dvait

madhvaachaarya dvaara pratipaadit tatha unke anuyaayiyon dvaara upabrunhit dvaitavaad raamaanuj ke vishisht dvaitavaad se kaafi milta-julata hai. madhv bina sankoch dvait ka pratipaadan karte hain. advait vedaant ko madhv "maayaavaadi daanav' kehte hain. inke anusaar jagatpravaah paaainch bhedon se samanvit hai- (1) jeev aur ishvar mein, (2) jeev aur jeev mein, (3) jeev aur jad mein, (4) ishvar aur jad mein tatha (5) jad aur jad mein bhed svaabhaavik hai.

sansaar satya hai aur ismein honevaale bhed bhi satya hain. vastu ka svaroop hi bhedamaya hai. gyaan mein ham vastu ko anya vastuoein se alag karke ek vilkshan roop mein jaante hain. chooainki jnyaeya vishay bhinn hain at: hamaara gyaan bhi jnyaeya ke anusaar bhinn bhinn hota hai.

raamaanuj ki tarah dvaitavaad mein bhi ishvar, chit‌ aur achit‌ in teen nitya, paraspar bhinn tatvon ko satya maana gaya hai. inmein se chit‌ aur achit‌ ishvaraashrit hain. keval ishvar anaashrit tatv hai. vah anant sadgunon se yukt hai. vahi vishv ka srashta, paalak aur sanhaarak hai. vah divya shareeradhaari vishvaateet aur vishvaantaryaami donon maana gaya hai. ishvar poorn hai- karmon ka adhishthaata ishvar keval bhakti se prasann hota hai. vah avataaron aur vyoohon mein prakat hota hai tatha moortiyon mein nivaas karta hai. usaki sahachari lakshmi usi ki tarah sarvavyaapini hai par uske gun lakshmeepati se kuchh nyoon hain. usi ko ishvar ki shakti kehte hain. vedon ke adhyayan se ishvar ke svaroop ka gyaan hota hai, at: vah anirvachaneeya naheen hai. par usako poorn roop se jaanana bhi sahaj naheen hai. ishvar ke gun anant hain, at: usaki satta seemit naheen hai- aseemata ke kaaran usaka pratyaksh naheen ho sakta. vahi ishvar vishnu hai. apni ichha se vah vishv ka niyman karta hai- vah jeev aur jad ko nae sire se bana naheen sakta aur na hi unka vinaash kar sakta hai. vah keval nimitt kaaran hai - upaadaan kaaran naheen.

jeevon ki sankhya anant hai aur ve anuroop hain. moolat: ve chetan aur aanandamaya nitya tatv hain par bhautik shareer ke sansarg se evam karmabandhan se ve dukh bhogate hain. ishvar jeevon ka antaryaami roop se niyanta hai, fir bhi vaastavik karta, bhokta tatha karm ka uttaradaayi jeev hi hai. jnyaaanapoorvak ishvar se nitya sneh karna bhakti hai jisse hi jeev mukt ho sakta hai. is vishv mein sab kuchh sajeev hai - anu anu jeev se vyaapt hai. nishkaam dharm se jeev ko tatvajnyaaan mein sahaayata milti hai - dhyaan se ishvaraanugrah ka laabh hota hai aur ant mein use ishvar ke svaroop ka aparoksh gyaan ho jaata hai. jab gyaan ki pratishtha ho jaati hai, jeev bandhamukt ho jaata hai. ishvar ke paas vaayu ke hi maadhyam se pahuaincha ja sakta hai. ishvar ka anugrah sabko naheen milta - vah kuchh logon ko mukti ke liye chunata hai, baaki logon ko chhod deta hai. jinko vah unki bhakti ke anusaar moksh deta hai ve ishvar mein leen naheen hote. unako keval ishvar ki sannidhi milti hai. mukt jeev ishvar ki samaanata bhi naheen praapt kar sakte. bhakti ki teevrata ke anusaar mukti chaar prakaar ki maani gayi hai - saalokya, saameepya, saaroopya aur saayujya.

ishvar ko jab srushti karne ki ichha hoti hai, mool prakruti naana bhautik padaarthon ke roop mein apna vikaas karti hai. srushti ka arth hai sookshm ka sthool roop mein parinaam tatha jeevon ko karmaanusaar fal dene ke liye shareerapradaan. dvait vedaant advait-mat-parak vaidik vaakyon ka kheench taanakar arth nikaalata hai - jaise "ekamevaadviteeyam‌' ka arth hoga - brahm ke samaan koi doosra naheen hai. iseeliye dvaitavaad vedon ki apeksha aagamon aur puraanon ko adhik mahatva deta hai.