dubai

dubai
دaaبaaي
mahanagar
dubai
dubai ke dharohar
sanyukt arab ameeraat me dubai ka sthaan
nirdeshaank : 24°a57′aN 55°a20′aE / 24.95°aN 55.333°aE / 24.95; 55.333Erioll world.svgnirdeshaank: 24°a57′aN 55°a20′aE / 24.95°aN 55.333°aE / 24.95; 55.333
desh Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg sanyukt arab ameeraat
imiret saaaincha:desh aaainkade dubai dubai
sansthaapak al maktum
shaasan
• pranaali sanbaidhaanik raajatantr[1]
• imir mohammad bin rasid al maktum
• Rajkumar hamaad bin mohammad al maktum
kshetr[2]
• kul 4,114
janasankhya (1 January 2013)
• kul 21,06,177
samay mandal yooei maanak samay (UTC +4)
jidipi yues$ 82.9 billion[3]
prati vyakti jeedipi yues$ 24,866 pipipi[3]
jaalasthal dubai ameeraat
dubai nagar paalika
dubai paryatan

dubai arabi: دaaبaaيaaّsanyukt arab ameeraat (yooei) ki saat ameeraaton mein se ek hai. yeh faaras ki khaadi ke dakshin mein arab praayadveep par sthit hai. dubai nagar paalika ko ameeraat se alag bataane ke liye kabhi kabhi dubai raajya bulaaya jaata hai. dubai, madhya poorv ke ek vaishvik nagar tatha vyaapaar kendra ke roop mein ubhar kar saamane aaya hai. likhit dastaavejon mein is shahar ka astitv sanyukt arab ameeraat ke gathan se 150 saal pehle hone ka jikr hai.

dubai anya ameeraaton ke saath kaanoon, raajaneeti, sainik aur aarthik kaarya ek sangheeya dhaanche ke bheetar saajha karta hai. haalaanki pratyek ameeraat mein naagrik kaanoon laagoo karne aur vyavastha aur sthaaneeya suvidhaaon ke rakharakhaav jaise kuchh kaaryon par kshetraadhikaar hai. dubai ki aabaadi sabse jyaada hai aur yeh kshetrafal mein Abu Dhabi ke baad doosari sabse badi ameeraat hai.[4] dubai aur Abu Dhabi hi sirf do ameeraat hai jinke paas desh ki vidhaayika anusaar raashtreeya mahatva ke mahatvapoorn maamalon par pratyaadesh shakti ka adhikaar hai.[5] dubai par 1833 se al maakataum vansh ne shaasan kiya hai. iske maujooda shaasak mohammad bin rasheed al maakataum sanyukt arab ameeraat ke pradhaanamantri aur up raashtrapati bhi hai.

ameeraat ka mukhya raajasv paryatan, jaayadaad aur vitteeya sevaaon se aata hai.[6] dubai ki arthavyavastha moolat: tel udyog par nirmit hai, vartamaan mein 80 arab ameriki dollar (2009) ki ameeraati arthavyavastha mein petrol tatha praakrutik gas ka raajasv yogadaan 6% (2006) se kam hai. sampatti aur nirmaan ne 2005 mein arthavyavastha mein vartamaan ke bade paimaane par nirmaan kaarya mein teji se pehle 22.6% ka yogadaan diya .[7]

dubai ne kai Abhinav badi nirmaan pariyojanaaon[8] aur khel aayojanon ke maadhyam se duniya ka dhyaan aakarshit kiya hai. sabka dhyaan aakarshit hone ke saath hi ek vaishvik shahar[9] aur vyaapaar kendra ke roop mein ubharane ki vajah se dubai mein shram aur maanav adhikaaron se jude karmachaariyon mukhyat: dakshin Asiaee karmachaariyon se sambandhit mudde prakaash mein aaye hain .[10]

anukram

vyutpatti

1820 mein, dubai ko british itihaasakaaron dvaara al vasl (Al Wasl) ke roop mein ullikhit kiya gaya tha. sanyukt arab ameeraat ya uske ghatak ameeraat ke saanskrutik itihaas se sambandhit kuchh abhilekh kshetr ki maukhik parampara ke darj hone aur lokakathaaon va mithko ke aage badhne ki vajah se maujood hain . shabd dubai ki mool bhaasha ke baare mein bhi vivaad rahe hain, kuchh logon ka maanana hai ki yeh faarasi bhaasha se utpann hua hai, jabki kuchh ka maanana hai ki arabi is shabd ki mool bhaasha hai. fedel handhaal (Fedel Handhal) jo sayunkt arab ameeraat ke itihaas aur sanskruti ke shodhakarta hai, ke anusaar shabd dubai ka mool shabd daaba (Daba) (yaadub ((Yadub) ka ek vyutpann) se aaya ho sakta hai, jiska matlab reingana hota hai. yeh shabd ho sakta hai ki dubai khaadi ke bheetari pravaah ke sandarbh mein ho sakta hai jabki kavi aur vidvaan Ahmad mohammad obaid bhi isi shabd ko maadhyam bataate hain, lekin unke anusaar iska arth tiddi hai.[11]

itihaas

dakshin- poorvi arab praayadveep ki islaam se poorv ki sanskruti ke baare mein kaafi kam jaankaari hai siva iske ki kai praacheen nagaron ke kshetr poorvi aur pashchimi duniya ke beech ke vyaapaar kendra the. ek praacheen sadaabahaar daladal ke avashesh jo 7,000 saal puraane hai, dubai Internet city (Dubai Internet City) ki seevar line ke nirmaan ke dauraan paaye gaye . yeh kshetr 5,000 saal pehle samudra tat peechhe hat jaane se ret se dhaka hua tha aur shahar ke vartamaan samudra tat ka ek hissa ban gaya tha. [12]

al fahidi kila, 1799 mein banaaya, dubai mein sabse puraana maujooda imaarat hai - ab dubai sangrahaalaya ka hissa hai.[13]

islaam ke pehle yahaaain ke log bajeer (Bajir) (ya bajar) ki upaasana karte the. [14] baijntin (Byzantine) aur saasaaniyn (Sassanian) (faarasi) saamraajya ne avadhi ki mahaan shaktiyon ka gathan kiya aur jyaada kshetr ko saasaaniyn niyantrit karne lage . is kshetr mein islaam ke prasaar ke baad, umayyad kaalif (Umayyad Caliph), poorvi islaami duniya ke, ne dakshin-poorvi arab par hamla kar diya aur saasaaniyn ko baahar kar diya . al-jumaayara (jumerah) ke kshetr mein dubai sangrahaalaya ki khudaai mein umayyad avadhi ki kai kalaakrutiyaaain paayeen gayi hai.[15]

dubai ka sabse pehle ka ullekh 1095 mein darj hai, endaalusiyn - arab (Andalusian-Arab) bhoogolik abu abdulla al-bakari ki "book of geograafi" (Book of Geography) mein . venis ke moti vyaapaari gaspero balbi (Gaspero Balbi) ne 1580 mein is ilaake ka daura kiya aur dubai (dibi) ka ullekh iske moti udyog ke liye kiya. [15] dubai ke shahar ke dastaavej abhilekh keval 1799 ke baad se hi maujood hain .[16]

19 veen sadi ke shuroo mein, bani yaas (Bani Yas) vansh ke al Abu faalasa parivaar (house al-faalaasi) ne dubai ki sthaapana ki hai, jo 1833 tak Abu Dhabi par nirbhar tha. [17] 8 January 1820 ko, dubai aur is kshetr mein anya shekhon ne british sarkaar ke saath "general samudri shaanti sandhi" (General Maritime Peace Treaty) par hastaakshar kiye .[12] 1833 mein bani yaas janajaati ke al makataum vansh (house al-faalaasi ke vanshaj) ne Abu Dhabi ka samjhauta chhod diya aur bina virodh ke Abu faasala vansh se dubai ko le liya .[17]

dubai 1892 ke 'vishesh samjhaute" dvaara United kingadam ke sanrakshan ke antargat aa gaya jisme Britain ne dubai ki otoman saamraajya se raksha ki sahamati di .[17] 1800 ke dauraan shahar mein do baar pralaya I . pehla, 1841 mein bur dubai ilaake mein chechak mahaamaari jisne iske nivaasiyon ko dira ke poorv mein sharan lene ko majaboor kar diya . aur fir, 1894 mein, dira mein ek aag lagi jisme kai ghar jal gaye .[18] haalaanki, shahar ki bhaugolik sthiti ne is kshetr ke aaspaas se vyaapaariyon aur saudaagaron ko aakarshit karna jaari rakha . dubai ke ameer ne videshi vyaapaariyon ko aakarshit karne ke liye utsuk tha aur usane vyaapaar kar ko kam kar diya jisne vyaapaariyon ko shaarajaah (Sharjah) aur bandar leingeh (Bandar Lengeh) se kheech liya jo us samay is kshetr ke mukhya vyaapaar kendra the. [18][19]

20 veen sadi

dubai ki Iran se bhaugolik niktata ne ise ek mahatvapoorn sthaan banaaya hai. dubai ka shahar videshi vyaapaariyon ke liye ek mahatvapoorn bandargaah tha, mukhyat: Iran ke vyaapaariyon ke liye, jisme kai antat: isi shahar mein bas gaye . dubai 1930 ke dashak tak apne moti niryaat ke liye jaana jaata tha par vishv yudgh 1 se yeh udyog kshatigrast ho gaya tha aur baad mein 1930 ke dashak mein vishvyaapi mandi se yeh fir se kshatigrast ho gaya . moti vyaapaar ke patan ke saath kai nivaasi faaras ki khaadi ke anya bhaagon mein chale gaye .[12]

AlRas Deira Mid1960s.jpg

apni sthaapana ke baad se hi dubai abu Dhabi ke anupaat par tha. 1947 mein, dubai aur abu Dhabi ke uttari kshetr ki saajha seema ka vivaad yuddh mein badal gaya .[20] Britain ki madhyastata aur ek madhyavarti seema jo ras hasiyn (Ras Hasian) tat se dakshin poorv ki or thi ke parinaamasvaroop donon se beech ek asthaayi yuddhastithi viraam aa gaya tha. [21]

ameeraat ke beech seema vivaad sanyukt arab ameeraat ke gathan ke baad bhi jaari raha aur 1979 mein hi ek aupachaarik samjhaute ke baad yuddh samaapt hua .[22] bijli, telephone sevaaon aur ek havaai adde dubai mein 1950 ke dashak mein sthaapit hue jab british apne sthaaneeya prashaasanik kaaryaalayon shaarajaah se dubai le gaye .[23] 1966 mein shahar ne Qatar ke nav svatantr desh ke saath faaras ki khaadi rupae ke avmoolyan ke baad nai maudrik ikaai Qatar/dubai riyaal ki sthaapana ki .[16] usi saal dubai mein tel ka pata chala jiske baad shahar ne antararaashtreeya tel companiyon ko riyaayatein di . tel ki khoj se videshi karmachaariyon ki ek baadh si aa gayi jisme mukhyat: bhaarateeya aur Pakistani log the. kuchh anumaanon ke anusaar shahar ki janasainkhya 1968 se 1975 300% tak badh gayi thi. [24]

poorv rakshak Britain ke 1971 mein faaras ki khaadi chhodne ke baad 2 December 1971 ko dubai ne abu Dhabi aur paanch anya ameeraat ke saath milkar sanyukt arab ameeraat ki sthaapana ki .[25] 1973 mein, dubai ne anya ameeraaton ke saath milkar ek samaan mudra : sanyukt arab ameeraat dirham apnaai . 1970 ke dashak mein, dubai mein tel aur vyaapaar se utpann raajasv mein nirantar badhottari hoti rahi, jabki shahar mein Lebanon ke gruh yuddh se bhaage hue aapravaasiyon ki baadh aa gayi thi. [26] jebel Ali bandargaah (duniya ka sabse bada maanav nirmit bandargaah) 1979 mein sthaapit kiya gaya tha. jafja (Jafza)(jebel Ali ni:shulk jon) ka bandargaah ke aaspaas nirmaan 1985 mein videshi companiyon ko apratibandhit shram aayaat aur poonji niryaat pradaan karne ke liye kiya gaya tha. [27]


faaras ki khaadi ke 1990 ke yuddh ka shahar par bada prabhaav pada . jamaakartaaon ne kshetr mein anishchit raajaneetik paristhitiyon ke kaaran dubai ke bankon se bhaari maatra mein pooainji vaapas le li . baad mein 1990 ke dashak mein kai videshi vyaapaarik samudaaya - pehli baar Kuwait se faaras ki khaadi yuddh ke dauraan aur baad mein bahareen se shiya ashaanti ke dauraan - ne apne vyaapaar ko dubai mein sthaanaantarit kar diya .[19] dubai ne faaras ki khaadi yuddh ke dauraan aur baad mein 2003 Iraq aakraman ke dauraan sena sambaddh ko jebel Ali free jon ko indhan aadhaar ke liye istemaal karne diya . faaras ki khaadi ke yuddh ke baad badhi hui tel ki keematon ne dubai ko mukt vyaapaar aur paryatan par dhyaan dena jaari rakhane ke liye protsaahit kiya. [28]

jebel Ali mukt kshetr ki safalta ne shahar ko is model ki nakal kar nae mukt kshetr ke samoohon ke vikaas ki anumati di jisme dubai Internet city, dubai media city aur dubai maireetaaim city bhi shaamil hai. burj al arab, duniya ke sabse bada prathak hotel ke nirmaan aur saath hi naye aavaaseeya gatividhiyon ke nirmaan ko paryatan ke liye dubai ke prachaar ke liye istemaal kiya gaya . 2002 ke baad se niji sampatti ke vikaas mein vruddhi ne dubai ke kshitij[28] ka vishaal pariyojanaaon, the paalm aailaind, the world aailaind aur the burj khaleefa ke saath pun: nirmaan kiya. haal hi ke majaboot aarthik vikaas ne uchch mudraasfeeti ko bhi badhaava mila (11.2%, 2007 mein jab upabhokta moolya soochakaank ke khilaaf maapa gaya) jiska ek kaaran vaanijyik aur aavaaseeya kiraae ka dohareekaran bhi maana jaata hai.[29]

bhoogol

Dubai map city.svg
City of Dubai at Night, United Arab Emirates.jpg
Dubai 2010.JPG
chitr:Dune Bashing - Dubai.JPG
dubai ke ek registaan mein ret ka teela, ek registaan safaari ke dauraan

dubai sanyukt arab ameeraat ke faaras ki khaadi ke tat par sthit hai aur mote taur par samudra star (16 mi/52 futaoopar) hai. dubai ke ameeraat dakshin mein abu Dhabi ke saath, poorvottar mein shaarajaah ke saath aur dakshin poorv mein omaan saltanat ke saath seema baaaintata hain . hatta, ameeraat ki ek chhoti si bhoomi hai jo teen taraf se omaan aur ajamaan ke ameeraat (pashchim mein) aur raas al khaimaah (uttar mein) dvaara ghiri hui hai. faaras ki khaadi ki seemaaen ameeraat ke pashchimi tat se judi hai. dubai ki stithi 25°a16′a11″aN 55°a18′a34″aE / 25.2697°aN 55.3095°aE / 25.2697; 55.3095 hai aur 4,114 kimi ² (1,588 meal ²) ke kshetr mein vistrut hai, yeh apne aaranbhik 1,500 meal ke kshetr se pare hai jo samudra se uddhaar ke kaaran hua hain .

dubai arebiyn registaan ke bheetar hai. lekin dubai ki sthalaakruti sanyukt arab ameeraat ke dakshini bhaag se kaafi alag hai, dubai ke paridrushya ki vishishtata reteele registaan ke roop mein hai, jabki dakshini kshetr mein bajari registaan ki adhikta hai.[30] ret mein mukhyat: tooti hui seep aur pravaal hain aur yeh achhi, saaf aur safed hai. shahar ka poorv jo namak ki parat ka tateeya maidaan hai jise sabkha (sabkha) ke naam se jaana jaata hai, ek uttar- dakshini reteeya rekha ko raasta deta hai. door poorv ki or, reteeya teele bade ho gaye aur lohe ke aaksaaid se laal ho gaye .[24]

sapaat reteela registaan pashchimi hajr parvat ko raasta deta hai, jo hatta par dubai omaan ki seema ke saath chalta hai. pashchimi hajaar shrrunkhala ka ek shushk, kateela aur ujada paridrushya hai, jiske pahaad kuchh sthaanon par lagbhag 1,300 meter tak ooainche hai. dubai mein koi praakrutik nadi ya maroo udyaan naheen hai, tathaapi, dubai mein ek praakrutik pravesh hai, dubai ki khaadi, jisko jaal se baaaindh kar gahra kar bade jahaajon ke jaane ke yogya bana diya gaya hai. dubai mein kai pahaadon ke beech sankarein path aur jalachhidr bhi hai jinka aadhaar pashchimi al hajr pahaadiyaan hai. reteeya teelon ka ek vishaal samudra dakshini dubai mein faila hai jo antat: ek the empti quarter (The Empty Quarter) registaan ko jaata hai. bhookamp ke hisaab se, dubai ek bahut hi sthir kshetr hai - sabse paas ki bhookampeeya rekha, jaargos fault (Zargos fault) sanyukt arab ameeraat se 120 kimi door hai aur iski dubai par koi bhookamp prabhaav ki sambhaavana naheen hai.[31] visheshagyon ka yeh bhi anumaan hai ki is kshetr mein sunaami ki sambhaavana bahut kam hai kyonki faaras ki khaadi ke paani ki gaharaai ek sunaami ko shuroo karne ke liye kaafi kam hai.[31]

shahar ke aaspaas ke reteele registaan jangali ghaas aur kabhi kabhi khajoor ko sahaara dete hai. registaani fool sabkha maidaanon mein shahar ke poorvi ilaakon mein ugate hai jabki babool aur khejadi ke ped pashchimi al hajr pahaadiyon ke nikat sapaat maidaanon mein hote hain . kai deshi ped jaise khajoor aur neem aur kai aayaatit ped jaise safeda dubai ke praakrutik park mein ugaae jaate hai. haubara tugadar, dhaareedaar lakadbaggha, syaahagosh, registaani lomadi, baaj aur arabi oriks jaise jaanavar dubai ke registaan mein aam hai. dubai Europe, Asia aur Africa ke beech pravaas ke raaste par hai aur 320 se adhik pravaasi pakshi prajaatiyaaain basant aur patajhad mein ameeraat se hokar gujarati hain . dubai ke jal mein haimaur sahit machhaliyon ki 300 se adhik prajaatiyaaain pai jaati hai.

dubai ki khaadi shahar ke poorvottar-dakshin pashchimi taraf hai. shahar ka poorvi bhaag dira ke ilaake banaata hai aur poorv mein shaarajaah ke ameeraat aur dakshin mein al aveer ke shahar se juda hai. dubai antarraashtreeya havaai adda dira ke dakshin mein sthit hai jabki paam dira, dira ke uttar mein faaras ki khaadi mein sthit hai. dubai ki achal sampatti ka uchhaal jyaadaatar dubai ki khaadi ke pashchim mein, jumerah tateeya kshetr par kendrit hai. port Rashid, jebel Ali, burj al arab, paam jumerah aur vishay aadhaarit mukt-kshetr jaise business beya sab isi bhaag mein sthit hai. paanch mukhya maarg - E 11 (shekh jaayad road), E 311 (ameeraat road), E 44 (dubai-hatta raajamaarg), E 77 (dubai al habaab road) aur E 66 (oud metha road) - dubai se jaate hai aur shahar ko anya shaharon aur ameeraaton se jodte hai. iske atirikt, kai mahatvapoorn antar shahari maarg jaise D 89 (al makataum road/havaai adda road), D 85 (baniyaas road), D 75 (shekh Rashid road), D 73 (al dhiyaafa road), D 94 (jumerah road) aur D 92 (al khleej/al vasl road) shahar mein vibhinn ilaakon ko jodte hain . shahar ke poorvi aur pashchimi vargon al makataum brij, al garahaud brij, al shindaagha surang, business beya krosing aur floting brij se jude hue hain .

jalavaayu

dubai ki jalavaayu garm aur shushk hai. dubai mein garmiyaan behad garm, toofaani aur shushk hoti hai aur ausat uchch lagbhag 40 °ase (104 °afai) aur raat bhar nimn lagbhag 30 °ase (86 °afai) hota hai. saal bhar garm dinon ki ummeed ki ja sakti hai. sardiyaan garm aur chhoti hoti hai aur ausat uchch 23 °ase (73 °afai) aur raat bhar nimn 14 °ase (57 °afai) hota hai. varsha, pichhle kuchh dashakon mein badh rahi hai aur sanchit varsha prati varsh 150 mimi (5.91 inch) hai. yeh is kshetr ki shushkata ko prabhaavit naheen karta hai yadyapi isse registaani jhaadiyon ki sankhya mein vruddhi hui hai.

saaaincha:Dubai weatherbox

sarkaar aur raajaneeti

dubai police car, ek BMW 5 series car
dubai mein lagbhag 250,000 majadoor hai, jyaadaatar sampatti vikaas pariyojanaaon jaise the dubai mareena ke roop mein kaam karne vaale dakshin Asiaee log

dubai sarkaar ek samvaidhaanik raajashaahi dhaanche ke bheetar sanchaalit hoti hai aur al makataum parivaar dvaara 1833 ke baad se shaasit hai. maujooda shaasak mohammad bin rasheed al makataum sanyukt arab ameeraat ke pradhaanamantri aur Supreme sangh parishd (SCU) ke sadasya bhi hai. dubai 2 satr vidhi ke liye 8 sadasyon ki sanyukt arab ameeraat ki sangheeya raashtreeya parishad (Federal National Council - FNC) jo sarvochch sangheeya vaidhaanik sanstha hai, mein niyukti karti hai.[32] dubai nagar paalika (DM) ki sthaapana tatkaaleen shaasak Rashid bin Saeed al makataum ne 1954 mein nagar niyojan, naagrik sevaaon aur sthaaneeya suvidhaaon ke rakharakhaav ke prayojanon ke liye ki thi. [33]

DM ki adhyakshata hamadaan bin Rashid al makataum, dubai ke up shaasak dvaara ki jaati hai aur ismein anek vibhaag jaise sadak vibhaag, yojana aur sarvekshan vibhaag, paryaavaran evam jan svaasthya vibhaag aur vitteeya maamalon ke vibhaag shaamil hain . san 2001 mein dubai nagar paalika ne apne web portal (dubai.ei) dvaara apni 40 shahari sevaaen upalabdh karaane ke liye ek E- sarkaar pariyojana shuroo ki . aisi 13 sevaaeain October 2001 se shuroo ki gayi, jabki kai anya sevaaen bhavishya mein chaaloo hone ki aasha hai.

dubai aur raas al khaimaah hi keval ameeraat hai jo sanyukt arab ameeraat ki sangheeya nyaayik pranaali ke anuroop naheen hain . ameeraat ki nyaayik adaalat hain the court of first instains, the court of appeal aur the court of kaisashan . the court of fisrt instains mein civil court hote hain jo sabhi naagrikon ke daave sunate hai, aparaadh nyaayaalaya, jo police ki shikaayaton se jude daave sunate hai aur shariya court jo musalmaanon ke beech maamalon ke liye jimmedaar hai. gair musalmaan shariya court ke saamane prakat naheen hote hain . the court of kaisashan ameeraat ka Supreme court hai aur kaanoon ke maamalon par vivaad sunata hai.[34]

dubai police bal ki sthaapana naif ilaake mein 1956 mein hui aur iska kaanoon pravartan adhikaar kshetr ameeraat hai. yeh bal mohammad bin rasheed al makataum, dubai ke shaasak ki pratyaksh kamaan ke adheen hai. dubai nagar paalika shahar ki svachhata aur malajal buniyaadi suvidhaaon ke prabhaari bhi hain . shahar ke tej vikaas ne iske seemit seevej upachaar ke buniyaadi dhaanche ko usaki charam seema tak kheech diya hai.[35]

sanyukt arab ameeraat ke samvidhaan ka anuchhed 25 jaati, raashtreeyata, dhaarmik vishvaason ya saamaajik sthiti ke aadhaar par sabhi ko saamaan aacharan pradaan karta hai. haalaaainki, dubai ke 250,000 mein se anek videshi majdooron ki stithi ko maanav adhikaar vauch dvaara "maanaveeya se kam " varnit kiya gaya hai.[36][37][38][39] NPR anusaar shramik "aam taur par ek kamre mein aath rahate hai aur apne vetan ka ek hissa ve apne parivaaron ko, jinhein ve saalon naheen dekh paate hai, ko bhejate hai." 21 March 2006 ko burj khaleefa nirmaan sthal ke shramik jo bas ke samay aur kaam ki paristhitiyon se pareshaan the, ne aandolan kar diya tha jisse kaaron, kaaryaalayon, computeron aur nirmaan upakaranon ko haani hui thi. [40][41][42] vaishvik vitteeya sankat ne dubai ke shramik varg ko nuksaan pahuainchaaya hai, kai shramikon ko bhugataan naheen kiya ja raha hai aur ve desh chhodne mein bhi asamarth hai.[43]

dubai mein videshi naagrikon ke jude nyaayik siddhaanton ko 2007 mein raushani mein laaya gaya jab Alexander Robert naamak ek 15 varsheeya fraansisi- Swiss naagrik ke saath teen sthaaneeya logon dvaara balaatkaar, jisme se ek echaaaivi positiv tha[42] aur haal mein hi pravaasi majadoor jinme se adhikaansh bhaarateeya the jo buri majadoori aur jeevan sthitiyon ke khilaaf pradarshan kar rahe the, ke kaid jaisi ghatnaaon ko kathit roop se chhupaane ki koshish ki gayi thi. [43] veshyaavrutti, jo kaanoon dvaara avaidh hai, suspasht roop se ameeraat mein maujood hai kyonki iski arthavyavastha bade paimaane par paryatan aur vyaapaar par aadhaarit hai. American sentar for international paulisi stadeej (AMC.PS) dvaara kiye gaye ek shodh mein paaya gaya ki roosi aur ithiyopiya ki mahilaayein sabse aam veshyaaon hain, saath hi kuchh afreeki deshon ki bhi mahilaaen hai, jabki bhaarateeya veshyaaen ek achhi tarah se aayojit traans oshiyaanik veshyaavrutti network ka hissa hain .[44] ek 2007 ki PBS ki dubai : raat ke raaj naamak vruttachitr ke anusaar club mein adhikaariyon dvaara vaishyaavrutti ko sahan kiya jaata hai aur kai videshi mahilaaon vahaan bina majaboori ke paise se aakarshit hokar kaam karti hain .[44][45][46]

inhein bhi dekhein: Human rights in Dubai

janasaankhyiki

inhein bhi dekhein: Indians in the United Arab Emirates, Islam in the United Arab Emirates, Roman Catholicism in the United Arab Emirates, evam Bahá'í Faith in the United Arab Emirates
varsh janasankhya
1822 1 1,200[47]
1900 1 10,000[48]
1930 1 20,000[49]
1940 1 38,000[47]
1954 1 20,000[47]
1960 1 40,000[50]
1968 58,971[51]
1975 183,000[52]
1985 370,800[53]
1995 674,000[53]
2005 1,204,000
1 dubai shahar mein pehli janaganana ka aayojan 1968 mein kiya gaya . is taalika mein 1968 ke pehle ke sabhi janasankhya ke aankade anumaanit hai aur vibhinn sroton se praapt hain .

dubai ke saankhyiki kendra dvaara aayojit ki gayi janaganana ke anusaar, ameeraat ki 2006 mein aabaadi 1,422,000 thi jisme 1,073,000 purush aur 349,000 mahilaaen shaamil thi. [54]

kshetr 497.1 varg meal (1,287.4 km2) tak faila hua hain . janasankhya ghanatv 408.18/km2 hai jo poore desh se aath guna adhik hain . dubai kshetr mein doosra sabse mahanga shahar hai aur duniya mein 20 vaan sabse mahanga shahar hain .[55]

1998 ke roop mein, ameeraat ki janasankhya ka 17% bhaag sanyukt arab ameeraat ke naagrikon ka tha. lagbhag pravaasiyon ki janasainkhya (aur ameeraat ki kul aabaadi ka 71% bhaag) ka 85% bhaag Asiaee tha, mukhyat: (51%) bhaarateeya, Pakistani (15%) aur baanglaadeshi (10%) .[56] lekin janasankhya ka ek chauthaai bhaag kathit taur par Irani mool ka hai.[57] iske atirikt, janasankhya ka 16% bhaag (ya 288,000 log) saamoohik shram aavaas mein rahane vaale logon ki jaateeyata ya raashtreeyata ki pehchaan naheen hai lekin yeh mukhyat: Asiaee socha gaya hai.[58] ameeraat mein ausat umr 27 saal thi. apakv janm dar 2005 mein 13.6% thi jabki apakv mrutyu dar 1% thi. [59]

haalaanki dubai ki adhikaarik bhaasha arabi hai par urdoo, faarasi, hindi, malayalam, bangaali, tamil, taigalog, cheeni aur anya kai bhaashaaeain bhi dubai mein boli jaati hain . angreji shahar ki saamaanya bhaasha hai aur nivaasiyon dvaara bahut hi vyaapak roop se boli jaati hai.

sanyukt arab ameeraat anantim samvidhaan ke anuchhed 7 ke anusaar islaam sanyukt arab ameeraat shaasakeeya raajya dharm hai. sarkaar lagbhag 95% masjidon ko sahaayata deti hai aur sabhi imaamon ko rojgaar deti hai ; lagbhag 5% masjid poori tarah se niji hain aur kai badi masjidon ke bade niji vruttidaan hai.[60]

dubai mein badi sankhya mein hindu, isaai, sikh, bauddh aur anya dhaarmik samudaaya ke log shahar mein rahate hain .[krupaya uddharan jodein] gair muslim samoohon ke log apne swayam ke pooja ghar bana sakte hai jahaan ve mukt roop se apne dharm ka abhyaas kar sakte hain iske liye unhein bhoomi anudaan ka anurodh aur ek parisar ke nirmaan ki anumati lene ki jrurat hoti hai. jin samudaayon ke khud ke dhaarmik imaaratein naheen hoti ve anya dhaarmik sangathanon ki suvidhaaon ka prayog kar sakte hai ya niji gharon mein pooja kar sakte hain .[61] gair muslim dhaarmik samoohon ko khule taur par samooh ke kaaryon ki vijnyaaapit ki anumati hai lekin shuddhikran ya dhaarmik saahitya ka vitran jo islaam ka apamaan maana jaata hai, aaparaadhik mukadama chalaane, kaaraavaas aur nirvaasan ke dand ke antargat aata hai.[60]

arthavyavastha

[[chitr:Dubail21.jpg|thumb|right|200px|the burj khaleefa, manushya dvaara banaaya gaya sabse ooncha svarup [122].sandarbh truti: <ref> taig ke liye samaapti </ref> taig naheen mila varttamaan mein tel aur praakrutik gas ka bhaag ameeraat ke raajasv ka 6% se bhi kam hai.[62] yeh anumaan hai ki dubai 240,000 {barrel tel ka dainik aur apatateeya kshetr se paryaapt maatr mein gas ka utpaadan karta hai. sanyukt arab ameeraat ke gas ke raajasv mein ameeraat ka 2% ka hissa hai. dubai ke tel bhandaar kaafi kam ho gaye hai aur inke 20 saal mein khatm hone ki ummeed hain .[63] sampatti aur nirmaan (22.6%),[7] vyaapar (16%), maal aagaar (15%) aur vitteeya sevaaen (11%) dubai ki arthavyavastha mein sabse bada yogadaan dete hai.[64]

ek city mayor ke sarvekshan mein dubai ko duniya ke behatareen vitteeya shaharon mein 44 vein sthaan par rakha gaya tha[65] aur city mayor ki doosari report mein sanket diya gaya tha ki khareed ki kshamata mein dubai duniya ke sabse ameer shaharon mein 33 vein sthaan par tha. [66] dubai ek antarraashtreeya vitteeya kendra bhi hai aur maastarakaard varldavaaid seintars of Commerce index (Mastercard Worldwide Centers of Commerce Index) (2007)[67] ke savekshan mein sheersh 50 vaishvik vitteeya shaharon mein 37 vein aur madhya poorv mein pehle sthaan par tha.

dubai ke pun: niryaat sthalon mein Iran (790 million ameriki dollar), Bhaarat (204 million ameriki dollar) aur Saudi America (194 million ameriki dollar) shaamil hai. ameeraat ke sheersh aayaat sroton mein Japan (1.5 arab ameriki dollar), cheen (1.4 ameriki dollar) aur sanyukt raajya America (1.4 arab ameriki dollar) shaamil hai.[6] 2005 se 2009 tak dubai aur Iran ke beech vyaapaar teen guaa hokar 12 arab ameriki dollar ho gaya hai.[68]

aitihaasik roop se dubai aur dubai ki khaadi ke paar iski anulipi, dira (us samay dubai shahar se svatantr), pashchimi nirmaataaon ke avsaron ke liye mahatvapoorn bandargaah ban gaye the. nae shahar ke jyaadaatar banking aur vitteeya keindron ke mukhyaalaya bandargaah kshetr mein the. dubai ne 1970 aur 1980 ke dashak mein ek vyaapaar maarg ke roop apne mahatva ko banaae rakha . dubai mein sone ka mukt vyaapaar hota hai aur 1990 ke dashak tak Bhaarat mein sone ke khand ki "tej taskari vyaapaar"[69] ka kendra tha jahaan sone ka aayaat pratibandhit tha.

dubai ke jebel Ali bandargaah ka nirmaan 1970 ke dashak mein hua duniya ka sabse bada maanav nirmit bandargaah hai aur yeh kantenar yaataayaat ki maatra ke iske samarthan ke liye duniya bhar mein aathavein sthaan par tha. [70] udyog ki sthaapana ke liye shahar bhar mein vishesh mukt kshetron ke saath dubai saath hi IT aur seva udyog jaise udyogon ke ek kendra ke roop mein viksit ho raha hai. dubai Internet city, dubai media city ke saath TECOM ka hissa (dubai praudyogiki, vaanijya aur electronic media ni: shulk jon praadhikran) ke roop mein dubai media city ke saath milkar ek aisi enklev jiske sadasya aise EMC nigam, oraikal korporeshan, Microsoft, aur aaibeeem, aur media sangathanon ke roop mein IT companiyon mein shaamil hai jaise ati pichhde vargon, seeenaen, BBC, raayatar, skaai samaachaar aur epi.

dubai vitteeya baajaar (DFM) ki sthaapana March 2000 dviteeyak baajaar ke roop mein sthaaneeya aur videshi vyaapaarik pratibhootiyon aur baand ke vyaapaar ke liye hui thi. 2006 ki chauthi timaahi mein, iska vyaapaar lagbhag 400 billion sheyaron ka tha jinka kul moolya 95 arab ameriki dollar tha. deeऍfem (DFM) ka baajaar poonjeekaran 87 arab ameriki dollar tha. [59]

sarkaar ke vyaapaar aadhaarit lekin tel nirbhar arthavyavastha se ek seva aur paryatan unmukh arthavyavastha banane ke nishchaya ne sampatti ko aur adhik moolyavaan bana diya hai, jisse 2004-2006 se sampatti adhik moolyavaan ho gayi hai. dubai sampatti baajaar ka lambi avadhi ke aakalan mein moolyahraas dikha aur kuchh sampattiyon ke moolya mein November 2008 mein 2001 se 64 % ki giraavat dikhi .[71] bade paimaane par achal sampatti vikaas pariyojanaaon se duniya ki sabse badi gaganachunbi imaaraton aur vishv ki sabse badi pariyojanaaon jaise ameeraat tower, burj khaleefa, paam dweep samooh aur duniya ka doosra sabse lambe aur sabse mahange hotel, burj al arab ka nirmaan hua .[72]

aarthik mandi ke kaaran dubai ke sampatti baajaar ne 2008/2009 mein badi giraavat ka anubhav kiya. [73] mohammad al abbar, emaar (Emaar) ke mukhya kaaryakaari adhikaari ne December 2008 mein antararaashtreeya press ko bataaya ki emaar par 70 billion Amreeki dollar aur dubai raajya ka atirikt 10 billion Amreeki dollar ka rin hai jabki unki achal sampatti lagbhag 350 billion ameriki dollar hai. 2009 ki shuruaat tak vaishvik aarthik stithi aur bhi khraab ho gayi thi jisse sampatti moolyon, nirmaan aur rojagaar par bhaari sankat pada .[74] 2009 fravari ko dubai ka anumaanit videshi rin lagbhag 100 billion Amreeki dollar hai jisse ameeraat ke 250,000 sanyukt arab ameeraati naagrik 400,000 Amreeki dollar ke videsh krj ke jimmedaar hai.[75] tathaapi, yeh dhyaan diya jaana chaahiye ki ismein thoda adhipti karj bhi hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

paryatan

chitr:2. Abu Dhabi (1).jpg
madint jumerah ko dekhte hue

dubai mein paryatan dubai sarkaar ke ameeraat mein videshi paise ke pravaah ko banaae rakhane ki rananeeti ka ek mahatvapoorn hissa hai. dubai mein paryatakon ke aakarshan ka aadhaar mukhyat: khareedaari aur iske praacheen aur aadhunik aakarshan hain .

2007 mein, dubai duniya ke sabse jyaada bhraman kiye gaye shaharon ki soochi mein 8 sthaan par tha. [76] dubai mein 2015 tak 15 million se adhik paryatakon ko samaayojit ki sambhaavana hain .[77] dubai sanyukt arab ameeraat ke saat ameeraat mein sabse adhik aabaadi wala ameeraat hai. yeh sanyukt arab ameeraat ke anya sadasyon se alag hai kyonki petrolium aur praakrutik gas se ise sakal ghareloo utpaad ka keval 6% raajasv hi milta hai. ameeraat ke raajasv ka bahumat jebel Ali mukt kshetr (JAFZ) aur ab badhte hue paryatan se aata hai .

khudara

Mall dubai.jpg

dubai ko madhya poorv ki 'khareedaari ki rajdhani"[78] aur saath hi duniya ki khareedaari svarg ka svarg bulaaya gaya hai. akele dubai mein 70 se adhik shopping mall hai aur duniya ka sabse bada shopping mall dubai mall bhi yaheen hai. yeh shahar is kshetr ke deshon se mein khareedaari karne vaale paryatakon ko badi sankhya mein aakarshit karta hai aur saath hi door ke deshon poorvi Europe, Africa aur bhaarateeya upamahaadveep ke khareedaaron ko bhi aakarshit karta hai. dubai apni sook (Souk) jilon ke liye jaana jaata hai. sook ek arabi shabd hai jiska matlab baajaar ya aisi jagah hai jahaan par maal laaya ya len den kiya jaata hai. paramparaagat roop se, sudoor poorv, cheen, Sri Lanka aur Bhaarat se aaye jahaaj apne maal ka sauda nikat ke sook (baajaar) mein karte the. [79] dubai ki sabse vaataavaran khareedaari sook mein hoti hai jo khaadi ke donon or hai aur vahaan kaafi saudebaaji hoti hai.

aadhunik shopping mall aur buteek bhi shahar mein paae jaate hain . dubai duty mukt jo dubai antarraashtreeya havaai adde mein hai ni:shulk bahuraashtreeya yaatri jo dubai antararaashtreeya havaai adde ka istemaal karte hai, unako anek utpaad pradaan karta hai.

haalaaainki buteek, kuchh electronic saamaan ki dukaanein, dipaartameint store aur suparamaarket ek nishchit moolya ke aadhaar par kaam karte hain, adhikaansh anya dukaanein dostaana mol bhaav ko jeevan ka ek tareeka maanati hain .

dubai ke anek shopping kendron har upabhokta ki jaroorat ko poora karte hai. car, kapde, gahane, electronics, sajaane ka saamaan, khel ke upakaran aur anya saamaan sabhi ek hi chhat ke neeche hone ki sambhaavana hai.[80]

siteeskep

Burj Dubai 001.jpg
DubaiJumeirahBeach.jpg

saranchana

dubai mein vibhinn sthaapatya shaili ke anek bhavan aur sanrachaaen hai. aadhunik islaami sthaapatya ko haal hi mein ek nae star par le jaaya gaya hai jisme aisi imaaraton jaise burj khaleefa ke roop mein vartamaan mein duniya ka sabse bada nirmaan . burj khaleefa ka design islaami sthaapatya kala mein sannihit aakruti pranaali se banaaya gaya hai. bilding ke teen bhaag padachinh ek registaani fool haymaanokaalis jo dubai kshetr mein hota hai, ke saar par aadhaarit hai. arab samaaj mein vaastukala vruddhi se kai islaami sthaapatya ki aadhunik vyaakhya dubai mein dekhi ja sakti hai.

udyaan

dubai mein anek manoranjan park aur udyaan hai. dubai mein mashahoor manoranjan park ke kuchh hain jumerah beech park, dubai kreekasaaid park, musharif park, al mamajr park aur safa park . iske alaava anek chhote park aur viraasat ke gaanv bhi hain dubai mein .

safa park, shahar ke vyaapaarik kshetr burj khaleefa se

dubai ki nagar paalika ki saamarik yojana 2007-2011, 2011 tak prati vyakti harit kshetr 23.4 varg meter tak aur dubai ke shahari kshetron mein kheti 3.15% tak badhaana chaahati hai. nagar paalika ne ek hariyaali pariyojana shuroo ki hai jo chaar charanon mein poori ki jaaegi jisme pratyek charan mein 10,000 paudhe lagaaye jaayeinge . prasiddh udyaanon mein shaamil hain:

  • dubai creek park
  • kreekasaaid park, bur dubai
  • safa park, shekh jaayad road
  • jumerah beech park, jumerah beech road
  • wild vaadi vaatar park, jumerah beech road
  • jbeel park, shekh jaayad road
  • childrens city, bur dubai
  • jumerah beech open park, jumerah beech
  • al mumjr beech park, dira, dubai
  • vandaralaind park, vandaralaind park
  • musharif park, dira, dubai

yaataayaat

dubai mein parivhan sadak aur parivhan praadhikran dvaara niyantrit hai. saarvajanik parivhan network mein bhaari bheed aur vishvasaneeyata ki mushkilein hain jinko ek bade nivesh kaaryakram dvaara sudhaarane ke prayaas kiye ja rahe hai jisme AED70 arab ka sudhaar yojana 2020 tak poora hone ki ummeed hai jab shahar ki janasainkhya 35 lakh se adhik hone ka anumaan hai.[81] 2009 mein, dubai nagar paalika aaainkadon ke anusaar, dubai mein anumaanit kaaron ki sankhya 1,021,880 thi. [82] 2010 January mein, dubai mein saarvajanik parivhan prayog 6% nivaasiyon ne kiya tha. [83].

sarkaar ne dubai ki sadak avasanrachana mein bhaari nivesh kiya hai, haalaanki yeh vaahanon ki sankhya mein vruddhi ke saath pragati naheen ka saka hai. isne prerit yaataayaat roop ke saath milkar bheed ki samasyaaon ko badhaaya hai.[84] dubai mein do pramukh vaanijyik bandargaah, port rasheed aur port jebel Ali hain . port jebel Ali duniya mein 7 vaan sabse vyast bandargaah hai. jebel Ali duniya ka sabse bada maanav nirmit bandargaah aur madhya poorv ka sabse bada bandargaah hai.

havaaiadde

dubai antarraashtreeya havaai adda (IATA: DXB), ameeraat airline ka kendra, dubai aur desh ke anya ameeraat ko seva pradaan karta hai. 2008 mein havaai adde ko 3.7 karod yaatriyon ne upayog kiya aur 1.8 million tan se adhik maal ko sambhaala .[85] 2008 mein dubai antarraashtreeya havaai adda duniya ka 20 vaan sabse vyast havaai adda tha aur 35 million se adhik antararaashtreeya yaatriyon ke saath, duniya ka chhatha vyastatam antarraashtreeya havaai adda hai, antarraashtreeya yaatri yaataayaat ke maamale mein . ek mahatvapoorn yaatri yaataayaat kendra hone ke alaava, yeh havaai adda duniya mein sabse vyast maal havaai adde mein se ek hai, 2008 mein 1.824 karod tan maal ka prabandh kiya aur yeh duniya mein sabse vyast havaai addon ki soochi mein 11 vein sthaan par tha, 2007 se maal yaataayaat mein 9.4% ki vruddhi rahi . ameeraat airline dubai ki raashtreeya vimaan seva hai aur chhah mahaadveepon ke 61 deshon mein 101 sthaanon ke liye antararaashtreeya star par chalti hai.

al makataum antararaashtreeya havaai adde ka vikaas, jo abhi jebel Ali mein nirmaan ke antargat hai, ki ghoshana 2004 mein ki gayi thi. pehle charan ka kaarya 2010 tak poora hone ki ummeed hai aur ek baar parichaalan ke baad nae havaai adde par anek videshi airlines aur ameeraat ke ek vishesh terminal ki mejabaani karega .

bas seva

dubai mein saarvajanik bas parivhan pranaali sadak aur parivhan praadhikran (RTA) dvaara chalaai jaati hai. 2008 mein bas pranaali ne 140 maargon par 109.5 lakh logon ko seva pradaan ki . 2010 ke ant tak, vahaaain 2,100 basein shahar bhar mein seva pradaan kareingi .[86] parivhan praadhikran ne 500 vaataanukoolit A / si) yaatri bas staupon ke nirmaan ki ghoshana ki hai aur poore sanyukt arab ameeraat mein 1,000 aur aise bas staupon ko banaane ki yojana hai jisse saarvajanik bason ke prayog ko badhaava milega .[krupaya uddharan jodein]

rel

dubai metro
paam jumerah monorel

dubai metro

ek 3.89 arab dollar dubai metro pariyojana ameeraat ke liye nirmit ki ja rahi . metro pranaali 2009 sitmbar se aanshik roop se laagoo ki gayi thi aur 2012 tak poori tarah se laagoo ho gayi thi . Britain aadhaarit antararaashtreeya seva company sarako metro sanchaalan ke liye jimmedaar hai. metro mein chaar laainein hongi: green line al rasheediya se mukhya nagar kedr tak aur red line havaai adde se jebel Ali tak . ismein blue line aur parpal line bhi hai. dubai metro (green aur blue line) ka 70 kilometer ka track hoga aur 43 station honge jinme, 37 jameen ke oopar aur 10 station jameen ke neeche honge .[87] dubai metro arab praayadveep mein pehli shahari rel network hai.[88] sabhi train aur station vaataanukoolit honge jinme manch badhat darvaaje lage honge jisse yeh sambhav hoga .

paam jumerah monorel

paam jumerah par ek monorel 2009 mein khola gaya . yeh kshetr mein banaai gayi pehli monorel hai.

traamave

dubai mein do traam system 2011 tak nirmit hone ki ummeed hai. pehli vyaavasaayik burj khaleefa traam pranaali aur doosari al sufauh traam hai. vyaavasaayik burj khaleefa traam pranaali ek 4.6 km ki traam seva hai jo burj khaleefa ke aaspaas ke kshetr mein seva pradaan karegi aur doosari traam al sufauh road ke saath dubai mareena se burj al arab aur ameeraat ke mall tak 14.5 km chalegi .[krupaya uddharan jodein]

abraas dira aur bar dubai ke beech paaramparik yaataayaat ka saadhan hai

naav aur taiksiyaaain

bar dubai se dira jaane ke liye paramparaagat tareekon mein se ek hai abraas ke maadhyam se jaana, chhoti naavein jo yaatriyon ko dubai creek, abraas station bastaakiya aur baniyaas road ke beech le jaati hai. samudri parivhan agency, dubai jal bas pranaali ko laagoo karne ki prakriya mein hai. parivhan ki yeh vidha puraani pad chuki hai.

dubai mein ek vyaapak taxi pranaali bhi hai, ameeraat mein saarvajanik parivhan ka sabse jyaada istemaal kiye jaane wala maadhyam hai. ismein sarkaar chaalit aur niji taxi companiyaan donon shaamil hai. lagbhag 7,500 taiksiyaaain ameeraat ke andar chalti hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

svachhata

dubai ki svachhata mein apashisht aur mal prabandhan ki sanrachana ki yojana aur prabandhan shaamil hai. dubai ki teji se vruddhi ka matlab hai ki vah apne seemit seevej upachaar sanrachana ko usaki param seema tak kheench raha hai. vartamaan mein dubai mein 13 lakh nivaasiyon se roj maanav apashisht shahar bhar mein upasthit hajaaron septik tank se ekatr kiya jaata hai aur tainkaron dvaara shahar ke ekamaatr seevej upachaar sanyantr jo al-aveer mein hai, le jaaya jaata hai. lambi kataaron aur deri ki vajah se, kuchh tanker chaalak avaidh roop se ise toofaan ke pravaah mein ya registaan mein teele ke peechhe fek dete hai. seevej ke toofaan mein feke jaane se yeh seedhe faaras ki khaadi mein chala jaata hai jo shahar ke mukhya tairane wala samudra tat ke paas hai. doctoron ne chetaavani di hai ki samudra tat ka upayog paryatakon ko taaifaaid aur hepetaaitis jaisi gambhir beemaariyaaain ho sakti hain .[89]

dubai ki nagarapaalika ka kehna hai ki vah aparaadhiyon ko pakadne ki koshish karne ke liye pratibaddh hai aur jurmaane ke roop mein 25,000 dollar aur danping tanker ko jabt karne ke kadam ka prayog karegi . nagarapaalika ka kehna hai ki paani ke namoone ke parikshan anusaar paani 'maanak' ke bheetar hai.[90]

sanskruti

inhein bhi dekhein: Music of the United Arab Emirates
chitr:Deira Souk on 9 May 2007 Pict 2.jpg
dira mein ek paramparaagat baajaar
dubai tennis stadium

2005 mein, mahaanagareeya dubai ki janasankhya ka 84% log videshi janm ke the jisme lagbhag aadhe Bhaarat se the. [56] shahar ka chhota, samajaateeya moti samudaaya anya jaateeya samoohon aur naagrikon ke aagaman ke saath badal gaya tha - pehle 1900 ke shuroo mein iraaniyon ke aagaman se aur baad mein bhaarateeyon aur Pakistaniyon ke 1960 ke dashak mein aagaman se . dubai mein varg par aadhaarit samaaj ko banaae rakhane ke liye aalochna ki gayi hai jahaan pravaasi shramik nichle varg mein hain .[91]

dubai mein mukhya chhuttiyon id al fitr, jo ramajaan ke ant ko sanket karta hai aur raashtreeya diwas (December 2) hai, jo sanyukt arab ameeraat ke gathan ko sanket karta hain . vaarshik manoranjan kaaryakram aise dubai shopping festival (DSF) aur dubai greeshmakaaleen aashcharya (DSS) ke roop mein vibhinn kshetr on se 4 million se adhik paryatakon ko aakarshit karne aur ek arab ameriki dollar ka raajasv utpann karte hain .[92] shahar ke bade shopping mall jaise dira city center, burajuman, maal of ameeraat, dubai mall aur ibn batoota mall saath hi paaramparik baajaar kshetr se graahakon ko aakarshit karte hai.

arabi khaana bahut lokapriya hai aur shahar mein har jagah upalabdh hai, dira aur al karama ke chhote shaavaarma se lekar dubai ke hotelon ke restaurant tak . fast food, dakshin Asiaee, cheeni vyanjan bhi bahut lokapriya hain aur vyaapak roop se upalabdh hai. suar ka gosht ki bikri aur khapat haalaanki gair kaanooni naheen hai, niyantrit hai aur keval gair muslimon ko nirdisht kshetron mein becha jaata hai.[93] isi prakaar, maadak peya padaarthon ki bikri ko bhi niyantrit kiya jaata hai. sharaab ki khareed ke liye sharaab khareedne ki anumati ki jaroorat hoti hai, lekin, sharaab baar aur restaraanon mein hotelon mein upalabdh hai.[94] sheesha aur kaahava buteek bhi dubai mein lokapriya hain .

Hollywood aur Bollywood filmein dubai mein lokapriya hain . shahar vaarshik dubai antarraashtreeya film samaaroh ka aayojan karta hai, jo arab aur antararaashtreeya cinema se mashahoor hastiyon ko aakarshit karta hai. sangeetakaar, [[daayana haddaad, tarakan, erosmith, santaana, mark knopfler, eltan John, pink, shakeera, selin daayon, kold play, keen]] aur fil kolins ne shahar mein pradarshan kiya hai. kaayali minog se 4.4 million dollar ke bhugataan par 20 November 2008 ko atalaantis risaurt ke udghaatan ke avsar par pradahshan karaaya gaya tha.[krupaya uddharan jodein] the dubai dessert rock samaaroh bhi ek bada kaaryakram hai jisme hevi metal aur rock kalaakaaron shaamil hote hai.

football aur cricket dubai mein sabse lokapriya khel hai. paanch teemon - al vasl, al shabaab, al ahali, al nasr aur hatta - sanyukt arab ameeraat league football mein dubai ka pratinidhitv karti hai. maujooda champion al vasl ki sanyukt arab ameeraat league mein championship ke doosare sabse adhik sankhya hai, al ain ke baad . antararaashtreeya cricket parishad (ICC) cricket dubai badi dakshin Asiaee samudaaya aur 2005 mein ki gayi hai, dubai ke liye London se apne mukhyaalaya bheja gaya hai. shahar mein kai Bhaarat ka aayojan kiya gaya hai - Pakistan match aur do nai ghaas ke maidaan dubai sports city mein viksit kiya ja raha hai. dubai mein bhi mejabaan donon vaarshik dubai tennis championship aur mahaapuroosh rock dubai tennis tournament, saath hi saath dubai dessert classic golf tournament, jinmein se sab duniya bhar se khel sitaaron ko aakarshit. dubai vishv cup, ek kuleen ghud daud, saalaana naad al shaba race course mein aayojit ki jaati hai.

dubai dikhaavati chhavi ke baavajood, censorship dubai mein aam hai aur sarkaar dvaara upayog ke liye saamagri hai ki yeh emiraatees ke saanskrutik aur raajaneetik sanvedanasheelata ka maanana hai ki niyantran ka ullanghan karti hai. samalaingikta, drags aur vikaas ke siddhaant ko aam taur par varjit maana jaata hain .[95]

dubai ki raatri jeevan ke liye jaana jaata hai. club aur baar jyaadaatar sharaab kaanoonon ki vajah se hotel mein paae jaate hain . the New York times ne 2008 mein apni party ke liye yaatra ke vikalp ki soochi mein dubai ko soocheebaddh kiya tha .[96]

shiksha

inhein bhi dekhein: List of universities and colleges in Dubai
dubai gyaan gram ko vishvavidyaalayon ki dubai mein shaakha aur parisar kholne ke liye banaaya gaya tha

dubai mein school pranaali sanyukt arab ameeraat ki pranaali se alag naheen hai. 2006 mein, vahaaain 88 saarvajanik school hai jo shiksha mantraalaya dvaara sanchaalit hai jo ameeraati logon aur pravaasi logon ko seva pradaan karte hai aur saath hi 132 niji school bhi hai.[54] saarvajaanik schoolon mein shiksha ka maadhyam arabi bhaasha hai aur doosari bhaasha ke roop mein angreji par jor hai jabki adhikaansh niji schoolon mein angreji ko shiksha ke maadhyam ke roop mein prayog kiya jaata hai. adhikaansh niji schoolon mein ek ya usase adhik pravaasi samudaayon ko pradaan karti hain . the new Indian model school, dubai (N.MS), delhi private school, avar on english haai school, the dubai modern haai school aur the Indian haai school, dubai ya to seebeeesai (CBSE) ya aaiseeesai (.CSE) bhaarateeya paathyakram pradaan karte hai. isi tarah, vahaaain kai sammaanit Pakistani school bhi hai jo pravaasi bachchon ko FB.SE paathyakram pradaan karte hai. dubai english speeking school, jumerah primary school, jebel Ali primary school, Cambridge haai school (ya Cambridge international school), jumerah english speeking school, kings school aur the horaaijn school sab gyaarah varsh ki aayu tak british praathamik shiksha pradaan karte hain . dubai british school, dubai college, english college dubai british school, english college dubai, jumerah english speeking school, jumerah college aur seint maireej Catholic haai school sabhi british gyaarah se athaarah maadhyamik vidyaalaya hain jo jeeseeesai (GCSE) aur A-levalas (A-levels) pradaan karte hai. ameeraat international school, Cambridge haai school ke saath, 18 saal ki umr tak poorn shiksha pradaan karta hai aur aaijeeseeesai (IGCSE) aur A-levels pradaan karta hai. velingatan international school, jo 4 se 18 ke aayu varg ke chhaatron ko shikha pradaan karta hai, IGCSE aur A levels ek star pradaan karta hai. [dira international school aur dubai international academy bhi IGCSE kaaryakram sahit aaibi pradaan karte hain . jumerah english speeking school 4 se 18 tak ke vidyaarthi dekhte hai aur 16 tak british paathyakram (jeeseeesai) aur antararaashtreeya star (aaibi) paathyakram pradaan karte hai. dubai mein kai school hai jo ameriki paathyakram pradaan karte hai jaise dubai American academy, American school of dubai aur the yoonivrsal American school of dubai .

sanyukt arab ameeraat ka shiksha mantraalaya school ki maanyata ke liye jimmedaar hai. dubai shiksha parishad ki sthaapana July 2005 mein dubai mein shiksha ke kshetr ka vikaas karne ke liye hui thi. [97] gyaan aur maanav vikaas praadhikran (KHDA) ki sthaapana 2006 mein dubai ka shiksha aur maanav sansaadhan ke kshetr mein aur license shaikshik sansthaanon ka vikaas karne ke liye ki gayi thi. [98]

janasankhya ke lagbhag 10% bhaag ke paas vishvavidyaalaya degree ya snaatakottar degree hai. kai pravaasi apne bachchon ko vishvavidyaalaya ki shiksha ke liye apne desh vaapas ya pashchimi desh bhej dete hai aur praudyogiki ke adhyayan ke liye Bhaarat bhej dete hai. haalaanki, pichhle 10 saalon mein ek badi sankhya mein shahar mein videshi maanyata praapt vishvavidyaalayon ki sthaapana ki gayi hai. in vishvavidyaalayon ke kuchh hain Manchester business school[99], Michigan state university dubai (MSU Duba.)[100] , rochestar praudyogiki dubai[101], Birla praudyogiki evam vigyaan sansthaan, Pilani - dubai (bits Pilani), heriot -vaat vishvavidyaalaya dubai, American university dubai (AUD), American college of dubai, mahaatma Gandhi vishvavidyaalaya (parisar se door center), Institute of management tekanoloji -dubai parisar, SP jain sentar of management, university of vaulongaung aur emeechai manipaal shaamil hain . 2004 mein dubai school of gavernmeint ne Harvard university ke sahayog se John ऍf kenedi school of gavermeint aur Harvard medical school dubai sentar (HMSDC) ki dubai mein sthaapana ki .

dubai saarvajanik pustakaalaya dubai ka saarvajanik pustakaalaya hai.

media

inhein bhi dekhein: Radio and television channels of Dubai

dubai mein susthaapit print, radio, TV aur electronic media hai jo shahar ki seva karta hai. dubai arab radio network ka aavaas hai, jo aath ऍf em radio stationon ka prasaaran karta hai jisme madhya poorv mein pehla baat karne wala radio station bhi shaamil hai, dubai I 103.8 | kai antararaashtreeya chainel kebal ke maadhyam se upalabdh hai, jabki upagrah, radio aur sthaaneeya channel arebiyn radio network aur dubai media inkorporeted system dvaara pradaan kiye jaate hai. kai antararaashtreeya samaachaar agency jaise raautars, epeeteeen, Bloomberg L.pi. aur emabeesi aur network samaachaar channel dubai media city aur dubai Internet city ke baahar sanchaalit hote hai.


iske atirikt, kai sthaaneeya network television chainel jaise dubai van (poorv channel 33) aur dubai TV (poorv ideeteevi) angreji aur arabi mein kramash: kaaryakram pradaan karte hain . dubai aadhaarit efem station jaise dubai efaem (93.9), (92.0) Duba.92, al khaaleejiya (100.9) aur hit efaem (96.7) efaem angreji, arabi aur dakshin Asiaee bhaashaaon mein kaaryakram pradaan karte hain . dubai kai print media kendra ka mukhyaalaya bhi hai. al khaleej, al bayaan aur al ittihaad shahar ke sabse bade arabi bhaasha ke sanchaari samaachaar patra hain,[102] jabki gulf news aur khaleej times[103] sabse bade angreji sanchaari samaachaar patra hain . dubai online gatividhiyon aur duniya mein sabse teji se badh rahi Internet samudaaya ka bada kendra hai. Facebook aur you tube dubai mein sabse lokapriya antararaashtreeya website hain aur dubai mein sabse lokapriya sthaaneeya websiton mein se dubeejal.com ek hai. topfiks sabhi pramukh rakharakhaav companiyon ke beech vartamaan mein dubai mein sabse achha rakharakhaav company mein se ek hai

2006 mein eteesalat, sarkaari svaamitv waali doorasanchaar pradaata, ki dubai mein anya doorasanchaar sevaaon ki sthaapana se pehle, chhoti doorasanchaar companiyon jaise ameeraat inteegreted telikmyunikeshans company (E.TC - doo (Du) naam se lokapriya) ka svaamitv tha. [104] Internet ko sanyukt arab ameeraat (isliye dubai) mein 1995 mein pesh kiya gaya tha. maujooda network 6 GB ki baindavidth saath mein 50,000 daayalaap aur 150,000 braudabaind port se samarthit hai. dubai mein desh ke chaar mein se do deeenaes deta center (DXBN.C1, DXBN.C2) hain .[105]

Internet saamagri dubai mein viniymit hai. eteesalat Internet ki saamagri ko ek prauksi sarvar ke upayog se chhaanata hai jisko desh ke moolyon ke saath asangat samjha jaata hai, jisme prauksi ko darakinaar karne, deting, samalaingik network, ashleel saahitya, bahaai vishvaas ki website, ijraail ki website aur yahaan tak sanyukt arab ameeraat ki aalochna karne waali website shaamil hai. ameeraat media aur Internet (eteesalat ki ek ikaai) ne yeh dekha ki 2002 mein Internet upayogakartaaon mein 76% log purush the. Internet upayogakarta mein 60% Asiaee aur 25% arab the. dubai ne 2002 mein ek electronic traanjekshan aur Commerce vidhi bane jo digital hastaakshar aur electronic rajistar ke baare mein tha. yeh Internet seva pradaata (ISPs) ko seva pradaan karne mein mili jaankaari bataane se pratibandhit karta hai. dand sanhita mein bhi kuchh praavadhaan hain, tathaapi, cyber aparaadh ya deta sanrakshan ko sambodhit naheen karta .[106]

antarraashtreeya sambandh

anulipi shahar - bhagini shahar

dubai ke 32 bhagini shahar hai aur jyaadaatar tvining samjhaute 2002 ke baad kiye gaye hai.[107]

inhein bhi dekhein

luaa truti package.lua mein pankti 80 par: module 'Module:Portal/images/d' not found.

  • dubai ka itihaas
  • sanyukt arab ameeraat ki raajaneeti
  • dubai ke janaankik
  • dubai ki arthavyavastha
  • dubai mein parivhan
  • dubai ke maanachitr
  • dubai mein shiksha
  • dubai mein vikaas
  • dubai mein paryatan
  • sanyukt arab ameeraat mein LGBT adhikaar
soochiyaan

sandarbh

granth soochi

  • heiko schmid : sammohan ki arthavyavastha: dubai aur loss Vegas theemd shahari paridrushya, barlin ke roop mein, 2009 stutagaart, 978-3-443-37014-5 .SBN
  • John M. smith: dubai the makataum story, 2007 norderstedt Norderstedt, 3833446609 .SBN

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baahari link

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