dunedin

Dunedin
Māaori: Ōaatepoti
Metropolitan Area
Coat of arms of Dunedin
Coat of arms
Official logo of Dunedin
Logo
upanaam: Edinburgh of the South[1]
Dunners (colloquial)[2]
डुनेडिन is located in New Zealand
Dunedin
Location of Dunedin
nirdeshaank : 45°a52′aS 170°a30′aE / 45.867°aS 170.5°aE / -45.867; 170.5
Country Flag of New Zealand.svg New Zealand
Region Otago
Territorial authority Dunedin City
Settled by Māaori c. 1300[3]
Settled by Europeans 1848
Incorporated[4] 1855
Named for Dùan Èaaideann – Scottish Gaelic name for Edinburgh
Electorates Dunedin North
Dunedin South
shaasan[5]
• Mayor Dave Cull
• Deputy Mayor Chris Staynes
kshetr
• Territorial 3,314
• nagareeya 255
janasankhya (June 2010 estimate)[6]
• Territorial 1,24,800
• ghanatv <
vaaseenaam Dunedinite
samay mandal NZST (UTC +12)
• greeshmakaaleen (di॰ba॰asa॰) NZDT (UTC+13)
Postcode 9010, 9011, 9012, 9013, 9014, 9016, 9018, 9022, 9023
doorabhaash code 03
jaalasthal www.Dunedin.govt.nz

dunedin IPA: /dəaaˈaaniːaadɨaan/ (saaaincha:Lang-mi) New Zealand ke dakshin dweep ka doosra sabse bada shahar aur otaago kshetr ka pramukh shahar hai. nyoojeelaind desh ka pramukh nagar. ise aitihaasik, saanskrutik aur bhaugolik kaaranon se New Zealand ke chaar pramukh shahari kendron mein se ek maana jaata hai.[7] praadeshik bhoomi kshetr vistaar ki drushti se dunedin kabhi sabse bada shahar hua karta tha, lekin November 2010 mein okalaind parishad ke nirmaan ke baad se yeh shreya okalaind ke paas chala gaya hai. lagbhag unneesaveen sadi tak dunedin janasankhya ki drushti se New Zealand ka sabse bada shahar tha.

dunedin shahari kshetr otaago haarbar ke agrabhaag ke aaspaas otaago ke madhya-poorvi tat par sthit hai. dunedin ke chaaron taraf sthit bandargaah kshetr aur pahaadiyaan ek vilupt jvaalaamukhi ke avashesh hain. shahar ke upanagar aaspaas ki ghaatiyon aur pahaadiyon, otaago praayadveep ke sthaladamaroomadhya aur otaago haarbar tatha prashaant mahaasaagar ke tat ke kinaare tak faile hue hain.

shahar ka sabse bada udyog truteeyak shiksha hai - dunedin New Zealand ke pehle vishvavidyaalaya university of otaago (1869) aur otaago pauliteknik ka gruh kshetr hai. yahaan chhaatron ki janasankhya kaafi adhik hai: 2006 ki janaganana ke anusaar New Zealand ki ausat 14.2 pratishat janasankhya ki tulana mein shahar ki janasankhya ke lagbhag 21.6 pratishat logon ki umr 15 se 24 ke beech hai.[8]

anukram

itihaas

maaori bastiyaan

puraataatvik saakshya se pata chalta hai ki New Zealand mein manushya (maaori) sarvapratham 1250 se 1300 ke beech aakaar base the[3] jinki aabaadi dakshin poorv tat ke kinaare kaafi adhik thi.[9] otaago heds ke paas kaikaai beech ka ek shivir sthal lagbhag usi samay ka hai.[10] aaj jahaan dunedin hai vahaan kai puraatan (moaa shikaari) sthal hain jinmein se kai sthal, khaas taur par chaudahaveen sadi mein, bahut bade the aur un par unka sthaayi kabja tha.[11] janasankhya mein giraavat I thi lekin puraatan sanskruti ke vikaas ke saath ek baar fir ismein vruddhi dekhi gayi thi aur lagbhag 1650 ke aaspaas (taaiyaaroaa head) mein kai dehaat ((pā)), sudrudh bastiyon, khaas taur par pukekura ka nirmaan dekha gaya.[12] aaj jahaan sentral dunedin (otepoti) hai vahaan lagbhag 1785 mein ek basti thi jo 1826 tak khaali ho gayi thi.[13]

maaori parampara ke anusaar tatkaaleen te raapuvaai naamak kshetr mein sabse pehle kaahui tipuaa naamak logon ka nivaas tha jo arddh pauraanik hai lekin use aitihaasik maana jaata hai. uske baad vaitaaha ka aagaman hua aur uske baad solahaveen sadi ke antim daur mein kaati maamoe aur fir satrahaveen sadi ke madhya mein kaai taahoo (aadhunik maanak maaori mein ngaai taahoo) ka aagaman hua.[14] pravaason ke in laharon ko Europeeya vivranon mein aksar "hamlon" ke roop mein pradarshit kiya gaya hai lekin aadhunik vidvaanon ne is par sandeh vyakt kiya hai. ve shaayad Europeeya pravaason jaise pravaas the jo sanyog se rakpaat mein parint ho gaya.[15]

seelar John baultabi ne 1820 ke dashak mein darj kiya ki 'kaika otaargo' (otaago haarbar ke aaspaas sthit bastiyaan) dakshin kshetr ki sabse puraani aur sabse badi bastiyaan theen.[16]

Europeeya basti

lieutenant James cook ne 25 fravari 1770 se 5 March 1770 ke beech aaj ke dunedin tat se apna abhiyaan aarambh kiya aur saidal hil par sthit kep saundars aur otaago praayadveep ka naamakaran kiya. unhonne aaspaas ke kshetron mein penguin aur seal hone ki khabar di jiske falasvaroop vahaan unneesaveen sadi ke aaranbhik daur mein seelars (seal ke shikaariyon) ka aagaman hua.[17] seal ke shikaar ke aaranbhik varshon mein vahaan seelaron aur sthaaneeya maaori ke beech jhagada shuroo ho gaya aur otaago haarbar par ghati ek ghatna ki vajah se "seelar yuddh" chhid gaya jo 1810 se 1823 tak chala lekin 1815 mein William takar us kshetr mein basane vaale pehle Europeeya the.[18] sthaayi Europeeya kabje ki shuruaat 1831 se hui jab velar bhaaiyon ne otaago haarbar ke otaago (aadhunik otaakoo) mein apne vheling station ki sthaapana ki. mahaamaariyon ki vajah se maaori janasankhya mein kaafi giraavat I. 1830 ke dashak ke antim daur tak yeh bandargaah ek antarraashtreeya vheling bandargaah tha. Johnny jons ne 1840 mein vaaikaauaati mein south aailaind ke sabse pehle mission station aur krushak basti ki sthaapana ki. [19]

1844 mein Thomas ving ki kaptaani mein deboraah ne anya logon sahit unki patni Lucy aur New Zealand company ke ek pratinidhi fredarik taket ko lekar ek mukt church basti ke sthaan ka nirdhaaran karne ke liye dakshin kshetr mein pahuncha.[20] dakshin dweep ke poorvi tat ke aaspaas ke kai kshetron ki chhaanabeen karne ke baad taket ne jis site ka chayan kiya use aage chalakar dunedin ke naam se jaana jaane laga. [21]

free church of Scotland ke le esoshiyeshan ne 1848 mein otaago haarbar ke agrabhaag mein apni vishesh basti ke liye ek pramukh nagar ke roop mein dunedin ki sthaapana ki. is naam ki utpatti Scotland ki rajdhani edinbarg ke skautish gelik naam dun ideen se hui hai.[14] shahar ke sarvekshak Charles ketal ne edinbarg ki visheshataaon ka anukaran karne ka nirdesh diya aur ek aashcharyajanak 'romantic' design ka nirmaan kiya.[22] iske parinaamasvaroop shaanadaar aur vichitr sadkon ka nirmaan hua kyonki chunauteepoorn bhoodrushya ke saath unke saahasik sapane ko saakaar karne mein nirmaataaon ko kaafi kasht uthaana pada tha aur ismein unhein kabhi-kabhi vifalta ka bhi munh dekhna pada tha. nepoliyn ke khilaaf yuddh mein ladne vaale ek yoddha kaptaan William Kargil ek dharmanirpeksh neta the. kavi Robert barns ke bhateeje revareind Thomas barns ek adhyaatmik pathapradarshak the.

svarn khoj yug

1852 mein dunedin New Zealand ke poore bhoobhaag se lekar vaitaaki ke dakshini hisse tak otaago praant ki rajdhani ban gaya. 1861 mein gaibriyels gali mein sone ki khoj ke falasvaroop janasankhya mein badi teji se vruddhi hone lagi aur 1865 janasankhya ki vruddhi ki drushti se dunedin New Zealand ka pehle shahar ban gaya. navaangatukon mein kai aayarish logon ke saath-saath itaalavi, fraansisi, jarman, yahoodi aur cheeni bhi shaamil the.[23] dunedin saaudarn seemetri ki sthaapana 1858 mein aur dunedin naurdarn seemetri ki sthaapana 1872 mein hua thi.[24]

1906 mein nirmit dunedin railway station.
360° chitraavali: andar se railway station.

dunedin aur audyogik evam samekit kshetr aur main south line ne shahar ko 1878 mein kraaistacharch se aur 1879 mein invarakaaragil se jod diya. New Zealand ke sabse puraane vishvavidyaalaya university of otaago ko 1869 mein dunedin mein sthaapit kiya gaya.[25] otaago girls haai school ko 1871 mein sthaapit kiya gaya. 1881 se 1957 tak dunedin kebal traam ka ghar tha jo duniya mein is tarah ke pehle aur aakhiri sistamon mein se ek tha. 1880 ke dashak ke aaranbhik daur mein 1882 mein port chaalmars se sabse pehle shipmeint ko ravaana karne vaale jame hue maans udyog ke udghaatan ke baad aage chalakar ek mahaan raashtreeya udyog ka aarambh hua.[26]

sone ki daud ke das saal baad arthavyavastha thodi dheemi pad gayi lekin 1880 ke dashak mein fir se aane waali mandi se pehle jooliys vogel ki aapravaasan evam vikaas yojana ke falasvaroop kai hajaar logon ne khaas taur par dunedin aur otaago ki taraf rukh kiya. samruddhi ke in pehle charanon mein kai sansthaanon aur vyavasaayon ki sthaapana hui jinmein New Zealand ka pehla dainik akhbaar, Art school, medical school aur pablik Art gailari dunedin pablik Art gailari shaamil tha.[27] yahaan kai mahatvapoorn aur sundar imaaraton ke nirmaan karne vaale vaastu udyog ko bhi falane foolane ka mauka mila tha. aar. A. lausan ka first church of otaago aur nauks church iske ullekhaneeya udaaharan hain aur usi tarah Maxwell bari aur ef. dablyoo. petre ki imaaratein bhi mashahoor hain. dablyoo. M. haugakins ke netrutv mein anya drushya kala ka bhi vikaas hua.[28] George O'Brian (1821-1888) dvaara shahar ke bhoodrushya aur fal-fool rahe nagar drushya ka spasht roop se darshaaya gaya.[29] 1890 ke dashak ke madhya se arthavyavastha mein fir se jaan I. otaago setalars myoojiym aur hoken kalekshans jaise sansthaanon ki sthaapana ki gayi jo New Zealand mein is tarah ke pehle sansthaan the. railway station aur olvestan jaisi kai ullekhaneeya imaaraton ko khada kiya gaya. ji. pi. nerli dvaara pradarshit drushya kala mein nai oorja Francis haugakins ke career mein khatm ho gayi.[30]

praarambhik aadhunik yug

chitr:Historic Dunedin Botanic Gardens.jpg
bautanikl garden ka aitihaasik paridrushya

unneesaveen sadi tak dunedin tak desh ke sabse bade shahar hone ka khitaab chheen gaya. prabhaav aur gatividhi ka sthaanaantaran uttar ki taraf anya kendron ("uttari bahaav") ki taraf ho gaya aur yeh chalan agali sadi mein kaafi samay tak jaari raha. iske baavajood vishvavidyaalaya ka vistaar jaari raha aur chhaatr quarter sthaapit hone laga. usi samay logon ne dunedin ki kamjor aur puraane ho chale shaanadaar imaaraton ko par dhyaan dena shuroo kiya aur E. H. maikakaurmik jaise lekhakon ne iske vaayumandaleeya aakarshan ki taraf ishaara karna shuroo kiya.[31] 1930 ke dashak mein aur 1940 ke dashak ke aaranbhik daur mein M. ti. (toss) voolastan, doris lask, aini haimablet, kaulin maikakaahon aur paitrik heman jaise kalaakaaron ki ek nai peedhi ne ek baar fir se desh ke behatareen pratibha ka pradarshan kiya. dviteeya vishvayuddh mein lekin ek sentral city studio mein James ke. bakstar naamak ek bahut javaan kavi se maikakaahon ki mulaakaat hone se pehle in chitrakaaron ka vistaar dekha gaya.

dunedin mein kai badi companiyon ko sthaapit kiya gaya jinmein se kai raashtreeya agrani ban gayi. unamein beesaveen sadi ke aarambh mein sar James Fletcher dvaara sthaapit Fletcher construction naamak company shaamil thi. staiford street mein 1879 mein sthaapit kempathorn proser 100 saalon mein desh ki sabse badi urvarak aur dava nirmaata company thi. baad mein aage chalakar okalaind ki fishr end paayakel naamak ek company dvaara adhigrahit hone waali H. E. shaikalauk naamak ek lauh sansthaapak evam sahaayak upakaran nirmaata company ki tarah dakshin dunedin ki ji. methven naamak ek metalavarking aur nal nirmaata company bhi ek agrani company thi. mausagil vooleins ek anya viktoriyn dunedin pratishthaan tha. haileinsteens ek purush vastr nirmaata aur raashtreeya khudara shrrunkhala ke liye saadhaaran bolachaal ki bhaasha mein istemaal kiya jaane wala naam tha jabki deeaaisi aur aarthar baarnet dipaartameintal store the jo pehle ek raashtravyaapi pratishthaan tha. kauls, somaravil vilki - baad mein vhitkauls group ka hissa - ki utpatti unneesaveen sadi mein dunedin mein hui thi. vahaan naishanal maurtagej end agency company, raait Stefan sans limited, union steemaship company aur naishanal inshyoreins company aur standard inshyoreins company jaisi kai companiyon ki bhi sthaapana hui thi jinka beesaveen sadi mein bhi vajood tha.

yuddh ke baad ke vikaas

dunedin vanaspati udyaan
chitr:Baldwin Street.jpg
baaldavin street

dviteeya vishvayuddh ke baad samruddhi aur janasankhya vruddhi mein nai jaan aa gayi haalaanki dunedin ko keval chauthe 'mukhya kendra' ka hi darja mil saka. viktoriynavaad ke khilaaf pratikriya karne waali ek peedhi ne iski imaaraton ko dhvast karna shuroo kar diya jiske parinaamasvaroop kai imaaratein lupt ho gain jinmein 1969 ke William mesan ka stock exchange ullekhaneeya hai. (dunedin stock exchange imaarat) haalaanki vishvavidyaalaya ka vistaar jaari raha lekin fir bhi shahar ki janasankhya vruddhi dheemi pad gayi aur uske baad khaas taur par 1976 se 1981 tak simat kar rah gayi. haalaanki saanskrutik roop se yeh ek jeevant samay tha jab vishvavidyaalaya ke nae niji roop se sampann kala feloship ne shahar mein James ke bakstar, raalf hotere, jenet frem aur hone tuvhaare jaise diggajon ko aakarshit kiya.

1980 ke dashak mein dunedin ka lokapriya sangeet drushya khil utha jab the chils, the clean, the varlains aur stretajaiket fits jaise krutyon ko raashtreeya aur antarraashtreeya maanyata praapt hui. "dunedin saaund" shabd ka nirmaan 1960 ke dashak mein falane foolane vaale us dashak se prabhaavit hone waali aur gitaar ke netrutv waali sangeet ka varnan karne ke liye kiya gaya.[32] aaj bhi band aur sangeetakaar kai shailiyon mein sangeetavaadan aur rikaurding karte hain.

1990 tak janasankhya ka kam hona rooka gaya aur dunedin ko ek 'heritej city' ki maanyata di gayi jab iski mukhya sadkon ko viktoriyn shaili mein sajaaya gaya[33] aur oktaagan mein aar. A. lausan ke myunisipl chaimbars (dunedin taaun hall) ko sundarataapoorvak punarnirmit kiya gaya. shahar ko truteeyak shiksha evam anusandhaan ke kshetr mein utkrushtata ke ek kendra ki bhi maanyata di gayi. vishvavidyaalaya aur politeknik ke vikaas mein teji I. Art gailari railway station aur otaago setalars myoojiym ke punarvikaas ka kaam shuroo karke abhi bhi dunedin ka naveekaran kiya ja raha hai.

shahar ki janasankhya 124,800 (June 2010 estimate) hai aur yeh New Zealand ka saatavaan sabse bada shahari kshetr hai.

shahar mein engineering, software engineering, baayo-technology aur fashion sahit kai pramukh udyogon ka vikaas ho raha hai. otaago haarbar par sthit port chaalmars se dunedin ko gahre paani ki suvidha pradaan karta hai. ise port chaalmars branch naamak ek branch line railway ki seva praapt hai jo main south line se mudkar dunedin se hote hue kraaistacharch se invarakaaragil tak jaati hai.

shahar ka drushya viktoriyn aur edvaardiyn vaastukala ke ratnon se susajjit hai jo shahar ke svarn-daud samruddhi ke viraasat ka parichaayak hai. first church, otaago bauyaj haai school aur laarnaach kaisal sahit kai sanrachanaaon ka design New Zealand ke sabse prakhyaat vaastukaaron mein se ek aar. A. lausan dvaara banaaya gaya tha. anya pramukh imaaraton mein olvestan aur dunedin railway station shaamil hai. anya vichitr ya yaadagaar imaaraton ya dhaanchon mein baaldavin street, duniya ki sabse seedhi dhaal waali sadak; captain cook sharaabakhaana; kaidabari chaukalet factory (kaidabari world); aur sthaaneeya speets sharaab ki bhatthi shaamil hain.

dunedin paryaavaraneeya paryatan ka bhi ek kendra hai. duniya ki ekamaatr mukhyabhoomi royal ailbaatraus colony aur kai penguin aur seal kauloniyaan otaago praayadveep mein shahar ki seemaaon ke bheetar sthit hain. dakshin mein lek vaihola ke pashchim mein sinkleyar vetalainds sthit hai.

unnatisheel truteeyak chhaatr janasankhya ke falasvaroop ek jeevant yuva sanskruti ka aagaman hua hai (gair chhaatr log in chhaatron ko 'skaarfeej' kehte hain) jismein poorv ullikhit sangeet drushya aur abhi haal hi mein ek teji se badh raha buteek fashion udyog shaamil hai.[34][35] dunedin aur iske aaspaas ke kshetron mein khaas taur par port chaalmars aur otaago haarbar ke tat par sthit anya bastiyon aur vaitaati jaise samudaayon mein bhi ek sudrudh drushya kala samudaaya ka bhi vajood hai.

seint kleyar beech, dunedin.

dunedin mein khelakood ki jarooraton ko kairisbruk ke fladalit ragbi aur cricket sthal, logan park mein vishvavidyaalaya ke paas kailedoniyn ground naamak ek nae saukar aur ethaletiks stadium, edagar center naamak vishaal inador sports center, university oval naamak cricket ground, dunedin aais stadium aur kai golf course aur paarkon dvaara poora kiya jaata hai. shahar ke dakshin mein forbari park naamak ek horsaresing sarkit aur kuchh kilometer ki doori ke bheetar kai anya sarkit bhi hain. seint kleyar beech ek jaana-maana sarfing sthal hai aur haarbar besin vindasarfaron aur kaaitasarfaron ke liye ek lokapriya sthal hai. dunedin mein chaar saarvajanik sviming pool hain: moaana pool, port chaalmars pool, mausagil aur seint kleyar saalt vaatar pool.

bhoogol

dunedin (gre kshetr se neeche baaen ki traaf), otaago praayadveep ke sthaladamaroomadhya ke kareeb otaago haarbar ke ant mein sthit hai.

dunedin shahar ka bhoo-kshetrafal 3,314.8 varg kilometer (1,279.9 varg meal) hai jo ameriki raajya road aailaind ya angreji County kaimbrijshaayar se thoda kam hai aur yeh kaurnavaul ki tulana mein bhi thoda kam hai. 1 November 2010 ko 5,600 kimi2 (2,200 varg meal) okalaind parishad ke nirmaan tak yeh bhoo-kshetrafal ki drushti se New Zealand ka sabse bada shahar tha. 1989 ke baad se dunedin shahar parishad ki seema pashchim mein midilmaarch, uttar mein vaikauaaiti, poorv aur dakshin-poorv mein prashaant mahaasaagar aur dakshin-pashchim mein vaipori/taieri nadi aur henale nagar tak fail gaya hai.

landan se 19,100 kimi (11,870 meal) (invarakaaragil ki tulana mein 90 kimi (56 meal) se adhik aur kraaistacharch ki tulana mein 100 kimi (62 meal) se adhik) aur barlin se 18,200 kimi (11,310 meal) doori par sthit dunedin duniya ka sabse dooravarti shahar hai. iske pratimukh sthaan biskaaya ki khaadi mein A koruna naamak Spanish shahar se lagbhag 300 kimi (190 meal) door par uttar ki taraf sthit hain.

bheetari shahar

otaago haarbar ke sir vaale bhaag se pashchim ki taraf shahar ke dil vaale bhaag par apekshaakrut sapaat bhoomi kshetr sthit hai. yahaan the oktaagan hai jo kabhi ek gahari khaai thi jise unneesaveen sadi ke madhya mein bhar diya gaya jahaan aaj ek plaaja (chauk) hai. is shahar mein shuroo mein bail hil ke doosari taraf dakshin ki taraf bastiyaan sthaapit hone lagi jo ek bahut bada chattaani bhoobhaag tha jise basti ke donon hisson ke beech ke maarg ko saral banaane ke liye kaatna pada tha. kendreeya shahar is sthaan se kaafi had tak uttar poorv-dakshin pashchim disha mein the oktaagan ki mukhya sadkon George street aur prinses street ke milan sthal tak vistrut hai. yahaan ve dakshin poorv mein dunedin railway station se uttar poorv mein seedhi chadhaai chadhti hui rosalin naamak upanagar tak lambavat kon banaati hui un tak pahuainchane waali stuart street dvaara jude hue hain. shahar ki kai ullekhaneeya puraani imaaratein is kshetr ke dakshini hisse mein aur kendreeya shahar (in pahaadiyon ka adhikaansh hissa jaise maaori hil, paain hil aur meri hil, maidaan se lagbhag 200 meter (660 fut) oopar) ko gherane waali nichli pahaadiyon ke bheetari golaai mein sthit hain.

dunedin baaldavin street ka ghar hai jo gineej book of rikaurds ke anusaar duniya ki sabse khadi sadak hai. iski dhaal 2.9 mein 1 hai.[36] lambe samay se parityakt meri hil kebal car maarg mein iske maurningatan dipo ke paas isi tarah ki dhaal hai.

pahaadiyon ki androoni seema ke baahar khaas taur par uttar poorv ki taraf rosalin ke baahar dunedin ke baahari upanagar sthit hain. is dishaanirdesh mein taieri road aur three maail hil shaamil hai jinke beech taieri plens ka mool sadak maarg ka nirmaan hua hai. aadhunik raajamaarg 1 ek alag maarg ka anusaran karta hai jo pashchim mein kaivarasham aur saidal hil ke baahari kshetr se hokar gujarata hai. saidal hil aur kaivarasham ke beech green aailaind aur ebautsaford ke baahari upanagar sthit hain. green aailaind aur rosalin ke beech kaikoraai streem ki khadi dhaal waali ghaati sthit hai jo aaj ek aavaaseeya aur prakaash udyog kshetr hai. kaafi had tak alag nagar kshetr maane jaane vaale upanagareeya bastiyaan bhi otaago haarbar ke donon taraf sthit hain. inmein se otaago praayadveep tat par sthit portobelo aur makaanadrayoo aur haarbar ke vipreet disha mein sthit port chaalmars ullekhaneeya hain. port chaalmars dunedin ko mukhya gahre jal vaale bandargaah ki suvidha pradaan karta hai jismein shahar ka kantenar bandargaah bhi shaamil hai.

dunedin ke kshitij par ek jvaalaamukhi vivr ke avasheshon se bani (paaramparik roop se saat) pahaadiyon ki ek angoothi ka prabhutv hai. unamein se mount Kargil (700 mi/2,300 fut), flaigastaaf (680 mi/2,230 fut), saidal hil (480 mi/1,570 fut), signal hil (390 mi/1,280 fut) aur haarbar kon (320 mi/1,050 fut) ullekhaneeya hain.[37]

bheetari bhaag

dunedin shahar ke bheetari bhaag mein tarah-tarah ki sthalaakrutiyaan shaamil hain. dakshin pashchim ki taraf taieri nadi aur iski pramukh sahaayak nadi vaipori ki vistrut upajaaoo taraai baadh ka maidaan taieri plens sthit hai. ye maamooli ghani aabaadi wala kshetr hai aur ismein mausagil, poorv taieri aur elanatan naamak nagar shaamil hai.[37] ve lagbhag 300 meter (980 fut) oonchi nimn pahaadiyon ki ek shreni dvaara tat se alag hain. taieri plane ka bheetari bhaag ubad-khaabad pahaadi pradesh hai. maidaan ke paas jyaadaatar kshetr khaas taur par bervik aur lek mahinerangi ke aaspaas aur dunedin shahari kshetr ke uttar pashchim mein sthit silvarapeeks range ke aaspaas ke kshetr bhi jangalon se bhare hain.[38] iske alaava yeh bhookshetr pehle to sookh jaata hai lekin baad mein ghaas evam kalagi se dhanke bhookshetr mein parint ho jaata hai. dunedin ke sudoor uttar pashchim mein ek oonchi vistrut ghaati straath-taieri sthit hai jismein midilmaarch nagar sthit hai jo is kshetr ki kam ghani aabaadi vaale nagaron mein se ek hai.

shahar ke shahari kshetr ke uttar mein laharadaar pahaadi pradesh sthit hai jismein kai chhote-chhote mukhya roop se tateeya bastiyaan shaamil hain jismein vaitaati, vaaringatan, seeklif aur vaikauaaiti shaamil hai. yahaan raajamaarg 1 mein kai pahaadiyon khaas taur par the kilmog se hokar gujarane vaale maarg mein seedhi chadhaai hai.[37] in pahaadiyon ko silvarapeeks range ka ek tateeya vistaar maana ja sakta hai.

poorv ki taraf dunedin shahar mein otaago praayadveep ka sampoorn bhookshetr shaamil hai jiska aakaar ek lambi anguli ki tarah hai jisse dunedin jvaalaamukhi ke dakshin poorv kinaare ka nirmaan hua hai.[37] is praayadveep mein lagbhag poori tarah se bandargaah ke tat ki taraf bahut kam bastiyaan hain aur ismein se adhikaansh ka rakharakhaav ek praakrutik vaas ke roop mein otaago peninsula trast dvaara kiya jaata hai. is praayadveep mein kai sundar beech shaamil hai aur yeh penguin, seal aur shaag jaisi kai durlabh prajaatiyon ka ghar hai. sabse mahatvapoorn baat yeh hai ki is praayadveep ke uttar poorvi kshetr mein taaiaaroaa head mein duniya ka ekamaatr mukhyabhoomi royal ailbaatraus prajanan colony hai.

upanagaron ki soochi

bheetari upanagar

(city center se dakshinaavart, uttar disha se shuru karke)
voodahaug; glenalith; lith valley; daalmor; librtan; paain hil; nauramainbi; mount mera; North East valley; opoho; dunedin North; raaveinsabaurn; haaiklif; sheel hil; chailis; vevarali; vauksahaul; oshiyn grov (taumahauk); tainui; endarasans be; muselabarg; south dunedin; seint kilda; seint kleyar; korsatorafin; kiyoo; faurabari; kaivarasham; kaunakord; merihil; keinmur; morningatan; kaikoraai valley; city raaij; bellenoj; rosalin, otaago; kaikoraai; vaakaari; maaori hil.

baahari upanagar

(city center se dakshinaavart, uttar dishr se shuru karke)
burkes; seint liyonaardas; braud be; company be; mekeindroo be; barnasaaid; green aailaind; vaaladronavil; sedal hil; saneevel; feyarafeeld; ebautsaford; braidaford; brokavil; haafave bush; helensabarg.

shahari seema ke bheetar shahar

(city center se dakshinaavart, uttar disha se shuru karke)
vaaitaati; vaaikaauaati; kariten; seeklif; vaaringatan; puraakanui; laung beech; eraamona; deboraah be; kaares be; port chaalmars; sauyars be; roseineth; otaakoo; portobelo; braaitan; taieri maauth; henale; elanatan; poorv taieri; momona; otaram; mausagil; pashchim taieri; vaaipori; midlamaarch; haaid.

1980 ke dashak ke antim daur mein sthaaneeya parishad ke punargathan ke baad se ye upanagar bane hue hain lekin aam taur par inhein is tarah ki maanyata naheen di jaati hai.

jalavaayu

aam taur par dunedin ki jalavaayu samasheetoshn hai haalaanki aisi maanyata hai ki shahar mein kai prakaar ki jalavaayu pai jaati hain aur kaafi had tak shahar ki sthalaakrutik leaaut ki vajah se iske upanagaron ki mausami dashaaon mein aksar bhinnata dekhi jaati hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein] mahaasaagar se iski niktata ki vajah se bhi ismein kaafi badlaav hua hai. iske prabhaavasvaroop yahaan garmiyon mein kaafi garmi aur sardiyon mein kaafi thand padti hai. sardiyon ke mausam mein paala pad sakta hai lekin paryaapt barfbaari asaamaanya hai (shaayad har do ya teen saal mein) lekin antardesheeya pahaadi upanagar jaise haafave bush aur vakaari iska apavaad hai jahaan har saal kuchh dinon tak barfbaari hoti hai. vasant ke mausam mein ek din mein chaar tarah ke mausam dekhne ko mil sakte hain lekin November se April tak yeh aam taur par aabaad aur halka hota hai. garmiyon ke dauraan taapamaan 30 °ase (86 °afai) tak pahunch sakta hai.

New Zealand ke kai shaharon ki tulana mein dunedin mein apekshaakrut kam baarish hoti hai jahaan har saal keval lagbhag 750 mileemeetar (30 inch) baarish darj ki gayi hai. is sachchaai ke baavajood, shaayad yahaan kai dinon tak hone waali rimjhim baarish ki vajah se ise kai log ek nam shahar maanate hain (uttari kshetron jaise okalaind aur velingatan mein apekshaakrut kuchh dinon tak bhaari baarish hoti hai). dunedin desh ke sabse ghane baadalon vaale kshetron mein se ek hai jahaaain har saal lagbhag 1650 ghante ki chamakeeli dhoop darj ki gayi hai.[39] shahar mein bahne waali havaaen do dishaaon se aati hain aur thandi naam dakshin pashchimi havaaen uttar poorvi havaaon mein badal jaati hain.[40] garm sookhi uttar pashchimi havaaon ko bhi uttar pashchim se aane waali foehan havaaon ke roop mein soochit kiya jaata hai. aatanrik shahar ke aaspaas sthiti pahaadiyaan otaago ke adhikaansh prachalit mausam se aatanrik shahar ki raksha karti hai jiske parinaamasvaroop mukhya shahari kshetr ka mausam otaago ke shesh kshetron ki tulana mein bilkul alag hota hai.

shahar ke dil vaale hisse ke baahar ke aatanrik bhaag mein up-mahaadveepeeya jalavaayu pai jaati hai jahaan sardiyon ka mausam kaafi thand aur shushk aur garmiyon ka mausam garm aur shushk hota hai. sardiyon ke mausam mein midilmaarch ke aaspaas taieri nadi ke maarg ke oopari hisse mein jameen ko thanda kar dene vaale ghane koharon ka dikhaai dena aam baat hai aur garmiyon ke mausam mein taapamaan aksar 30 celcius ke aaspaas pahunch jaata hai.

Dunedin ke liye mausam jaankaari
maheena January fravari March April May June July August sitmbar October November December varsh
ausat adhiktam °aC (°aF) 18.9
(66)
18.7
(65.7)
17.2
(63)
15.5
(59.9)
12.6
(54.7)
10.2
(50.4)
9.8
(49.6)
11.0
(51.8)
12.8
(55)
14.6
(58.3)
16.1
(61)
17.4
(63.3)
14.6
(58.3)
dainik maadhya °aC (°aF) 15.2
(59.4)
15.1
(59.2)
13.7
(56.7)
11.9
(53.4)
9.2
(48.6)
7.0
(44.6)
6.5
(43.7)
7.5
(45.5)
9.3
(48.7)
10.9
(51.6)
12.4
(54.3)
13.9
(57)
11.0
(51.8)
ausat nyoonatam °aC (°aF) 11.5
(52.7)
11.4
(52.5)
10.2
(50.4)
8.3
(46.9)
5.7
(42.3)
3.8
(38.8)
3.2
(37.8)
4.1
(39.4)
5.7
(42.3)
7.2
(45)
8.6
(47.5)
10.4
(50.7)
7.5
(45.5)
varshaapaat mm (inches) 72
(2.83)
63
(2.48)
70
(2.76)
60
(2.36)
72
(2.83)
74
(2.91)
69
(2.72)
65
(2.56)
53
(2.09)
71
(2.8)
63
(2.48)
82
(3.23)
812
(31.97)
% aardrata 73.1 77.0 76.3 77.2 78.0 79.0 80.2 78.1 74.2 71.8 71.4 73.1 75.8

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srot: NIWA CliFlo data Musselburgh[41]

janasaankhyiki

New Zealand ki sampoorn janasaankhyiki ki tulana mein dunedin ki janasaankhyiki mein kaafi had tak shahar ki atyadhik truteeyak chhaatr janasankhya ki vajah se New Zealand ke shiksha kshetr ke lakshan dikhaai dete hain. in lakshanon mein purushon ki tulana mein mahilaaon ki adhik sankhya, ausat se kam ausat umr, 25 saal se kam umr ke logon ki adhik sankhya, Europeeya aur Asiaee jaati ke logon ki adhik sankhya aur maaori aur prashaant dveepavaasiyon ki kam sankhya, adhik berojgaari, kam ausat aamdani aur school aur school-pashchaat yogyata vaale logon ki ek adhik sankhya shaamil hai.[8]

2006 ki janaganana ke anusaar dunedin shahar ki aavaaseeya janasankhya 118,683 thi jo 2001 ki janasankhya ki tulana mein 4,341 ya 3.8 pratishat adhik thi. shahar mein 45,072 kabje vaale aavaas aur 3,615 khaali aavaas the aur 240 aavaason ka nirmaan kaarya chal raha tha.[8]

raashtreeya star par 48.8% purushon ki tulana mein shahar ki kul aavaaseeya janasankhya mein se 56,931 (48.0%) purush aur raashtreeya star par 51.2% mahilaaon ki tulana mein 61,752 (52.0%) mahilaaen theen. shahar ki ausat umr 35.0 varsh thi jo raashtreeya ausat umr 35.9 varsh se 0.9 varsh kam thi. raashtreeya star par 12.3% ki tulana mein shahar ki janasankhya ke 13.4% mein 65 saal ya usase adhik umr vaale log aur raashtreeya star par 21.5% ki tulana mein 16.8% mein 15 saal se kam umr ke log shaamil the. vishaal truteeyak shiksha kshetr ki vajah se 15 se 24 saal ke logon ka parimaan shahar ki aavaaseeya janasankhya ka lagbhag 21.6% tha.[8]

dunedin mein rahane vaale nivaasiyon mein (raashtreeya star ke aankadon ko koshthak mein diya gaya hai) 8.7% Europeeya (67.6%), 6.4% maaori (14.7%), 5.3% Asiaee (9.2%), 2.2% prashaant dveepavaasi (6.9%), 0.7% madhya poorvi/laitin ameriki/afreeki (0.9%), 13.6% 'nyoojeelaindavaasi' (11.1%) aur 0.04% anya (0.04%) jaati ke log shaamil hai.[8]

raashtreeya star par 5.1% ki tulana mein dunedin ka berojgaari dar 6.1% hai jismein 15 saal aur usase adhik umr ke log shaamil hai. 15 saal aur usase adhik umr ke logon ki ausat vaarshik aamdani raashtreeya star par $24,400 ki tulana mein $19,400 thi. raashtreeya star par 43.2% ki tulana mein unamein se 51.2% log $20,000 se kam aay karte the jabki raashtreeya star par 18.0% ki tulana mein 13.4% logon ki aamdani $50,000 se adhik thi.[8]

kala

drushya kala (vijual Arts)

dunedin ke oktaagan mein dunedin pablik Art gailari naamak ek bahumanjila Art gailari hai. shahar mein ek darjan se adhik dealer gailariyon sahit anya kai gailariyaan hain (jinmein se kai oktaagan ke dakshin mein prinses street, more place aur raatre street ke kinaare sthit hain). shahar mein kai prayogaatmak kala sthal bhi hain jinmein se more place ka blue oistar gailari ullekhaneeya hai.

dunedin ke saath raalf hotere, Francis haugakins, Graham Sydney aur jefri hairis jaise kai ullekhaneeya kalaakaaron ka bahut gahra sambandh tha.

theatre (cinemaghar)

dunedin mein duniya ka sudoor dakshini peshevar rangamanch faurchyoon theatre ke saath-saath oktaagan ka reejeint theatre hai. dunedin ke apekshaakrut chhote thiyetaron mein globe theatre, mefeyar theatre aur plehaaus theatre shaamil hain.

nrutya (dance)

dunedin daure par nikalne waali baile aur dance companiyon ka ek niyamit sthal hai aur iska apna ek dance stoodiyon raasa school of dance in King Edward court bhi hai.

sangeet (myoojik)

gaayak mandali (kvaaiar)

dunedin kai gaayak mandaliyon ka ghar hai. inmein nimnalikhit shaamil hain:

  • 140 sadasyon vaale city of dunedin kvaaiar dunedin ka bade paimaane par saamoohik gaayan karne wala pramukh kalaakaar samooh hai. saaudarn kansaurt of vauises niyamit roop se saamoohik gaayan karne waali ek chhoti gaayak mandali hai.
  • richrd maiden dvaara sanchaalit royal dunedin mel kvaaiar naamak mandali ek saal mein do sangeet kaaryakramon mein apna kaaryakram prastut karti hai aur dunedin aaraesae kvaaiar naamak mandali bhi niyamit roop se sangeet kaaryakramon mein pradarshan karti hai.
  • keval mahilaaon waali dunedin haarmoni singars naamak mandali dunedin sanskruti ka mahatvapoorn hissa hai.
  • vishvavidyaalaya mein maraama hall ka saaudarn childreins kvaaiar dunedin ki mukhya baal gaayak mandali hai. dunedin ke adhikaansh schoolon mein gaayak mandaliyon ki vyavastha hai jinmein se kai mein ek se adhik gaayak mandaliyaan hain. ullekhaneeya school gaayak mandaliyon mein saikred heart school kvaaiar, baalamesaven intarameediyet school special kvaaiar, otaago bauyaj haai school aur otaago girls haai school ka baarok kvaaiar aur seint hildaas kaulejiyet maidrigl kvaaiar shaamil hai.
  • chairitebal kothram foirfe ki tarah saaudarn yooth kvaaiar bhi ek sangeet kaaryakram aadhaarit yuva gaayak mandali hai.
  • university of otaago teen aadhikaarik gaayak mandaliyon ka ghar hai jinmein se do upaasana gayaak mandali (nauks aur selvin) aur ek yaatra gaayak mandali (kaintores) hai.
  • kai dunedin charchon aur girijaagharon mein bhi gaayak mandaliyaan hain. inmein kaithedral kvaaiar aur gaibriyeli singars naamak do gaayak mandaliyon ka ghar seint josefs Catholic kaithedral; mishrit ling vaale vayaskon aur bachchon ki badi gaayak mandali church kvaaiar ka ghar nauks church; rosalin ki mishrit ling waali chhoti kshetreeya gaayak mandali ka ghar seint jauns church; aur mishrit ling waali vayask gaayak mandali aur mishrit ling waali baal gaayak mandali ka ghar seint pauls englikn kaithedral shaamil hain.

vaadya shaastreeya aur jaij sangeet samooh

saaudarn sinfoniya ek dunedin aadhaarit arddh-peshevar orkestra hai. anya vaadya sangeet samoohon mein reyar baayards ka aaranbhik sangeet samooh kaulejiyet orkestra aur dunedin yooth orkestra shaamil hain. kai schoolon mein school orkestra aur band hain. dunedin mein teen braas band bhi hain: seint kilda braas, kaikoraai braas aur mausagil braas. otaago simfonik band aur city of dunedin pipe band bhi mahatvapoorn dunedin sangeet samooh hain. jaij baindon mein city of dunedin jaij orkestra aur trishtaabdi jimbe! kvintet shaamil hain.

lokapriya sangeet

dunedin naam ki utpatti dunedin saaund se hui hai jo 1980 ke dashak mein shahar mein nirmit ek tarah ka Indy rock sangeet hai. us samay dunedin baindon ke liye ek upajaaoo bhoomi thi jinmein se kaiyon ne kraaistacharch aadhaarit flaaing nan rikaurds lebal mein rikaurding ki. is samay ke dunedin se gaharaai se jude baindon mein the chils, the clean, the varlaines, the baits, sneeki feelings aur stretajaiket fits shaamil the jinmein se sabhi baindon ke poore New Zealand mein aur sanyukt raajya America aur Europe ke college radio sarkit mein kaafi chaahanevaale the.

sarkaar

sthaaneeya

dev kal, dunedin ke vartamaan mayor.

dunedin shahar parishad (deeseesi) dunedin shahar ke praadeshik adhikaar ko niyantrit aur sanchaalit karti hai. yeh ek nirvaachit mayor (mahaapaur), ek deputi mayor (up-mahaapaur) / kaaunsilr (paarshad) aur 13 atirikt kaaunsilron se milkar bana hai. unka chunaav singal traansafarebal vote system ke tahat traivaarshik chunaavon mein hota hai. sabse haal ka chunaav 9 October 2010 ko hua tha aur agala chunaav 12 October 2013 ko hone wala hai.

9 October 2010 tak vartamaan parishad sadasyon ki soochi is prakaar hai:

mayor dev kal
kaaunsilr - kendreeya ward bill eklin
John bejet
flis buchar
neel kaulins
paul hadasan
jinti maiktaavish
kris steins
teresa steeveinsan
richrd thaumpasan
li veindaravis
kaulin vedaraol
kaaunsilr - mausagil-taieri ward sid brown
Kate Wilson
kaaunsilr - vaaikaauaati kost-chaalmars ward Andrew noon

raashtreeya

dunedin ke do saamaanya nirvaachan kshetr: dunedin North aur dunedin south aur ek maaori nirvaachan kshetr te taai tonga hai.

2008 ke aam chunaav ke anusaar dunedin North aur dunedin south donon par vipakshi lebar party ke saansadon (MP) ka kabja hai jahaan peet haugasan dunedin North ka aur kleyar kurraan dunedin south ka pratinidhitv kar rahe hain. poore south aailaind aur North aailaind ke velingatan ke kuchh hisson ko kavar karne vaale maaori nirvaachan kshetr te taai tonga par filhaal maaori party ka kabja hai jiska pratinidhitv raahui kaatene kar rahe hain.

nirvaachan kshetr ke saansadon ke alaava dunedin chaar soocheebaddh saansadon: shaasi naishanal party ke Michael voodahaaus, lebar party ke David paarkar, eseeti New Zealand ke Hillary kailvart aur green party ki sah-netri metiriya turei ka bhi ghar hai.

media

yahaan ka pramukh dainik samaachaar patra otaago daily times hai jo desh ka sabse puraana dainik samaachaar aur alaaid press group ka ek hissa bhi hai. saaptaahik aur dvisaaptaahik saamudaayik samaachaar patron mein the star, taieri heraald, di-scene, ef*aaienake (manoranjan) aur chhaatr maigajeen kritik (university of otaago) aur gaayaro (otaago politeknik) shaamil hain.

shahar ko sabhi pramukh raashtreeya radio aur television stationon ki seva praapt hai jahaan shahar ke uttar mein sthit mount Kargil se sthaleeya television (enaalog aur freevyoo|echadi donon) aur efaem radio ka prasaaran kiya jaata hai. sthaaneeya radio stationon mein radio dunedin, saamudaayik radio station toroaa radio (pehle hills eem) aur vishvavidyaalaya radio station radio van shaamil hain. shahar mein ek sthaaneeya television station channel 9 hai to alaaid press ka ek hissa hai.

yeh shahar media se sambandhit kai pramukh nirmaan companiyon ka ghar hai jinmein natural history New Zealand aur teloramed media ullekhaneeya hain.

yeh shahar kabhi radio otaago ke pramukh kaaryaalayon ka ghar tha jise ab rediyovarks (meediyaavarks ka hissa) ke naam se jaana jaata hai aur jo okalaind mein sthit hai. yeh pehle kai ab nishkriya ho chuke akhbaaron ka ghar bhi tha jinmein otaago witness aur evening star pramukh the.

parivhan

inhein bhi dekhein: Public transport in Dunedin

dunedin shahari kshetr ko do raajamaargon ki seva praapt hai aur iske saath hi saath jile ke anya hisson ko atirikt do raajamaargon aur ek paryatan maarg ki seva praapt hai. dunedin ke mukhya raajamaarg ka naam raajamaarg 1 hai jo uttar se dakshin-pashchim disha ki taraf shahar ke beech se hokar gujarata hai aur dunedin ko dakshin mein invarakaaragil se aur uttar mein timaaroo aur kraaistacharch se jodta hai. the oval aur mausagil ke beech raajamaarg 1 gyaarah kimi lambe dunedin saaudarn motarave ka anusaran karta hai. shahar ke anya raajamaargon mein elanatan mein raajamaarg 1 ko dunedin intaranaishanal airport se jodne wala raajamaarg 86, kinmont mein raajamaarg 1 ko midilmaarch ke maadhyam se kyebarn mein raajamaarg 85 se jodne wala aur dunedin shahar ke bheetari pradesh ki seva karne wala raajamaarg 87 aur kendreeya dunedin ko port chaalmars mein shahar ke bandargaah kendron se jodne wala raajamaarg 88 shaamil hain. dunedin the kaitalins, invarakaaragil aur fiyordalaind ke maadhyam se te anaaoo se dunedin ko jodne vaale paryatan raajamaarg saaudarn seenik root ka uttar poorvi tarmins hai.

teen dijaainalaain nirmit basein, dunedin shahari maargon par siteebas dvaara sanchaalit.

dunedin mein bason ko gobas brand ke tahat otaago reejanal kaaunsil dvaara vyavasthit kiya jaata hai. poore shahar mein 17 saptaah diwas maargon aur 13 saptaah raatri/ saptaahaant/ avakaash diwas ko kul 59 bason ka sanchaalan hota hai. bason ka sanchaalan do oparetaron dvaara kiya jaata hai: dunedin city kaaunsil ke svaamitv wala oparetar siteebas (10/11 maarg) aur niji invarakaaragil aadhaarit oparetar passenger transport (7/2 maarg). iske alaava, mausagil coach sarvises dvaara mausagil mein saptaah diwas mein loop service ka sanchaalan kiya jaata hai.

oktaagan ke poorv mein sthit dunedin railway station shahar ka mukhya railway station hai. kabhi desh ka sabse vyast kshetr rah chuke is shahar mein pichhle kuchh varshon mein adhikaansh sevaaon ki vaapasi ke saath rel seva mein giraavat dekhi gayi hai. 1982 mein upanagareeya sevaaen band ho gain aur dunedin ki seva karne vaale antim niyamit vaanijyik yaatri train the saaudarnar ko February 2002 mein radd kar diya gaya. filhaal taieri gorj railway dvaara station se paryatak unmukhi sevaaon ka sanchaalan kiya jaata hai jinmein taieri gorj limited sabse pramukh hai jo sundar taieri gorj se hokar poorv otaago sentral railway ke saath pratidin sanchaalit hone waali ek lokapriya aur mashahoor train hai. taieri gorj railway dvaara saptaah mein ek baar paalmarsatan ka bhi sanchaalan kiya jaata hai. kabhi-kabhi anya heritej railway sosaaitiyon dvaara aayojit yaatra dvaara aur port chaalmars mein langar daalne vaale samudri paryatan jahaajon dvaara kiraae par liye gaye trainon dvaara bhi is station ki yaatra ki jaati hai.

dunedin antararaashtreeya havaai adda - ek air New Zealand 737 runway par utar raha hai jabki air New Zealand ka ek A320 intajaar kar raha hai.

dunedin intaranaishanal airport momona mein taieri plens par shahar se dakshin pashchim disha mein 30 kimi (18.64 meal) ki doori par sthit hai. is airport dvaara keval ek terminal aur 1,900 meter (6,200 fut) lambe runway ka sanchaalan kiya jaata hai aur kraaistacharch aur kveensataaun ke baad yeh south aailaind ka teesara sabse vyast airport hai. iska istemaal praathamik roop se ghareloo udaanon ke liye kiya jaata hai aur iske saath hi saath okalaind, kraaistacharch, velingatan, rotoruaa aur paalmarsatan North se aur tak niyamit udaanein bhari jaati hain aur kveensataaun, vanaaka aur fiyordalaind se aur tak mausami udaanein bhari jaati hain lekin yahaan saal bhar Brisbane se aane aur vahaan jaane ke liye antarraashtreeya udaanein aur Sydney aur melaborn se aane aur vahaan jaane ke liye mausami antarraashtreeya udaanein bhi bhari jaati hain. haal ke varshon mein, antarraashtreeya yaatriyon mein aane waali giraavat ke liye seedhe airport tak sanchaalit hone waali kam antarraashtreeya udaanon ko jimmedaar thaharaaya ja sakta hai. unneesaveen sadi ke antim daur mein aur beesaveen sadi ke aaranbhik daur mein port chaalmars aur portobelo ke beech ghaat seva ka sanchaalan kiya jaata tha.[42] unhein punarjeevit karne ke liye vahaan kabhi-kabhaar jahaajon aur naavon ko ghaat lagaaya jaata hai aur yahaan ke mool ghaaton mein se ek ko punarsthaapit karne aur is maarg ke liye iska fir se istemaal karne ke liye prachaalan-tantr ki jaanch-padtaal karne ke liye otaago ferij ink. naamak ek gair laabhakaari sangathan ki sthaapana ki gayi hai.[43]

1866 mein otaago haarbar ke kinaare port chaalmars aur portobelo ke beech ek pul banaane ki yojana banaai gayi thi[44] lekin 1140 meter lambe is dhaanche ka nirmaan karne ke liye banaai gayi is shaanadaar yojana ko kabhi antim roop naheen diya gaya. 1870 ke dashak mein haarbar ke sheersh bhaag ke paas taumaahauk mein prashaant saagaratat aur endarasans ki khaadi ke beech ek nahar khodane ki bhi yojana banaai gayi thi.[45] yeh yojana par bhi kabhi amal naheen kiya gaya.

chitraavali

180° view of Dunedin shot from the hills on the west. Mount Cargill is at the extreme left of picture, and the Otago Peninsula is beyond the harbour to the centre
A panorama from just east of the summit of Mount Cargill. The harbour runs from its entrance near the centre to the city centre on the right, the peninsula beyond. The base of a television mast is at the extreme left and right edges
The view from the summit of Mount Cargill. The base of a television mast can be seen on the left, with the harbour and the peninsula beyond. The city centre is in the middle
The view from the summit of Flagstaff. The city centre is on the right, and Mosgiel on the left. Mount Cargill is slightly right of centre
The view from the summit of Signal Hill. Dunedin CBD is in the center of the image. The Otago Peninsula stretches out to the left

prasiddh vyakti

ghatanaaeain

vaarshik aayojan

ateet ki ghatanaayein

  • 1865 – New Zealand egjeebeeshan (1865)
  • 1889 – New Zealand end south seej egjeebeeshan (1889)
  • 1898 – otaago jubali industrial egjeebeeshan (1898)
  • 1925 – New Zealand end south seej international egjeebeeshan (1925)

prasiddh imaarat aur sthal

  • dunedin railway station
  • dunedin taaun hall
  • laarnaach kaisal
  • kaaragils kaisal
  • kaidabari world
  • olvestan
  • speets brevari
  • otaago rajistri bilding vishvavidyaalaya
  • otaago klaukataavar complex vishvavidyaalaya
  • reejeint theatre
  • faurchyoon theatre
  • myoonisipl chembars
  • alaaid press bilding
  • dunedin pablik hauspitl
  • meridiyn mall
  • oktaagan

sangrahaalaya, Art gailari aur pustakaalaya

  • otaago myoojiym
  • otaago setalars myoojiym
  • dunedin pablik Art gailari
  • dunedin pablik laaibreri
  • hoken laaibreri

church

  • all seints church
  • church of jeesas kraaist of laitar-de seints
  • pehla church
  • hanovar street baipatist church
  • kaikoraai presbiteriyn church
  • knoks church
  • seint Joseph kaithedral
  • seint paul kaithedral
  • triniti vesleyan church — ab faurchyoon theatre

bageeche aur udyaan

  • bautanikl garden
  • dunedin chaayaneej garden

shiksha ke sthaan

truteeya

  • otaago vishvavidyaalaya
  • otaago pauliteknik
  • oraaki pauliteknik (dunedin kaimpas)
  • dunedin college of education

dviteeyak

inhein bhi dekhein: List of schools in the Otago Region#Dunedin_City
  • befild haai school
  • otaago bauyaj haai school
  • otaago girls haai school
  • kolumba college
  • seint. hilda kaulejiyet school
  • John maikaglaashan college
  • kavaana college
  • logaan park haai school
  • kaikoraai valley college
  • kings haai school
  • kveens haai school
  • taieri college

khel

pramukh team

  • haailaindars – super 14 ragbi union team (otaago aur saauthalaind kshetron ka pratinidhitv karta hai)
  • otaago ragbi football union – air New Zealand cup ragbi union team
  • otaago volts aur otaago spaarks – purush aur mahilaaon ki cricket team
  • southern steel – eenajed championship netabaul team (otaago aur saauthalaind netabaul ka pratinidhitv - invarakaaragil mein sthaapit)
  • otaago United - New Zealand football championship mein association football team
  • otaago nagets – national baasketabaul league team
  • dunedin thandar – New Zealand aais hockey league team
  • kaivarasham AFC – saukarasaauth Premier league team
  • mausagil AFC – saukarasaauth Premier league team

pramukh maidaan aur stadium

  • kailedoniyn ground
  • kerisbruk, test cricket ki mejabaani karne wala gruh ke sabse dakshini chhor par sthit maidaan ke roop mein jaana jaata hai
  • dunedin aais stadium
  • edagar center
  • forbari park resave
  • vishvavidyaalaya plaaja ka forsith barr stadium (abhi nirmaan ke tahat hai)
  • logaan park
  • moaana pool
  • tonga park
  • oval vishvavidyaalaya

antarraashtreeya sambandh

judvaan shahar - padosi shahar

dunedin duniya bhar mein kai shaharon ke saath judvaan roop se juda hua hai. inmein shaamil hain:

vaalign="top"

agrim pathan

  • herd, J. end greefith, ji. J. (1980). diskavaring dunedin . dunedin: John maikainadoi. aaiesabeeen 0-86868-030-3.
  • smaulafild, J. end heenan, bi. (2006) ebav di belt: A history of di subarb of maaori hil . dunedin: maaori hil history chairitebal trast. aaiesabeeen 1-877139-98-X.

sandarbh

sandarbhagranth

  • Anderson, Atholl (1983), When All the Moa-Ovens Grew Cold : nine centuries of changing fortune for the southern Maori, Dunedin, NZ: Otago Heritage Books
  • Anderson, Atholl (1998), The Welcome of Strangers : an ethnohistory of southern Maori A.D. 1650–1850, Dunedin, NZ: University of Otago Press with Dunedin City Council, aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 1-877133-41-8 pb
  • Anderson, Atholl; Allingham, Brian; Smith, Ian W G (1996), Shag River Mouth : the archaeology of an early southern Maori village, Canberra, Australia: Australian National University, aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-7315-0342-1, OCLC 34751263
  • Bathgate, Alexander (ed) (1890), Picturesque Dunedin, Dunedin, NZ: Mills, Dick & Co., OCLC 154535977
  • Beaglehole, J C (ed) (1955–67), The Journals of Captain James Cook, London, UK: The Hakluyt Society
  • Begg, A Charles; Begg, Neil Colquhoun (1979), The world of John Boultbee : including an account of sealing in Australia and New Zealand, Christchurch, NZ: Whitcoulls, aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0723306044
  • Bishop, Graham; Hamel, Antony (1993), From sea to silver peaks, Dunedin: John McIndoe, aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-86868-149-0
  • Collins, Roger; Entwisle, Peter (1986), Pavilioned in Splendour, George O'Brien's Vision of Colonial New Zealand, Dunedin, NZ: Dunedin Public Art Gallery, aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ ISBN 0-9597758-1-1
  • Dann, Christine; Peat, Neville (1989), Dunedin, North and South Otago, Wellington: GP Books, aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-477-01438-0
  • Dunn, Michael (2005), Nerli an Italian Painter in the South Pacific, Auckland University Press., aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 1-86940-335-5
  • Entwisle, Peter (1984), William Mathew Hodgkins & his Circle, Dunedin, NZ: Dunedin Public Art Gallery, aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-473-00263-0
  • Entwisle, Peter (1998), Behold the Moon, the European Occupation of the Dunedin District 1770–1848, Dunedin, NZ: Port Daniel Press., aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-473-05591-0
  • Entwisle, Peter (2005), Taka, a Vignette Life of William Tucker 1784–1817, Dunedin, NZ: Port Daniel Press., aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-473-10098-3
  • Entwisle, Peter; Dunn, Michael; Collins, Roger (1988), Nerli An Exhibition of Paintings & Drawings, Dunedin, NZ: Dunedin Public Art Gallery, aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-9597758-4-6
  • Hamel, J (2001), The Archaeology of Otago, Wellington, NZ: Department of Conservation, aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-478-22016-2
  • Hayward, Paul (1998), Intriguing Dunedin Street Walks, Dunedin, NZ: Express Office Services
  • Hocken, Thomas Moreland (1898), Contributions to the Early History of New Zealand (Settlement of Otago), London, UK: Sampson Low, Marston and Company, OCLC 3804372
  • McCormick, E H (1954), The Expatriate, a Study of Frances Hodgkins, Wellington, NZ: New Zealand University Press., OCLC 6276263
  • McCormick, E H (1959), The Inland Eye, a Sketch in Visual Autobiography, Auckland, NZ: Auckland Gallery Associates, OCLC 11777388
  • McDonald, K C (1965), City of Dunedin, a Century of Civic Enterprise, Dunedin, NZ: Dunedin City Corporation, OCLC 10563910
  • McLintock, A H (1949), The History of Otago; the origins and growth of a Wakefield class settlement, Dunedin, NZ: Otago Centennial Historical Publications, OCLC 154645934
  • McLintock, A H (1951), The Port of Otago, Dunedin, NZ: Otago Harbour Board
  • Morrell, W P (1969), The University of Otago, a Centennial History, Dunedin, NZ: University of Otago Press., OCLC 71676

tippaniyaan

  1. [1]
  2. "Supersport's Good Week / Bad Week: An unhappy spectator". The New Zealand Herald. 1 May 2009. http://www.nzherald.co.nz/sport/news/article.cfm?c_id=4&objectid=10569715. abhigman tithi: 2009-09-18.
  3. a aa Irwin, Geoff; Walrond, Carl (2009-03-04). "When was New Zealand first settled? – The date debate". Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand. http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/when-was-new-zealand-first-settled/1. abhigman tithi: 2010-02-14.
  4. Dunedin Town Board[mrut kadiyaaain]
  5. "Mayor Peter Chin". Dunedin City Council. http://www.dunedin.govt.nz/your-council/councillors/mayor-peter-chin. abhigman tithi: 2008-09-06.
  6. "Subnational population estimates at 30 June 2010 (boundaries at 1 November 2010)". Statistics New Zealand. 26 October 2010. http://www.stats.govt.nz/~/media/Statistics/Methods%20and%20Services/Tables/Subnational%20population%20estimates/subpopest2001-10.ashx. abhigman tithi: 7 March 2011.
  7. chaar mukhya kendron ke roop mein okalaind, velingatan, kraaistacharch aur dunedin ka varnan, bhaugolik drushti se desh ke donon pramukh dveepon ko uttari tatha dakshini bhaagon mein bade kareene se vibhaajit karta hai. is prakaar in kendron ko kaafi vistrut kshetron mein varnit kiya gaya hai; ensaaiklopeediya of nyoojeelaind se lekar scientific research insteetyoots, di tyoorijm industry se lekar neshanavaaid orgenaajeshans end gavarnameint dipaartameints aur di intarateinmeint industry se lekar nyoojpepar reports tak.
  8. a aa i E u oo Quickstats about Dunedin City
  9. (Hamel 2001); (Anderson, Allingham & Smith 1996); (Anderson 1998)
  10. (Anderson 1983)
  11. (Anderson, Allingham & Smith 1996) aur (Hamel 2001)
  12. (Anderson 1998)
  13. turatan, hansan "introdaktari""mein (Bathgate 1890); (Entwisle 2005)
  14. a aa (McLintock 1949)
  15. (Anderson 1983) aur (Anderson 1998)
  16. baultabi, (Begg & Begg 1979) mein J
  17. cook, (Beaglehole (ed) 1955–67) mein James
  18. (Entwisle 2005)
  19. (Entwisle 1998)
  20. Byrne, T. B.. "Wing, Thomas 1810–1888". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. http://www.dnzb.govt.nz/DNZB/alt_essayBody.asp?essayID=1W33. abhigman tithi: 2009-03-17.
  21. Somerville, Ross. "Tuckett, Frederick 1807? – 1876". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. http://www.dnzb.govt.nz/DNZB/alt_essayBody.asp?essayID=1T108. abhigman tithi: 2009-03-17.
  22. (Hocken 1898)
  23. (McLintock 1949); (McDonald 1965)
  24. Betteridge, Chris (28 July 2004). "Landscapes of Memory – breathing new life into old cemeteries" (PDF). NZ Historic Places Trust. p. 2. Archived from the original on December 15, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20071215152838/http://www.historic.org.nz/aboutus/OtagoBranch/gfx/Lawson+Lecture+2004.pdf. abhigman tithi: 2008-05-14.
  25. (Morrell 1969)
  26. (McLintock 1951)
  27. (McLintock 1949); (McDonald 1965); (Entwisle 1984)
  28. (Entwisle 1984)
  29. (Collins & Entwisle 1986)
  30. (McCormick 1954); (Entwisle 1984); (Entwisle, Dunn & Collins 1988); (Dunn 2005)
  31. (McCormick 1959)
  32. Roy shukar andarastainding paupular myoojik rootalej, 2001
  33. dunedin city kaaunsil pej[mrut kadiyaaain]
  34. thred fashion maigajeen aartikl
  35. Schaer, Cathrin (2008-03-03). "Rain fails to dampen Dunedin's fashion parade". New Zealand Herald (APN Holdings). http://www.nzherald.co.nz/category/story.cfm?c_id=151&objectid=10495751.
  36. "Steepest Streets in Dunedin". Dunedin City Council. http://www.cityofdunedin.com/city/?page=roading_steep_street. abhigman tithi: 2008-05-16. [mrut kadiyaaain]
  37. a aa i E (Dann & Peat 1989)
  38. (Bishop & Hamel 1993)
  39. lambert, M. (Ed.) (1988) air New Zealand olmanaik . velingatan, enajed: New Zealand press association, pi. 394-5. laung-tarm evarej, 1951-1980.
  40. New Zealand ka varnanaatmak etalas, A.H. maikalintauk (Ed), New Zealand Governor printar, 1959 (maanachitr 8 ko dekhein)
  41. "CliFlo data Musselburgh (5402, 15752)". NIWA. http://cliflo.niwa.co.nz/. abhigman tithi: 2007-10-15.
  42. kamyooniti aarcheev. 2 November 2009 ko praapt kiya gaya.
  43. otaago feris ink. 2 November 2009 ko praapt kiya gaya.
  44. Hayward 1998, pi.65
  45. Hayward 1998, pi.66
  46. "NZ's biggest book sale reaches 25 year milestone". Scoop. 2005-05-09. http://www.scoop.co.nz/stories/CU0505/S00062.htm. abhigman tithi: 2009-07-25.
  47. "Edinburgh – Twin and Partner Cities". © 2008 The City of Edinburgh Council, City Chambers, High Street, Edinburgh, EH1 1YJ Scotland. Archived from the original on 2007-08-11. http://web.archive.org/20070811224256/www.edinburgh.gov.uk/internet/city_living/CEC_twin_and_partner_cities. abhigman tithi: 2008-12-21. [mrut kadiyaaain]

baahya kadiyaan