drum

drum, sangeet vaadyayantron ke ek aise taalavaadya (parakashan) samooh ka ek sadasya hai jinhein takaneeki drushti se jhilleeyukt vaadyayantr ke roop mein vargeekrut kiya jaata hai.[1] drum mein kam se kam ek jhilli hoti hai jise drum ka sir ya drum ki tvacha ya khaal kehte hain jo ek khol par faila hua hota hai aur dhvani utpann karne ke liye is par ya to seedhe bajaane vaale ke haathon se ya drum bajaane ki chhadi se prahaar kiya jaata hai. drum ke neeche ki taraf aam taur par ek "pratidhvani sir" hota hai. drum se dhvani utpann karne ke liye anya takaneekon ka bhi istemaal kiya jaata hai jaise thamb rol (angoothe ko ghumaana). drum duniya ka sabse puraana aur sabse aam sangeet vaadyayantr hai aur hajaaron saalon tak iske mool design mein vastut: koi parivartan naheen hua hai.[1] jyaadaatar dramon ko "dhunarahit vaadyayantr" maana jaata hai, haalaaainki kai aadhunik sangeetakaar gaanon ke liye dramon ko anukool banaane ki shuruaat kar rahe hain; teri bojiyo ne daayatonik aur vaarnik roop se tyoond dramon ke istemaal se ek kit ka nirmaan kiya hai. timpani jaise kuchh prakaar ke dramon ko aksar ek khaas pitch ke liye tyoon kiya jaata hai. ek drum kit ka nirmaan karne ke liye aksar kai dramon ko ek saath vyavasthit kiya jaata hai.[2]

anukram

nirmaan

20 December 1863 ko company bi, 40veen rejimeint New York vetaran vaalanteer infaintri mojaart rejimeint ke John unger dvaara istemaal kiya gaya drum

khol ka munh lagbhag hamesha gol hota hai jis par dramahed (drum ka sir) ko failaaya jaata hai lekin khol ke baaki hisson ke aakaar mein kaafi antar hota hai. pashchimi sangeet parampara mein yeh saamaanyat: cylinder ya belanaakaar aakaar ka hota hai haalaaainki timpani mein katore ke aakaar ke khol ka istemaal kiya jaata hai.[1] anya aakrutiyon mein frem design (alakatara, bodhraan), chhota shanku (bongo drum, ashiko), jaam ke aakaar ka (dijembe) aur sanyukt chhota shanku (tauking drum) shaamil hain.

belanaakaar khol vaale dramon ka ek sira khula ho sakta hai (jaisa ki timbels ke saath hota hai) ya uske do sir ho sakte hain. ek sir vaale dramon mein aam taur par ek tvacha hoti hai jise ek sanlagn sthaan ke oopar faila diya jaata hai ya khokhale paatr ke kisi ek sire par faila diya jaata hai. jin dramon mein do sir hote hain aur unke belanaakaar khol ke donon sire dhanke hote hain unamein aksar ek chhota chhed hota hai jo kuchh had tak donon siron ke beech aadhe raaste mein sthit hota hai; yeh khol parinaami dhvani ke liye ek gunjaayamaan chamber ka nirmaan karta hai. iske apavaadon mein afreeki slit drum aur kairibiyaai steel drum shaamil hain jinmein se pehle vaale ko ek laug drum ke naam se jaana jaata hai kyonki yeh ek khokhale ped ke tane se bana hua hota hai aur doosra wala dhaatu ke peepe se bana hota hai. do siron vaale dramon mein taaron ka ek samooh bhi ho sakta hai jise sneyar kaha jaata hai jo drum ke nichle sire, oopari sire, ya donon siron par laga hua hota hai isliye ise sneyar drum naam diya gaya hai.[1]

aadhunik band aur orkestral dramon mein dramahed ko drum ke khule hisse par rakha jaata hai jise parinaamasvaroop "kaauntarahoop" (ya "rim") dvaara khol par sthaapit kiya jaata hai jise tab "teinshan rauds" naamak kai tyooning skroo ke maadhyam se sthaapit kiya jaata hai jismein paridhi ke chaaron taraf samaan roop se rakhe gaye lags mein skroo ko kas diya jaata hai. rauds (chhadon) ko dheela karke ya kasakar sir ke teinshan (khinchaav) ko samaayojit kiya ja sakta hai. aise kai dramon mein chh: se das teinshan rauds hote hain. drum ki dhvani kai baaton par nirbhar karti hai jaise iske khol ki aakruti, aakaar aur motaai, saamagri jisse khol bana hota hai, kaauntarahoop saamagri, istemaal kiye gaye dramahed ka prakaar aur ismein lagaaya gaya teinshan, drum ki sthiti, sthaan aur veg aur kon jismein ise maara jaata hai.[1]

teinshan rauds ke avishkaar se pehle drum ki khaal ko rassi se lagaaya aur anukoolit kiya jaata tha jaise ki dijembe par ya khooainti ya rassiyaaain jaise ki ive drum par jo ek aisi pranaali hai jiska aajkal bahut kam istemaal kiya jaata hai haalaanki yeh kabhi-kabhi rejimeintal maarching band ke sneyar dramon mein dikhaai deta hai.[1]

drum ki dhvani

ameriki bhaarateeyon ke raashtreeya sangrahaalaya mein bikri ke liye kai ameriki bhaarateeya shaili ke drum.

kai kaarak utpann hone waali drum ki dhvani ka nirdhaaran karte hain jismein drum ke khol ka prakaar, aakaar aur rachana, dramahed ka prakaar aur in dramahedon ke teinshan shaamil hain. sangeet mein alag-alag drum dhvaniyon ka alag-alag istemaal hota hai. udaaharan ke taur par aadhunik Tom-Tom drum ko hi le leejiye. jaij dramar aise dramon ki chaahat rakh sakta hai jinki pitch bahut jyaada ho, adhik gunjaayamaan ho aur adhik shaant ho jabki rock dramar aise dramon ko pasand kar sakta hai jismein jor ki dhvani utpann hoti ho, jo shushk ho aur jiski pitch kam ho. choonki in dramaron ko alag-alag dhvani chaahiye hoti hai isliye unke dramon ko thoda alag tareeke se banaana padta hai.

drum ki dhvani par dramahed ka sabse jyaada prabhaav padta hai. har tarah ka drum head apni tarah ke sangeet prayojan ke liye kaam karta hai aur usamein apni tarah ki anokhi dhvani hoti hai. double-plaai vaale dramahed uchch aavrutti vaale harmoniks ko kam kar dete hain kyonki ve bhaari hote hain aur ve bhaari vaadan ke liye upayukt hote hain.[3] safed teksachard koting vaale drum head drum ki aavaaj (ovaraton) ko thoda daba dete hain jisse ek kam vividh pitch utpann hoti hai. kendreeya chaandi ya kaale binduon vaale drum hedon se aur jyaada aavaaj dabane ki sambhaavana hoti hai. aur paridhi dhvani ring vaale drum head jyaadaatar ovaratons ko khatm kar dete hain (hovi 2005). kuchh jaij dramar mote drum head ka istemaal karne se bachate hain aur ekal plaai vaale drum hedon ya un drum hedon ka istemaal karna pasand karte hain jinse aavaaj na dabati ho. rock dramar aksar mote ya koted drum hedon ka istemaal karna pasand karte hain.

drum se utpann hone waali dhvani ko prabhaavit karne wala doosra sabse bada kaarak teinshan (khinchaav) hai jis par drum head ko drum ke khol ke saamane sthaapit kiya jaata hai. jab hoop ko drum head aur khol ke chaaron taraf sthaapit kiya jaata hai aur teinshan rauds se kas diya jaata hai to head ke teinshan ko samaayojit kiya ja sakta hai. jab teinshan (khinchaav) ko badhaaya jaata hai to dhvani ka aayaam (emplichyood) kam ho jaata hai aur aavrutti (freekveinsi) badh jaati hai jisse pitch adhik aur vaulyoom kam ho jaati hai.

khol ka prakaar bhi drum ki dhvani ko prabhaavit karta hai. choonki drum ke khol mein hone vaale kanpanon se gooainj utpann hoti hai isliye aavaaj (vaulyoom) ko badhaane ke liye aur utpann hone waali dhvani ke prakaar mein ferabadal karne ke liye tarah-tarah ke khol ka istemaal kiya ja sakta hai. khol ka vyaas jitna adhik hoga usaka pitch bhi utana hi kam hogi. drum ki gaharaai jitni adhik hogi unase utani hi jordaar aavaaj utpann hogi. khol ki motaai bhi drum ki aavaaj ko nirdhaarit karti hai. khol mota hone par drum se jor ka aavaaj utpann hoti hai. mahogani, nimn pichon ki aavrutti ko badhaati hai aur uchch pichon ki aavruttiyon ko lagbhag usi gati par banaae rakhati hai. kholon ke samooh ka chayan karte samay jaij dramar chhote maipal kholon ki chaahat rakh sakta hai jabki rock dramar bade birch kholon ki chaahat rakh sakta hai. dramon ki tyooning ya drum ki bhautiki ke baare mein adhik jaankaari ke liye neeche soocheebaddh baahari linkon par jaaeain.

upayog

dramon ko aam taur par haath se ya ek ya do chhadiyon se bajaaya jaata hai. kai paaramparik sanskrutiyon mein dramon ka ek prateekaatmak kaarya hota hai aur inka istemaal aksar dhaarmik tyohaaron mein kiya jaata hai. sangeet chikitsa mein aksar dramon (khaas taur par haath se bajaane vaale dramon) ka istemaal kiya jaata hai kyonki kai tarah ke log unhein chhoo sakte hain aur aasaani se baja bhi sakte hain.[4]

lokapriya sangeet aur jaij ke kshetr mein "drams" aam taur par ek drum kit ya dramon ke ek samooh (kuchh khadtaal ke saath) ko sandarbhit karta hai aur "dramar" unhein bajaane vaale vaastavik band sadasya ya vyakti ko sandarbhit karta hai.

itihaas

ek dramar ke roop mein moshe seraamik bartanalaarko myoojiym sangrahan.leema-peroo

jaanvaron dvaara dramavaadan

makaak bandar saamaajik prabhutv ka pradarshan karne ke liye taalabaddh tareeke se vastuon ko drum ki tarah bajaate hain aur ise svarochchaaranon ke liye unke dimaagon mein isi tarah se kaam karta hua dikhaaya gaya hai jisse saamaajik sanchaar ke hisse ke roop mein dramavaadan ki vikaasamoolak utpatti ka pata chalta hai.[5] anya vaanar apni chhaati peetakar ya taali bajaakar drum jaisi dhvani utpann karte hain[6][7] aur kangaaroo rate jaise kruntak (rodent) bhi jameen par apne panjon ka istemaal karke is tarah ki dhvani utpann karte hain.[8]

tauking drum (baat karne ke liye dramon ka istemaal)

ateet mein dramon ka istemaal keval sangeetamaya gunon ki vajah se hi naheen kiya jaata tha balki unka istemaal khaas taur par sanketon ke maadhyam se sanchaar ke maadhyam ke roop mein bhi kiya jaata tha. Africa ke tauking drum, boli jaane waali bhaasha ki pitch bhinnataaon aur vibhktiyon ki nakl kar sakte hain aur unka istemaal kaafi door se samvaad karne ke liye kiya jaata hai. Sri Lanka ke itihaas mein dramon ka istemaal raajya aur samudaaya ke beech sanchaar ke liye kiya gaya hai aur Sri Lanka ke dramon ka itihaas 2500 saal se bhi jyaada puraana hai.

sena mein upayog

cheeni sainya tukadiyon mein sainya tukadiyon ko prerit karne ke liye, maarching gati ko set karne mein madad karne ke liye aur aadesh ya ghoshana dene ke liye taaigu dramon ka istemaal kiya jaata tha. udaaharan ke liye, 684 E.poo. mein kyooi aur loo ke beech hue ek yuddh ke dauraan ek pramukh ladaai ke parinaam ko badalne hetu sainik manobal ko prabhaavit karne ke liye drum ka istemaal kiya gaya tha. Swiss bhaade ke paidal sainikon ki baansuri-evam-drum bajaane waali tukadiyaan bhi dramon ka istemaal karti theen. ve sneyar drum ke ek praarambhik sanskaran ka istemaal karte the jinhein bajaane vaale ke daaeain kandhe par rakha jaata tha jo ek patti se bandha hua hota tha (jise aam taur par paaramparik pakad ka istemaal karke ek haath se bajaaya jaata tha). isi vaadyayantr ke liye sabse pehle angreji shabd "drum" ka istemaal kiya gaya tha. isi tarah angreji gruhayuddh ke dauraan yuddh ke shoragul mein varishth adhikaariyon ke aadeshon ko pahuainchaane ke ek maadhyam ke roop mein rop-teinshan dramon ko junior officer liye rahate the. inhein dramar ke kandhe par bhi lataka diya jaata tha aur aam taur par inhein do chhadiyon ki sahaayata se bajaaya jaata tha. alag-alag rejimeint aur companiyaan vishisht aur anokhe tareeke se drum bajaati theen jise keval vahi pehchaan sakti theen. unneesaveen sadi ke madhya mein Scotland ki sena ne apni haailaind tukadiyon (rejimeint) mein pipe baindon ko shaamil karna shuroo kiya.[9]

drum ke prakaar

  • eburukuva
  • eshiko
  • baas drum
  • baata
  • bodhraan
  • bongo drum
  • baugraabo
  • kejon
  • kaukatel drum
  • chailis drum
  • cheinda
  • kaanga
  • daarbuka
  • daavul
  • damfu
  • dhaak
  • dheemaya
  • dhol
  • dholak
  • jembe
  • dong san drum
  • drum kit
  • daumbek
  • ive drams
  • goblet drum
  • haind drum
  • kpaanlogo
  • laug drum
  • medal
  • mrudangam
  • side drum (maarching sneyar drum)
  • slit drum
  • sneyar drum
  • steelapain (steel ka drum)
  • taibar
  • taimborim
  • taimboraain
  • taiko
  • tabala
  • tauking drum
  • taapan
  • alakatara (taar)
  • tevil
  • tenar drum

saaaincha:Col-4-of-5

  • timbels
  • timpani
  • Tom-Tom drum
  • repineekyoo
  • surdo

aur bahut adhik... saaaincha:Col-5-of-5

ek naachati hui mahila ke liye ek cheeni kalaakaar dvaara bajaaye jaane vaale drum ka vivran, saang raajavansh ki 10 veen sadi ke mool ki 12 veen sadi ki ek prati.

inhein bhi dekhein

  • blaast beet
  • double draming
  • drum beet
  • drum circle
  • drum kit
  • dramalaain
  • drum machine
  • drum riplesameint (pratisthaapan)
  • dramar
  • ek sarkular drum ka kanpan
  • ek drum ke aakaar ko sunana
  • gailap
  • dramaron ki soochi
  • vaadya yantr
  • practice (abhyaas) pad
  • parkyoosiv Arts society
  • dramastiks (nagaade ki dandi)
  • electronic drum
  • haing drum
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vikisors mein is lekh se sambandhit, mool paathya upalabdh hai:

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sandarbh

  1. a aa i E u oo Grove, George (January 2001). Stanley Sadie. ed. The New Grove Encyclopæadia of Music and Musicians (2nd san॰). Grove's Dictionaries of Music. pp. Volume 5, pp638–649. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 1561592390. sandarbh truti: Invalid <ref> tag; name "grove" defined multiple times with different content
  2. Black, Dave (February 1998). Drumset Independence and Syncopation (1st san॰). Alfred Publishing Company. pp. 4–12. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 9780882848990.
  3. drum laisans - Drumbook.org
  4. Weiss, Rick (July 5, 1994). "Music Therapy". The Washington Post (Jul 5,1994). http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/washingtonpost/access/72257976.html?dids=72257976:72257976&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&date=JUL+05%2C+1994&author=Rick+Weiss&pub=The+Washington+Post&desc=MUSIC+THERAPY&pqatl=google.
  5. Remedios, R; Logothetis, NK; Kayser, C (2009). "Monkey drumming reveals common networks for perceiving vocal and nonvocal communication sounds.". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106 (42): 18010–5. doi:10.1073/pnas.0909756106. PMC 2755465. PMID 19805199. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2755465/pdf/pnas.0909756106.pdf.
  6. Clark Arcadi, A; Robert, D; Mugurusi, F (2004). "A comparison of buttress drumming by male chimpanzees from two populations.". Primates; journal of primatology 45 (2): 135–9. doi:10.1007/s10329-003-0070-8. PMID 14735390.
  7. Kalan, AK; Rainey, HJ. (2009). "Hand-clapping as a communicative gesture by wild female swamp gorillas". Primates 50 (3): 273–5. doi:10.1007/s10329-009-0130-9. PMID 19221858.
  8. Randall, JA. (2001). "Evolution and Function of Drumming as Communication in Mammals". American Zoologist 41 (5): 1143–1156. doi:10.1668/0003-1569(2001)041[1143:EAFODA]2.0.CO;2. http://intl-icb.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/41/5/1143.
  9. keto, elan. (1996). breef history of draming.

baahya kadiyaan

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saaaincha:ArabicInstruments