dvipd naamapaddhati

kaarl leeniys ne sabse pehle is do naamon ki naamakaran pranaali ko upayog karne ke liye chuna tha.

jeev vigyaan mein, dvipd naamakaran prajaatiyon ke naamakaran ki ek aupachaarik pranaali hai. kaarl leeniys naamak ek sveedish jeev vaigyaanik ne sabse pehle is do naamon ki naamakaran pranaali ko upayog karne ke liye chuna tha. unhonne iske liye pehla naam vansh (jeenas) ka aur doosra prajaati vishesh ka vishisht naam ko chuna tha. udaaharan ke liye, maanav ka vansh homo hai jabki usaka vishisht naam sepiyans hai, to is prakaar maanav ka dvipd ya vaigyaanik naam homo saapyens (Homo sapiens) hai. roman lipi me likhte samay dono naamon me se vansh ke naam ka pehla akshar bada (kaipitl) hota hai jabki vishishth naam ka pehla akshar chhota (smaal) hi hota hai.

anukram

mahatva

yadi jeev-jantuon aur vanaspatiyon ka vargeekaran na hua hota to aaj unka adhyayan karna kitna jatil hota, is baat ki sahaj hi kalpana ki ja sakti hai. aaj jeev vigyaan ho ya fir vanaspati vigyaan donon hi vishyon mein jeevon aur vanaspatiyon ka adhyayan vargeekaran ke aadhaar par kiya jaata hai. jantuon aur paadapon ki prajaati, vansh, vaigyaanik naam aur aisi hi anek jaankaari dene waali vargeekaran vyavastha ke janak kaarl liniys ek atyant pratibhaashaali vaigyaanik the. aaj jantu vigyaan mein jo bhi kuchh hai, usamein vargeekaran ki adviteeya bhoomika hai-iske bina is kshetr mein vruhatar gyaan sambhav naheen tha. liniys dvaara di gayi vargeekaran vyavastha chikitsa jagat mein bhi kaafi madadgaar saabit hui aur chikitsa vigyaani jeev-jantuon tatha ped-paudhon ke vargeekaran ke aadhaar par bahut si khoj karne mein kaamayaab rahe. aaj ped-paudhon ko samajhne ka kaam vargeekaran ke jariye hi kiya jaata hai - vargeekaran pranaali se hi vanaspatiyon ki prajaati, kul aur vaigyaanik naam ke baare mein pata chalta hai. kisi bhi jeev ya vanaspati ko paribhaashit karte samay sabse pehle uske vargeekaran ka hi jikr kiya jaata hai.

naamakaran ke niyam

dvipd naamakaran ka uchchaaran laateen bhaasha ke saamaanya niyamon ka paalan

akshar uchchaaran (a॰adha॰ava॰)
a / A aa
ae / AE aae (a॰adha॰ava॰ [ae̯])
au / AU aau (a॰adha॰ava॰ [au̯])
b / B b
c / C k
ch / CH kh
d / D d
e / E A
eu / EU eu (a॰adha॰ava॰ [eu̯]])
f / F f (a॰adha॰ava॰ [ɸ])
g / G g
h / H h
i / I E / y
j / J y
k / K k
l / L l
m / M m
n / N n
n-g / n-k / n-q / N-G/K/Q ङ- (a॰adha॰ava॰ [ŋ])
n-p / n-b / N-P/B m-
o / O O
oe / OE oe (a॰adha॰ava॰ [oe̯])
p / P p
ph / PH f
q / Q k
qu / QU ku / kv (a॰adha॰ava॰ [kʷ])
r / R r
s / S s
t / T t
th / TH th
u / U oo / v (a॰adha॰ava॰ [u] [w])
v / V v (a॰adha॰ava॰ [w])
x / X ks
y / Y y / iu (≈ i) (a॰adha॰ava॰ [j/y])
z / Z j / dj (a॰adha॰ava॰ [z/d͡aaz])

svar ke oopar samatal rekha (Macron) ka arth hota tha ki svar deergh hai, par ise likhna zaroori naheen maana jaata tha. baad mein yoonaani bhaasha ke udhaar ke shabd laane ke liye yoonaani lipi se ye akshar liye gaye : K (k), Y (y / iu (≈ i)), Z (j / dj). vyanjan ua ke liye V prayukt kiya jaane laga aur svar u ke liye U. iske bhi kuchh baad J (y) aur W (v / u) jude. chhote aksharon ke roop (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o, p, q, r, s, t, u, v, w, x, y, z) madhyayug mein aaye. pashchim aur madhya Europe ki saari bhaashaaon ne likhaavat ke liye roman lipi apna li.

kuchh jantuon ke vaigyaanik naam

gaaya (Cow) -- Bos primigenius taurus (bos preemeegenyoos tauroos)
saand (Bull) -- Bos primigenius taurus
bail (Ox) -- Bos primigenius taurus
bhains (Buffalo) -- Bubalus bubalis (boobaaloos boobaalees)
jeboo (Zebu) -- Bos primigenius indicus (bos preemeegenyoos indeekoos)
kutta (Dog) -- Canis lupus familiaris (kaanees loopoos faameelyaarees)
kutiya (Bitch) -- Canis lupus familiaris
pilla (Puppy) -- Canis lupus familiaris
billi (Cat) -- Felis catus (felees kaatoos)
oont (Camel) -- Camelus dromedarius (kaameloos dromedaaryoos)
ghoda / ashv (Horse) -- Equus ferus caballus (ekuus feroos kaabaalloos)
tattoo (Pony) --
gadha (Donkey/Ass) -- Equus africanus asinus (ekuus aafreekaanoos aaseenoos)
khachchar (Mule --
aj / bakara (Goat) -- Capra aegagrus hircus (kaapra aigaagroos heerkoos)
bakari ka bachcha / memana (Kid/ Lamb) -- Capra aegagrus hircus
bhed (Sheep) -- Ovis aries (ovees aaryes)
bhedi (Eve) -- Ovis aries
bhed ka bachcha (Faun) -- Ovis aries
sooar (Pig) -- Sus scrofa domestica (soos skrofa domesteeka)
sooar (Hog) -- Sus scrofa domestica
yaak (Yak) -- Bos grunniens (bos groonnyens)
kharaha (Hare) --
haathi (Asian Elephant) -- Elephas maximus (elefaas maakseemoos)
baagh / vyaaghr (Tiger) -- Panthera tigris (paanthera teegrees)
sher / Singh (Lion) -- Panthera leo (paanthera leo)
lomadi (Fox) -- Canidae (kaneedai)
cheeta / teinduaa (Leopard) -- Panthera pardus (paanthera paardoos)
jangali sooar (Boar) --
bhaaloo / richh (Bear) -- Ursus thibetanus (oorsoos theebetaanoos)
Nevala) -- Mongoose --
siyaar / janbuk (Jackal) -- Canis aureus (kaanees aureoos)
khragosh (Rabbit) -- Oryctolagus cuniculus (oraiuktolaagoos kooneekooloos)
langoor (Ape) -- Hominoidea (homeeneedeaa)
banamaanup (Gorrilla) -- (goreella)
baarahasinha (Stag) --
mrug / hirn (Deer) --

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

baahari kadiyaaain