doosra vishvayuddh

1/09/1939 mein yuddh ke vidhvans ka drushya

doosra vishv yuddh 1939 se 1945 tak chalne wala vishv-stareeya yuddh tha. lagbhag 70 deshon ki thal-jal-vaayu senaaeain is yuddh mein sammalit theen. is yuddh mein vishv do bhaagon me bainta hua tha - mitr raashtra aur dhuri raashtra. is yuddh ke dauraan poorn yuddh ka manobhaav prachalan mein aaya kyonki is yuddh mein lipt saari mahaashaktiyon ne apni aarthik, audyogik tatha vaigyaanik kshamata is yuddh mein jhonk di thi. is yuddh mein vibhinn raashtron ke lagbhag 10 karod sainikon ne hissa liya, tatha yeh maanav itihaas ka sabse zyaada ghaatak yuddh saabit hua. is mahaayuddh mein 5 se 7 karod vyaktiyon ki jaanein gain kyonki iske mahatvapoorn ghatnaakram mein asainik naagrikon ka narasanhaar- jismein holokaust bhi shaamil hai- tatha parmaanu hathiyaaron ka ekamaatr istemaal shaamil hai (jiski vajah se yuddh ke ant me mitr raashtron ki jeet hui). isi kaaran yeh maanav itihaas ka sabse bhayankar yuddh tha.[1]
haalaanki Japan cheen se san 1937 E. se yuddh ki avastha mein tha[2] kintu amooman doosare vishv yuddh ki shuruaat 01 sitmbar 1939 mein jaani jaati hai jab Germany ne Poland par hamla bola aur uske baad jab France ne Germany par yuddh ki ghoshana kar di tatha England aur anya raashtramandal deshon ne bhi iska anumodan kiya.
Germany ne 1939 mein Europe mein ek bada saamraajya banaane ke uddeshya se Poland par hamla bol diya. 1939 ke ant se 1941 ki shuruaat tak, abhiyaan tatha sandhi ki ek shrunkhala mein Germany ne mahaadveepeeya Europe ka bada bhaag ya to apne adheen kar liya tha ya use jeet liya tha. naatsi-soviyt samjhaute ke tahat soviyt roos apne chh: padosi mulkon, jismein Poland bhi shaamil tha, par kaabij ho gaya. fraans ki haar ke baad United kingadam aur anya raashtramandal desh hi dhuri raashtron se sangharsh kar rahe the, jismein uttari afreeka ki ladaaiyaaain tatha lambi chali atalaantik ki ladaai shaamil the. June 1941 mein yuropeeya dhuri raashtron ne soviyt sangh par hamla bol diya aur isne maanav itihaas mein jmeeni yuddh ke sabse bade ranakshetr ko janm diya. December 1941 ko Japani saamraajya bhi dhuri raashtron ki taraf se is yuddh mein kood gaya. daraasal Japan ka uddeshya poorvi Asia tatha indochaayana mein apna prabhutv sthaapit karne ka tha. usane prashaant mahaasaagar mein yuropeeya deshon ke aadhiptya vaale kshetron tatha sanyukt raajya amereeka ke parl haarbar par hamla bol diya aur jald hi pashchimi prashaant par kbja bana liya.
san 1942 mein aage badhti dhuri sena par lagaam tab lagi jab pehle to Japan silsilevaar kai nausainik jhadpein haara, yuropeeya dhuri taakatein uttari afreeka mein haareen aur nirnaayak mod tab aaya jab unako staalingraad mein haar ka muainh dekhna pada. san 1943 mein Germany poorvi yurop mein kai jhadpein haara, Italy mein mitr raashtron ne aakraman bol diya tatha America ne prashaant mahaasaagar mein jeet darj karni shuru kar di jiske kaaranavash dhuri raashtron ko saare morchon par saamarik drushti se peechhe hatne ki rananeeti apnaane ko majaboor hona pada. san 1944 mein jahaaain ek or pashchimi mitr deshon ne Germany dvaara kbja kiye hue fraans par aakraman kiya vaheen doosari or se soviyt sangh ne apni khoi huyi jameen vaapas chheenane ke baad Germany tatha uske sahayogi raashtron par hamla bol diya. san 1945 ke April-May mein soviyt aur Poland ki senaaon ne barlin par kbja kar liya aur yurop mein doosare vishvayuddh ka ant 8 May 1945 ko tab hua jab Germany ne bina shart aatmasamarpan kar diya.
san 1944 aur 1945 ke dauraan America ne kai jagahon par Japani nausena ko shikast di aur pashchimi prashaant ke kai dveepon mein apna kbja bana liya. jab Japani dveepasamooh par aakraman karne ka samay kreeb aaya to America ne Japan mein do parmaanu bam gira diye. 15 August 1945 ko Asia mein bhi doosra vishvayuddh samaapt ho gaya jab Japani saamraajya ne aatmasamarpan karna sveekaar kar liya.

anukram

prushthabhoomi

pehle vishvayuddh mein haar ke baad Germany ko varsaaya ki sandhi par jabaran hastaakshar karna pada. is sandhi ke kaaran use apne kabje ki bahut saari jameen chhodani padi, kisi doosare desh par aakraman naheen karne ki shart maanani padi, apni sena ko seemit karna pada aur usako pehle vishv yuddh mein hue nuksaan ki bharpaai ke roop mein doosare deshon ko bhugataan karna pada.

1917 mein roos mein gruh yuddh ke baad soviyt sangh ka nirmaan hua jo ki Joseph staalin ke shaasan mein tha, 1922 mein usi samay Italy mein benito musolini ka ekaadhiptya raajya kaayam hua.

1933 mein Germany ka shaasak edolf hitlar bana aur tunrat hi usane Germany ko vaapas ek shaktishaali sainya taakat ke roop mein prardashit karna shuroo kar diya. is baat se France aur England chintit ho gaye jo ki pichhli ladaai mein kaafi nuksaan utha chuke the. Italy bhi is baat se pareshaan tha kyonki use bhi lagta tha ki Germany uske kaam mein dakhl dega kyonki usaka sapana bhi shaktishaali sainya taakat banane ka tha.

in sab baaton ko dekhkar aur apne aap ko bachaane ke liye France ne Italy ke saath haath milaaya aur usane Africa mein ithiyopiya- jo uske kabje mein tha- ko Italy ko dene ka man bana liya. 1935 mein baat aur bigad gayi jab hitlar ne varsaaya ki sandhi ko tod diya aur apni sena ko bada karne ka kaam shuroo kar diya.

Germany ko kaaboo mein karne ke liye England, France aur Italy ne stresa naamak shahar (jo Italy mein hai) mein ek ghoshana-patra par hastaakshar kiye jismein yeh likha tha ki ostriya ki aajaadi ko kaayam rakha jaae aur Germany ko varsaaya ki sandhi todne se roka jaae. lekin stresa ghoshana-patra jyaada safal naheen hua kyonki teenon raajyon ke beech mein aam sahamati jyaadaatar baaton par naheen bani. usi samay soviyet sangh jo Germany ke poorvi Europe ke bade hisse ko kabja karne ki mansha se dara hua tha, France se haath milaane ko taiyaar ho gaya.

jarman sena 1935 mein nuremberg mein

1935 mein England ne varsaaya ki sandhi ko darakinaar karte hue Germany ke saath ek svatantr karaar karke kuchh puraani sharton ko kam kar diya. 1935 ki October mein Italy ne ithiyopiya par aakraman kar diya aur sirf Germany ne is aakraman ko vaidh maana jiske kaaran Italy ne Germany ko aastriya par kabja karne ke mansha ko hari jhandi de di. 1936 mein jab hitlar ne rayaanalaind ko dobaara apni sena ka gad baane ki koshish ki to us par jyaada aapattiyaan nahi uthaai gayi . usi saal Spain mein grah yuddh chaaloo hua to Germany aur Italy ne vahaan ki raashtravaadi taakat ka samarthan kiya jo soviyet sangh ki sahaayata waali Spanish ganaraajya ke khilaaf thi. nae hathiyaaron ke parikshan ke beech mein raashtravaadi taakaton ne 1939 mein yuddh jeet liya .

jaise jaise samay beetata gaya tanaav badhata raha aur apne aap ko taakatavar karne ki koshishein badhati gayi. tabhi Germany aur Italy ne rom-barlin samjhauta angreji: (ROME - BERLIN AXIS) kiya aur fir Germany ne Japan ke saath milkar saamyavaad virodhi karaar angreji: (anti comintern pact) kiya jo cheen aur soviyet sangh ke khilaaf milkar kaam karne ke liye tha aur Italy bhi isame 1940 mein shaamil ho gaya.

yuddh ki shuruvaat

1937 mein cheen aur Japan Marco polon mein aapas mein lad rahe the. usi ke baad Japan ne cheen par par poori tarah se dhaava bol diya. soviyet sangh ne cheen to apna poora samarthan diya. lekin Japan sena ne Shanghai se cheen ki sena ko haraane shuroo kiya aur unki rajdhani bejing par kabja kar liya. 1938 ne cheen ne apni peeli nadi to baad grast kar diya aur cheen ko thoda samay mil gaya sainbhaalane ne ka lekin fir bhi vo Japan ko rok nahi paaye. ise beech soviyet sangh aur Japan ke beech mein chhota yudh hua par vo log apni seema par jyaada vyast ho gaye.

Europe mein Germany aur Italy aur taakatavar hote ja rahe the aur 1938 mein Germany ne aastriya par hamla bol diya fir bhi dusare Europeeya deshon ne iska zyaada virodh nahi kiya. is baat se utsaahit hokar hitlar ne sadetenalaind jo ki chekoslovaakiya ka pashchimi hissa hai aur jahaaain jarman bhaasha bolne vaalon ki jyaada taadaat thi vahaan par hamla bol diya. France aur England ne is baat ko halake se liya aur Germany se kahaaain ki Germany unase vaada kare ki vo ab kaheen aur hamla nahi karega. lekin Germany ne is vaade ko nahi nibhaaya aur usane Hungary se saath milkar 1939 mein poore chekoslovaakiya par kabja kar liya.

danjig shahar jo ki pehle vishvayuddh ke baad Germany se alag karke Poland ko de diya gaya tha aur iska sanchaalan deshon ka sangh (angreji: league of nations) (league of neshans) naamak vishvastareeya sanstha kar rahi thi, jo ki pratham vishv yuddh ke baad sthaapit hue thi. is deinjing shahar par jab hitlar ne kabja karne ki sochi to France aur Germany Poland ko apni aajaadi ke liye samarthan dene ko taiyaar ho gaye. aur jab Italy ne albaaniya par hamla bola to yahi samarthan romaaniya aur grees ko bhi diya gaya. soviyet sangh ne bhi France aur England ke saath haath milaane ki koshish ki lekin pashchimi deshon ne usaka saath lene se inkaar kar diya kyonki unako soviyet sangh ki mansha aur usaki kshamata par shak tha. France aur England ki Poland ko sahaayata ke baad Italy aur Germany ne bhi samjhauta paikt of steel kiya ki vo poori tarah ek doosare ke saath hai.

soviyet sangh yeh samajh gaya tha ki France aur England ko usaka saath pasand nahi aur Germany agar us par hamla karega to bhi France aur England us ke saath nahi honge to usane Germany ke saath milkar usapar aakraman na karne ka samjhauta (naun aggregrsan paikt) par hastaakshar kiye aur khufiya taur par Poland aur baaki poorvi Europe ko aapas mein baatane ka hi karaar shaamil tha.

sitmbar 1939 mein soviyet sangh ne Japan ko apni seema se khaded diya aur usi samay Germany ne Poland par hamla bol diya. France, England aur raashtramandal deshon ne bhi Germany ke khilaaf hamla bol diya parantu yeh hamla bahut bade paimaane par nahi tha sirf France ne ek chhota hamla saaralaind par kiya jo ki Germany ka ek raajya tha. soviyet sangh ke Japan ke saath yuddhaviraam ke ghoshana ke baad khud hi Poland par hamla bol diya. October 1939 tak Poland Germany aur soviyet sangh ke beech vibhaajit ho chuka tha. isi dauraan Japan ne cheen ke ek mahatvapoorn shahar changhasa par aakraman kar diya par cheen ne unhein bahaar khaded diya. Poland par hamle ke baad soviyet sangh ne apni sena ko baaltik deshon (laataviya, estoniya, lithuainniya) ki taraf mod di. November 1939 mein Finland par jab soviyet sangh ne hamla bola to yuddh jo winter vaar ke naam se jaana jaata hai vo chaar maheene chala aur Finland ko apni thodi si jameen khoni padi aur usane soviyet sangh ke saath Moscow shaanti karaar par hastaakshar kiye jiske tahat usaki aajaadi ko nahi chheena jaaega par us soviyet sangh ke kabje waali Finland ki jameen ko chhodna padega jisme Finland ki 12 pratishat janshankhya rahati thi aur usaka doosra bada shahar yvorg shaamil tha.

France aur England ne soviyet sangh ke Finland par hamle ko dviteeya vishv yuddh mein shaamil hone ka bahaana banaaya aur Germany ke saath mil gaye aur soviyet sangh ko deshon ke sangh (league of neshans) se bahaar karne ki koshish ki. cheen ke paas koshish ko rokane ka mock tha kyoki vo deshon ke sangh (league of neshans) ka sadasya tha. lekin vo is prastaav mein shaamil nahi hua kyonki na to vo soviyet sangh se aur na hi pashchimi taakaton se apne aap ko door rakhana chaahata tha. soviyet sangh is baat se naaraaj ho gaya aur cheen ko milne waali saari sainik madad ko rok diya. June 1940 mein soviyet sangh ne teenon baaltik deshon par kabja kar liya.

doosra vishvayuddh aur Bhaarat

doosare vishvayuddh ke samay Bhaarat par angrejon ka kabja tha. isliye aadhikaarik roop se Bhaarat ne bhi naaji Germany ke viruddh 1939 mein yuddh ki ghoshana kar di. british raaj (gulaam Bhaarat) ne 20 lakh se adhik sainik yuddh ke liye bheja jinhone british niyantran ke adheen dhuri shaktiyon ke viruddh yuddh lada. iske alaava sabhi desi riyaasaton ne yuddh ke liye badi maatra mein angrejon ko dhanaraashi pradaan ki.

yeh bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  1. somaravile, donauld (2008). the kanpaleet ilustreted history of vald vaar 2: N aathoritetiv account of the dedaliyest konfliktas in hyuman history vid enaalisis of disijiv enkaauntars end laindamaark ingejameintas. laureinj books. pa॰ 5. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-7548-1898-5.
  2. Barrett, David P; Shyu, Lawrence N (2001). chaaina in the anti jaapaaneej vaar, 1937–1945: politiks, kalchar end sosaaiti. volyum 1 of stadeej in modern chaaineej histari. new yaurk: Peter laing. pa॰ 6. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-8204-4556-8.