop se yeh kehte hue ki " Japan ke liye vikalp hai tvarit or poorn roop se vinaash".[164] is sammelan ke dauraan United kingadam ne apna aam chunaav aayojit kiya aurklemeint etali charchil ki jagah pradhaanamantri niyukt kiye gaye.

jab Japan ne potsdam sharton ko asveekaar karna jaari rakha, tab sanyukt raajya America ne August ke shuroo mein .Japani shaharon hiroshima aur naagaasaaki par parmaanu bam gira diyedo bam ke beech, soviyt sangh ne Japani-adhigraheet manchooriya par aakraman kar diya, jaisi ki yalata mein sahamati hui thi. 15 August 1945 ko Japan ne aatm-samarpan kiya aur yudd samaapt ho gaya.[158]

parinaam

uchchatam commander 5 June 1945 ko barlin mein: barnaard maantagomeri, dvaait di. aaisen hovar, gorgi hukov aur jeen de laattare di tassigni .
pradhaanamantreevinstan charchil Europe diwas ko jeet par landan mein bheed ka abhivaadan karte hue

antararaashtreeya shaanti banaae rakhane ke prayaas ke liye,[165] mitr raashtron ne sanyukt raashtra ka gathan kiya, jo 24 October 1945 ko adhikaarik taur par astitv mein aaya.[166]

haalaanki isse beparavaah, pashchimi sahayogiyon aur soviyt sangh ke beech ke rishte yudd ke khtam hone se pehle hi bigadne shuroo ho gaye the,[167][168] aur donon shaktiyon ne jald hi unke swayam ke prabhaav kshetronko sthaapit kiya.[75] Europe mein, mahaadveep anivaarya roop se pashchimi aur soviyt kshetron ke beech tathaakathit lauh parade, jo ki adheenasth aastriya aur mitr raashtron ke adheenasth Germany se hokar gujarata tha aur unhein vibhaajit karta tha, ke dvaara vibhaajit tha. Asia mein, sanyukt raajya America ne Japan par kabja kiya aur uske pashchimi prashaant kshetr ke poorv dveepon ko vyavasthit kiya jabki soviyt sangh ne sakhaalin aur kureel dveepon par adhikaar kar liya; poorv Japani shaasit koriyaako vibhaajit kar diya gaya aur donon shaktiyon ke beech adhikrut kar diya gaya.sanyukt raajya America aur soviyt sangh ke beech tanaav jaldi hi America-netrutvnaato aur soviyt netrutv waali vaarasau sandhi sainya gathabandhan ke gathan mein viksit hua aur unke beech mein sheet yudd ka praarambh hua.[169]

duniya ke kai hisson mein, dviteeya vishv yuddh ke samaapt hone ke kuchh hi samay ke bheetar sangharsh pun: shuroo ho gaya. cheen mein, raashtravaadi aur saamyavaadi taakaton ne jaldi hi unkegruh yuddh ko bahaal kar diya.saamyavaadi senaaen antat: vijayi raheen aurcheen ke janavaadi ganaraajya ko mukhya bhoomi par sthaapit kiya jabki raashtravaadi taakaton ne taaivaan mein apni satta jamaai. grees mein,saamyavaadi taakatonaur englo America samarthit shaaheevaadi taakaton ke bich gruhayuddh chhid gaya, jisme shaaheevaadi taakaton ki vijay hui. in muthabhedon ki samaapti ke tunrat baad, Korea meindakshini Korea, jisko pashchimi shaktiyon ka samarthan tha, tatha uttari Korea, jisko soviyt sangh aur cheen ka samarthan tha, ke beech yudd chhid gaya; moolat: yuddh ka ant ek gatirodh aur sangharsh viraam ke saath hua.

yudd ki samaapti ke baad, vibhinn Europeeya aupaniveshik shaktiyon ke niyantran waali jagahon mein gair upanivesheekaranaka ek teevr daur aaya. aisa mukhya roop se vichaaradhaara mein badlaav, yudd se hui aarthik tandra aur svanirdhaaran ke liye sthaaneeya logon ki badhati maang ke kaaran hua. adhiktar hisson mein, ye hastaantaran apekshaakrut shaantipoorn dhang se hue, yadyapi apavaad ke taur par hindacheen, medaagaaskar, indoneshiyaaaur Algeria jaise desh ullekhaneeya hain.[170] anek kshetron mein, aamtaur par jaateeya ya dhaarmik kaaranon se, vibhaajan, yooropiyon ki vaapasi ke baad hua; aisa pramukh roop se dekha gaya filisteen ke adhidesh mein, jiske kaaranijaraail aur filisteen ki rachana hui aur Bhaarat mein, jiski vajah sebhaarateeya adhikaar kshetraaur Pakistani adhikaar kshetr ki utpatti hui.

yuddh ke baad mein aarthik sudhaar duniya ke bhinn bhaagon mein vividh hue, haalaaainki saamaanyataya ye kaafi sakaaraatmak the. Europe mein, pashchim Germany ne jaldi se poorvavarti sthiti ko pun: praapt karaliya aur 1950 ke dashak tak apne yudd poorv star se doguna utpaadan karna shuroo kar diya. .[171] Italy lachar aarthik sthiti mein yudd se baahar aaya,[172] lekin 1950 ke dashak tak, Italy ki arthavyavastha ko sthirta aur uchch vikaas dvaara chihnit kiya gaya.[173] yuddh ke baad Britain ki aarthik haalat khasta thi, [174] aur aane vaale kai dashakon tak unki arth vyavastha mein giraavat darj ki jaati rahi.[175] France bahut jaldi sanbhal gaya aur teji se aarthik vikaas aur aadhunikeekaran ke maarg par prashast ho gaya.[176] soviyt sangh ne bhi yuddh ke tatkaal baad utpaadan mein teji se vruddhi ka anubhav kiya.[177] Asia mein Japan ne avishvasaneeya teji se aarthik vikaas ka anubhav kiya aur 1980 ke dashak tak Japan duniya ki sabse taakatavar arthavyavasthaaon mein se ek ban gaya.[176] cheen, uske naagrik yuddh ke samaapan ke baad, anivaarya roop se ek divaaliya raashtra hi tha.[178] 1953 tak aarthik bahaali kaafi safal lag rahi thi kyonki utpaadan yudd poorv ke star par pahuainch gaya tha.[178] yeh vikaas dar jyaadaatar jaari raha, haalaanki ise sankshep mein vinaashakaari aur vishaal agrim chhalaaaingake aarthik prayog dvaara baadhit kiya gaya tha. yuddh ke ant mein, sanyukt raajya amareeka duniya ke lagbhag aadhe audyogik utpaadan ka utpaadan karta tha; haalaanki 1970 ke dashak tak, yeh prabhutv kaafi had tak kam ho gaya.[179]

yuddh ke prabhaav

hataahaton ki sankhya aur yuddh aparaadh

dviteeya vishv yuddh ke mautein

yuddh ke kul hataahaton ki sankhya ke anumaan bhinn bhinn hain, lekin adhikaansh ka maanana hai ki lagbhag 6 karod log is yuddh mein maare gaye the, jismein lagbhag 2 karod sainikaur 4 karod aam naagrik the.[180][181][182] bahut se naagrikon ki mrutyu beemaari, bhukhamari, narasanhaar, bamabaareeaur jaanboojhkar kar kiye gaye narasanhaaraki vajah se ho gayi.soviyt sangh ke lagbhag 27 million log yuddh ke dauraan maare gaye the, jo ki dviteeya vishv yuddh ke kul hataahaton ki sankhya ka lagbhag aadha tha.[183] dviteeya vishv yuddh ke kul hataahaton mein lagbhag 85 pratishat mitr raashtron (mukhyataya soviyt aur cheeni) ke the aur 15 pratishat dhuri raashtron ki taraf ke the. ek anumaan ke anusaar 1.2 karod naagrik naaji yaatana shiviron mein,[184] 15 lakh bamase, 70 lakh Europe mein anya kaaranon se, 75 lakh cheen mein anya kaaranon se maare gaye the.[185] kul hataahaton ki sankhyaaon mein bahut antar hai, kyonki adhikaansh mauton ko pralekhit naheen kiya gaya tha.

inmein se bahut si mautein dhureeya kabjit kshetron mein ghatit hue jaatisanhaar aur jarman tathaJapani senaaon dvaara kiye gaye yudd aparaadhon ka parinaam theen. jarman atyaachaaron mein se sabse kukhyaat tha holokaust, Germany aur uske sahayogiyon dvaara niyantrit pradeshon mein yahoodiyon ka vyavasthit narasanhaar.naajiyon samoohon ko bhi lakshya banaaya, jaise ki roma(jinka poraajmos mein lakshyeekaran kiya gaya), slaav aur samalaingik purush, ek anumaan ke anusaar paanch million se jyaada logon ka khatm kiya gaya.[186] dhuri raashtron ki taraf jhukaav vaale kroeshiya ke ustaas shaasan ke nishaane par mukhyata sarb log the.[187] sabse prasidd Japani kroorata ka udahaaran hai naanaking narasanhaar, jismein laakhon ki sankhya mein cheeni naagrikon ka balaatkaar aur hatya ki gayi thi.[188] Japani sena ne lagbhag 3 million se lekar 10 million se adhik naagrikon ki hatya ki jinme se adhikaansh cheeni the.[189] mitsuyoshi himeta ke anusaar, general yaasuji okamura dvaara heipi aur shaantung mein kaaryaanvit saanako sakusein ke dauraan kam se kam 2.7 million log maare gaye.

jaivik aur raasaayanik hathiyaaronke dhuri raashtra dvaara seemit upayog ki bhi jaankaari hai. iteliyns ne abaaiseeniya ki apni vijay ke dauraan mastard gas ka istemaal kiya,[190] jabki Japan ki shaahi senaane unke cheen (731 ikaai dekhein)[190][191] par aakraman aur adhikaar karne ke dauraan tatha soviyt sangh ke khilaaf shuruaati sangharshamein aise hathiyaaron ki anekon kismon ka istemaal kiya tha. [192] donon, jarman aur Japani donon ne in hathiyaaron ka parikshan naagrikon ke khilaaf kiya tha aur,[193] kuchh maamalon mein, yuddh bandiyon ke khilaaf.[194]

haalaaainki dhuri raashtra ke kai krutyon ko vishv ke pehle antararaashtreeya nyaayalaya mein peshi karne ke liye laaya gaya,[195] mitr raashtron ke krutyon ko naheen laaya gaya. mitr raashtron ka aise krutyon ke udahaaran mein shaamil hain, soviyt sangh mein janasankhya sthaanaantaran,[196] soviyt ke jabaradasti vaale shranik shivir (gulaag)gulaag, sanyukt raashtra mein jaapaaniyon ki najarabandi, operation keelhaul,[197] dviteeya vishv yuddh ke baad jarmanon ka nishkaasan, paulish naagrikon ka sovitaaton dvaara narasanhaar aur dushman kshetr mein naagrikon ke oopar bade paimaane par bamavarsha, jismein tokiyo shaamil hai aur sabse ullekhaneeya hai dresden.[198]

badi sankhya mein mautein, yadyapi aanshik roop se hi, paroksh roop se yudd ke kaaran hi huin, jaise ki 1943 ka Bengal ka aakaal.

yaatana shivir aur gulaami ka kaam

naaji the Holocaustholokaust, lagbhag 60 lakh yahoodiyon ke katl (mukhyataya aishkenaajim), ke liye jimmedaar tha, saath hi ve jimmedaar the do million jaateeya pols aur anya chaar million log jinko "jeevit rahane ke ayogya" karaar diya gaya (inmein shaamil the viklaang aur maanasik roop se beemaar, soviyt yuddhabandi, samalaingik, freemesans, Jhovaah ke gavaah aur roma) ke bhi katl ke. ye sab ek soche samajhe katleaam ke kaaryakram ka hissa tha. dviteeya vishv yuddh ke dauraan lagbhag 12 million log, jinmein se adhikaansh poorvi Europe ke the, Germany ki arthavyavastha mein bandhuaa majadoor ki tarah kaaryarat the.[199]

naaji yaatana shiviron ke saath saath soviyt ke gulaag(ya shramik shivir) ke kaaran bhi naagrikon ki anekon kabje vaale deshon, jaise ki Poland, lithuaaniya, laataviya aur estoniya, mein maut hui. iske aalaava in shiviron mein maut hui jarman yuddhabandiyon(POWs) ki aur yahaaain tak ki un soviyt naagrikon ki bhi jinhein ki naajiyon ka samarthak maana jaata tha.[200] soviyt mein Germany ke saath pratishat yuddh bandiyonki yuddh ke dauraan maut ho gayi thi.[201] richrd ovari ke anusaar soviyt yuddhabandiyon ki sankhya 5.7 million thi. un mein se, 57% mar gaye ya maare gaye the, kul 3.6 million.[202] kuchh bache huon ko unke soviyt sangh vaapasi par gaddaar ghoshit kar diya gaya. (aadesh sankhya 270 dekhein)[203]

Japani ke kaidi yuddh shiviron, jinmein se kaiyon ka shram shiviron ke roop mein istemaal kiya gaya, ka bhi uchch mrutyu dar tha. sudoor poorv ke antararaashtreeya sainya tribunal ke anusaar pashchimi bandiyon ka mrutyu dar 27.1 pratishat thi (ameriki yuddh bandiyon ke liye 37 pratishat),[204] jarman aur iteliyaans ke paas ke yuddh bandiyon ka saat guna.[205] cheeni yuddhabandiyon ki mrutyu dar bahut adhik thi; August 5, 1937 ko hirohito ke dvaara pushti ki gayi ek ghoshana ke anusaar cheeniyon ko ab antararaashtreeya kaanoon ke tahat sanrakshan naheen mil sakta tha.[206] haalaaainki Japan ke aatm-samarpanake baad Britain ke 37,583 kaidiyon ko, needaralainds ke 28,500 aur sanyukt raajya America ke 14,473 kaidiyon ko riha kar diya gaya, cheen ke liye yeh sankhya sirf 56 thi.[207]

itihaasakaaron jhifen joo, mark piyeti, toroo kubo aur mitsuyoshi himeta ke itihaas ke ek sanyukt adhyayan ke anusaar, 10 lakh se adhik cheeneeyon ko jaapaaniyon dvaara sanchaarit kiya gaya aur manchuko aur uttar cheen mein das parishram ke liye poorv Asia vikaas board dvaara gulaam bana liya gaya.[208]" ameriki laaibreri of Congress ka anumaan hai ki jaava mein Japani sena dvaara 4 se 10 million romusha(Japani "majadoor") ko kaam karne ke liye majaboor kiya gaya. inmein se kareeb 270000 majadooron ko dakshin poorv Asia ke anya Japan adhikrut kshertron mein kaarya karne ke liye bheja gaya aur keval 5200 ko vaapis jaava bheja gaya. [209]

ostriya, 1945, mauthausein shivir mein prataadit aur bhookhe kaidi.

19 fravari 1942 ko roojavelt ne kaaryakaari aadesh 9066par hastaakshar kiye, iske anusaar hajaaron Japani, Italy, jarman amerikiyon, aur havaai ke kuchh pravaasi jo yudd ke kaaryakaal tak ke liye parl haarbar par bamabaari ke baad bhaag A the, ko najaraband kar diya. 150,000 Japani mool ke amerikiyon ko aur saath hi America ke lagbhag 11,000 Germany aur Italy ke nivaasiyon ko America aur Canada sarkaar dvaara najaraband kar diya gaya tha.

mitr raashtron ke dvaara asvaichchik shramikon ka istemaal mukhyataya poorv mein kiya gaya, jaise ki Poland,[210] lekin ek million se jyaada ko pashchim mein bhi kaarya ke liye bheja gaya. udahaaran ke liye, 1940 mein, laak seint-jeen aur Canada ke kai anya kshetron (jaise ki saagune, seint helan ke dveepaaur hal, kyubek) mein yuddh bandiyon ke liye shivirthe.[211] 1942 tak, laak seint-jeen mein 2 shivir the jinmein kareeb 50 yuddh bandi the.[211] in shramikon ko kathin shram karne ke liye majaboor kiya gaya, jaise ki lakadi katana aur palp aur pepar ke utpaadan mein sahaayata karna.[211] Canada ke kaidi shivir, jaise ke seint-jeen jail, shivir saintaalees, ko sankhyaakrit kiya gaya tha aur ve gumanaam hi rahe.sandarbh truti: <ref> taig ke liye samaapti </ref> taig naheen mila yuddh bandiyon ko shreniyon, jaise ki unki raashtreeyata aur vo naagrik the ki sainik the, mein vargeekrut kiya gaya tha. shivir 47 ke yuddh bandi mukhyataya jarman ya itaalavi the. in kaidiyon ko krushi aur bhoomi lakdi kaatne ke kaam ke liye majaboor kiya gaya tha. 1944 tak shivir 47 ko band kar diya gaya tha kuchh der baad hi nasht bhi kar diya gaya tha, iska kaaran kaidiyon ke saath vyavahaar ke baare mein ek androoni report thi.[211] December 1945 tak France ke adhikaariyon dvaara yeh anumaan lagaaya gaya ki khadaan ki durghatanaaon mein har maheene 2000 jarman kaidiyon ko maar diya jaata yaan viklaang kar diya jaata tha.[212][213][214]

hom frant aur utpaadan

mitr raashtron se eksis ke sakal ghareloo utpaad ke anupaat.

Europe mein yuddh ki shuruaat se pehle mitr raashtron ke paas aarthik aur janasainkhya, in donon kshetron mein mahattvapoorn badhat haasil thi. 1938 mein, Europeeya eksis (Germany aur Italy) ki tulana mein pashchimi sahayogi dal (United kingadam, France, Poland aur british upanivesh) ki janasankhya 30% se aur sakal ghareloo utpaad bhi 30% se adhik tha; agar kaaloniyon ko shaamil kiya jaae, to yeh mitr raashtron ko janasankhya mein 5:1 se bhi adhik laabh aur sakal ghareloo utpaad mein lagbhag 2:1 laabh deta hai.[215] usi samay mein Asia mein, cheen ki janasainkhya Japan se lagbhag chheh guna thi, lekin sakal ghareloo utpaad keval 89% adhik tha; yadi Japani kaaloniyon ko shaamil kiya jaae, to janasainkhya ko ghataakar keval teen guna aur sakal gharelu utpaad ko ghata kar keval 38% adhik kar deta hai.[215]

haalaanki Germany aur Japan ke shuruaati toofaani bamavarsha ke hamlon ke kaaran mitr raashtron ke aarthik aur janasainkhya laabh ko bade paimaane par kam kar diya gaya, 1942 tak ve nirnaayak kaarak ban gaye, sanyukt raajya America aur soviyt sangh ke mitr raashtron se judne ke baad, kyoki mukhyat: yudd ek sangharshan mein sthaapit ho gaya.[216]

haalaaainki mitr raashtron ki dhuri raashtra se jyaada utpaadan karne ki kshamata ka kaaran aksar praakrutik sansaadhanon tak unki adhik pahuainch ko maana jaata hai, lekin iske anya kaaran bhi the, jaise ki Japan aur Germany ke dvaara mahilaaon ko kaarya ke liye istemaal karne ke prati unki anichha,[217][218] mitr deshon ki rananeetik bamabaari,[219][220] aur Germany ka yuddh arthavyavastha ki taraf der se jhukaav.[221] iske atirikt, na to Germany ne aur na hi Japan ne ek lamba yuddh ladne ki yojana banaai thi aur aisa karne ke liye ve susajjit bhi naheen the.[222][223] apne utpaadan ko badhne ke liye, Germany aur Japan ne laakhon das shramikon ka istemaal kiya tha;[224]Germany ne jyaadaatarpoorvi Europe se lagbhag 12 lakh logon ka istemaal kiya,[225] jabki Japan nesudoor poorv Asia mein 18 lakh se bhi adhik logon ko lagaaya.[226]

yuddh ke samay kaarobaar (upajeevika)

Europe mein, vyavasaaya do bahut hi alag alag roopon ke antargat aa gaya. uttari pashchimi aur madhya Europe (France, naarve, Denmark, nichle deshon aur chekoslovaakiya ke adhikrut bhaag) Germany ne aisi aarthik neetiyon ki sthaapana ki jisse yudd ke ant tak usane lagbhag 69.5 billion reechamaarks ekatr kar liye; is aankade mein audyogik utpaadon, sainya upakaranon, kachchi saamagri aur anya vastuon ki kaafi badi loot shaamil naheen hai.[227] is prakaar, adhikrut deshon se praapt aay Germany ki karaadhaan se ekatr aay se 40% adhik thi, yuddh ke saath ye aankada badhkar kul jarman aay ka lagbhag 40% ho gaya.[228]

poorv mein, lebensraum ke loot ki aasha kabhi poori naheen ho pai. iska kaaran tha lagaataar badalti agrim seemaayein aur soviyt ki jhulasaane waali pruthvi neetiyaan, jinhonne jarman aakramanakaariyon ko sansaadhanon tak naheen pahuainchane diya.[229] pashchim ke vipreet, naaji nasleeya neeti ne, slaav vansh ke "avar log" ke khilaaf atyadhik barbarata ko protsaahit kiya;is tarah se adhikaansh jarman chadhaaiyon ke baad bade paimaane par katle aam hota tha.[230] haalaaainki adhikaansh adhikrut ilaakon mein pratirodh samooh bane the, lekin ve poorv[231] ya pashchim,[232] kaheen par bhi, jarman opareshans ko jyaada nuksaan naheen pahuncha paae.

Asia mein, Japan ne apne adhikaar ke tahat raashtron ki sanjnyaa greater poorv Asia sah-samruddhi kshetr ka bhaag hone ke roop mein ki, moolat: ek Japani aadhipttv jiske vishay mein usaka daava tha ki ye upaniveshak logon ki aajaadi ke liye hai.[233] haalaanki mool roop se Japani balon ka kai kshetron mein Europeeya varchasv se aajaadi dilaane vaale ke roop mein svaagat kiya gaya, kuchh hafton ke bheetar hi unki atyadhik barbarata ne sthaaneeya janta ki rai badal di.[234] Japan ne praarambhik vijay ke dauraan peechhe bhaag rahi mitr raashtron senaayon ke dvaara chhode gaye tel ke 4 million barrel par kabja kar liya gaya aur 1943 tak dach East indeej mein 50 million barrel tak utpaadan badhne mein safal ho gaya, jo ki iske 1940 ke utpaad ka 76% tha.[234]

praudyogiki aur yuddhakala mein unnati

yuddh ke dauraan, vimaanon ne unki tohi, ladaakoo, baumbar aur pratham vishv yuddh ki unki jameeni-sahaayak ki bhoomikaayon ko jari rakha, haalaaainki pratyek kshetr mein kaafi unnat kar li gayi thi. vimaan ke liye do mahatvapoorn atirikt bhoomikaaon mein the, eyaralift- uchch praathamikta aapoorti, upakaran aur karmiyon ko sheegra sthaanaantarit karne ki kshamata, yadyapi seemit maatra mein;[235] aur rananeetik bamabaari- dushman udyog aur manobal mein baadha daalne ki ummeed mein asainik kshetron ke khilaaf lakshit bamon ka istemaal karna.[236] vimaan virodhi hathiyaar bhi unnati karte gaye, inmein shaamil the raadaar jaise mahatvapoorn surakshaatmak upakaran aur ati unnat vimaan virodhi saajo saamaan, jaise ki jarman ki 88 emaem top. jet vimaan ne dviteeya vishv yuddh ke dauraan apne pehle seemit parichaalan ke prayog ko dekha aur haalaanki unke der se parichay aur seemit sankhya ka arth tha ki unka yuddh ke dauraan koi vaastavik prabhaav nahi tha, lekin kuchh, jinka sakriyta se prayog hua tha, ne yuddh ke baad bhaari maatr mein unke istemaal ko badhaava dene ki shuruaat ki.[237]

samudra mein, haalaaainki nausena yuddh ke lagbhag sabhi pahaluon mein unnati hui thi, vikaas ke do praathamik kendra bindu the, vimaan vaahak aur pandubbiyaaain. haalaaainki yuddh ke praarambh mein havaai yudd apekshaakrut kaam safal tha,[235] Toronto, parl haarbar, dakshin cheen saagar aur koral saagar par kaarravaai ne sheegra hi vimaan vaahak ki jangi jahaaj ke sthaan par ek mukhya yuddhapot ke roop mein sthaapana kar di.[238][239] atalaantik mein, anurakshan vaahak naatakeeya roop mitr raashtron ki suraksha ka ek mahatvapoorn hissa saabit hue, kaaragar sanrakshan trijya mein vruddhi karte hue, madhya atalaantik antar ko khtm karne ke liye madad ki.[240] unki prabhaavasheelata ki vruddhi ke alaava, vimaan vaahak jangi jahaajon ki tulana mein adhik kifaayati the unki apekshaakrut kam laagat ke kaaran[241] Gaur unako bhaari bakhtaraband na hone ki aavashyakta ke kaaran .[242] pandubbiyaaain, jo ki pratha vishv yuddh mein kaafi asaradaar saabit hui theen,[243] sabhi pakshon dvaara unka doosare mein mahatvapoorn hona poorvaanumaanit tha. british ne panadubbi virodhi hathiyaaronaur rananeeti, jaise sonaar aur raksha dal, par vikaas ko keindrit kiya; jabki Germany ne iski dijaainon ke saath aakraamak kshamata mein sudhaar laane par dhyaan keindrit kiya, jaise ki taip VII panadubbi aur volf paik rananeeti.[244] dheere dheere, lagaataar sudhar raheen mitr raashtron ki takaneekein jaise ki li prakaash, hejahaug, skvid aur homing taurpeedo, vijayi saabit hua.

pratham vishv yuddh ke sthir agrim morchon ki apeksha ab thal yuddh kala mein bhaari badlaav ho chuka tha, vo kaheen jyaada gatisheel ho gayi thi. ek mahattvapoorn parivartan tha sanyukt shastr yuddh kala ki avadhaaran, jismein sainik baalaaon ke vibhinn tatvon mein kade samanvaya ki aavashyakta thi; tank, jiska upayog pehle vishv yudd mein mukhya roop se paidal sena ke samarthan ke liye kiya gaya tha, doosare yuddh tak vah in balon ke praathamik hathiyaar ke roop mein viksit ho chuka tha.[245] 1930 ke dashak ke ant tak, pratham vishv yuddh ki tulana mein tank ka dijaain har prakaar se kaheen jyaada unnat ho chuka tha,[246] aur poore yuddh ke dauraan ye vikaas chalta raha- gati, bakhtarabandi aur golaabaari ki shakti mein. yuddh ke shuroo mein, kaafi senaaon ne tank ko apne khilaaf sabse achha hathiyaar maana aur is prabhaav ke liye vishisht uddeshya vaale tank viksit kiye.[247] soch ki is disha ko lagbhag nakaar diya gaya tha. iska kaaran tha, bakhtarabandi ke viruddh apekshaakrut halake shuruaati tank aayudh ka lachar pradarshan aur Germany ki tank se tank ladaai se bachane ka siddhaant; pehle vaale kaarak ke saath saath, Germany dvaara sanyukt hathiyaaron ka istemaal bhi, Poland aur France mein toofaani golaabaari ki rananeeti ke ati safal hone ke pramukh kaaranon mein shaamil tha.[245]tainkon ko nasht karne ke anekon tareekon, jinme shaamil the apratyaksh topakhaane, tank virodhi bandookein (donon, kheenchakar chalne waali aur apne aap chalanevaali), khaanein, kam doori ke paidal sena ke tank virodhi hathiyaar aur anya tainkon ka upayog kiya gaya tha.[247] vibhinn senaaon ke bade star par masheeneekaran ke baavajood, paidal sena abhi bhi sabhi balon ki reedh bani rahi[248] aur poore yuddh ke dauraan adhikaansh paidal sena upakaran vaise hi the jo pehle vishv yudd mein istemaal kiye gaye the. kole,[249] haalaaainki apne sainikon ko ardh-svachaalit raaifalon, em-1 gaaraand, se lais karne wala pehla desh sanyukt raajya America tha. kuchh shuruaati vikaason mein shaamil the, portebal masheenagan ka vyaapak roop se sanyojan (jiska ek ullekhaneeya udahaaran hai Germany ki emajee42) aur anekon sabamasheen gaanein(jo ki shaharon aur jangali ilaakon ki najadeek ki ladaaiyon ke liye ati upaayukt theen).[249]aisault rifle, jo ki yuddh ke poorvaardh ka ek vikaas tha, ismein rifle aur sabamasheen ganon ke sarvochch gunon ko shaamil kiya gaya tha, ye lagbhag sabhi sainya balon ki paidal sena ke pramukh hathiyaar ban gaye.

sanchaar ke kshetr mein, goodhlekhan badi badi koot kitaabon ke istemaal se utpann jatilta aur suraksha ki samasyaaon ka samaadhaan karne ke liye pramukh yoddaaon ne anekon prakaar ki beejalekh masheenon ka nirmaan kiya. inmein se sabse prasidd thi Germany ki enigma machine.[250] SIGINT(signals intelligence) dikripshan ki kaauntaring prakriya thi, jiske ullekhaneeya udaaharan hain british ULTRA aur mitr raashtron dvaara Japani nausainik code ko todna . sainya jaasoosi ka ek anya mahatvapoorn pahaloo tha jhoothe aapareshano ka istemaal karna, jiska mitr raashtron ne kai avsaron par bahut prabhaavi dhang se safalta poorvak istemaal kiya, jaise ki meensameet aur bodeegaard operation, jinmein mitr raashtron ke sisili aur naurmandi ke aakramanon se jarmanon ke kramash: dhyaan aur senaaon ko door hataaya gaya.

anya mahattvapoorn takaneeki aur engineering krutya jinko yuddh ke dauraan athva yuddh ki vajah se haasil kiya gaya, unamein shaamil hain- duniya ke pehle program karne yogya computer(jed3, kolosas aur ENIAC), nirdeshit misaailein aur aadhunik rocket, parmaanu hathiyaaron ke vikaas ki mainahattan pariyojana,english channel ke neechekrutrim bandaragaahon aur tel paaipalaain ke vikaas.

yeh bhi dekhein

luaa truti package.lua mein pankti 80 par: module 'Module:Portal/images/w' not found.luaa truti package.lua mein pankti 80 par: module 'Module:Portal/images/w' not found.

  • agragaami
  • dviteeya vishv yudgh' '
    • samayarekha
    • gruh morcha
    • ladaaiyaan (soochi)
    • sainya aapareshanon (soochi)
    • commanderon
    • vishv yuddh morchon ki maanachitr ' ''
  • sahayog
  • pratirodh
  • praudyogiki
  • havaai yuddh ''
parinaam
  • hataahaton ki sankhya
  • iske alaava prabhaav
  • naajeevaad ke parinaam
  • pashchimi vishvaasaghaat
varnan

sandarbh

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baahya sambandh

World War II ke baare mein, vikipeediya ke bandhuprakalpon par aur jaane:
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vruttachitr
  • vishv yuddh mein (1974) ek 26-hissa thems television shrrunkhala hai jo kai binduon se dviteeya vishv yuddh dekhne ke kai pahaluon ko shaamil karti hai. ismein kai pramukh shakhsiyton ke saakshaatkaar bhi shaamil hai (kaarl donitj, albart speeyar, enthoni eden aadi.) (Imdb kadi)
  • dviteeya vishv yuddh rangon mein (1999) ek teen sanskaaron wala vruttachhitr jo ki adviteeya drushyon ko rangon mein dikha raha hai (Imdb kadi)
  • yuddh kshetr (vruttachhitr shrrunkhala) ek TV vruttachitr shrrunkhala hai jo pehle 1994-1995 mein jaari hui jismein dviteeya vishv yuddh ke dauraan hui sabse mahatvapoorn ladaaiyaan shaamil hain.
  • yuddh(2007) ameriki samudaaya se kaafi vyaktiyon ke anubhavon ki punarganana ka 7-hissa PBS vruttachitr hai.