doorabhaash

touch ton, ekal line, vyaapaarik doorabhaash

doorabhaash ya telephone, doorasanchaar ka ek upakaran hai. yeh do ya kabhi-kabhi adhik vyaktiyon ke beech baatcheet karne ke kaam aata hai. vishv bhar mein aajkal yeh sarvaadhik prachalit ghareloo upakaran hai.

anukram

aavishkaar

telifon (Telephone) ke astitv ki sambhaavana sarvapratham sanyukt raajya amareeka ke ailekjaindar graihaim bail ki is ukti mein prakat hui: yadi main vidyudvaara ki teevrata ko dhvani ke utaar chadhaav ke anusaar usi prakaar nyoonaadhik karne ki vyavastha kar paaooain, jaisa dhvanisancharan ke samay vaayu ke ghanatv mein hota hai, to main mukh se bole gaye shabdon ko bhi telegraph ki vidhi se ek sthaan se doosare sthaan ko sanchaarit kar sakane mein samarth ho sakoonga.

apni isi dhaarana ke aadhaar par bail ne apne sahaayak taumas Watson ki sahaayata se telifon paddhati ka aavishkaar karne ke hetu prayaas aarambh kar diya aur ant mein 10 March, 1876 E ko ve aisa yantr bana sakane mein safal ho gaye jisse unhonne Watson ke liye sandesh preshit kiya- mi. Watson, yahaaain aao. mujhe tumhaari aavashyakta hai. lagbhag usi samay amareeka mein isi sambandh mein kuchh anya log vidyudvidhi dvaara vaagdhvani ka sancharan karne ke sambandh mein prayog kar rahe the aur pro. elisha gre naamak vaigyaanik ne, bail dvaara apne yantr ko peteint karaane ka praarthanaapatr diye jaane ke keval teen ghante baad hi, apne ek aise hi yantr ko peteint karaane ke hetu aavedan kiya. ispar bada vivaad utpann hua aur lagbhag 600 vibhinn mukadamein bail aur gre ke beech chalne ke baad ant mein bail ki vijay hui aur ve telifon ke vaastavik aavishkaarak ke roop mein pratishthit hue.

telephone ka prasaar

bail ke anuyaayiyon evam uttaraadhikaariyon ne amareeka mein telifon sanchaaravyavastha ka prasaar kiya. pehle bade bade nagaron mein, uske baad ek nagar se doosare nagar ke liye (jise kaalaatar mein trank vyavastha kaha gaya) telifon pranaaliyon ki pratishtha hui. kuchh varshon ke uparaant amareekan telifon aur telegraph company ne bail company se telifon pranaali ka svatv kraya kar liya. is company ne drut gati se amareeka mein telifon laainon ka jaal bichhaane ka kaarya praarambh kar diya.

telifon pranaali ki safalta ne Europe mein bhi halachal macha di. pehle to anek deshon ki sarkaaron ne apne desha mein is pranaali ko laagoo karne ke prati ghor virkti pradarshit ki, kyonki un sarkaaron ne telegraph pranaali par apna aadhiptya rakha tha aur unhein bhaya tha ki telifon pranaali ki pratishtha se telegraph pranaali dvaara honevaali aay par aaghaat pahuainchega. kintu Germany aur Switzerland ki sarkaaron ne telifon ki mahaan upayogita ko dhyaan mein rakhate hue sarkaar dvaara niyojit telifon vyavastha apne apne deshon mein pratishthit ki. isse prabhaavit hokar France, Belgium, Norway, sveeden aur Denmark ne bhi graamasamaajon tatha anya tatsadrush gairsarkaari sansthaaon ke maadhyam se desh ke graamyaanchalon mein bhi telifon sanchaarapranaali ka praarambh kara diya.

great Britain ne pehle to apne desh mein, uparyunkt bhaya ke kaaran, telifon sanchaar pranaali aarambh karne ke prati koi utsaah naheen pradarshit kiya, kintu san 1880 mein british nyaayaalayon ke nirnaya ke aadhaar par ise daak vibhaag ka ek ang maan liya. pehle to private companiyon ko das pratishat raayalti par telifon pranaali ki sthaapana evam prasaar ka adhikaar diya gaya, kintu jab naishanal telifon company ka is vyavasaaya mein ekaadhikaar hone laga to Britain ki sarkaar ne daak vibhaag aur nagarapaalikaaon ko is vyavasaaya mein ukt company ki prabal spardha karne ka nirdesh diya. falasvaroop, naishanal telifon company ka badi haani uthaani padi aur ant mein baadhya hokar us company ne ek samjhaute dvaara apni sampoorn telifon pranaali tatha usaka svatv 1 January, 1912 i0 ko daak vibhg ko hastaantarit kar diya. pratham vishvayuddh ke poorv tak to telifon sanchaarapranaali ki dasha atyant dayaneeya thi, kintu iske uparaant jab great Britain ki aarthik sthiti kuchh sudrudh hui, to ismein aashrchayajanak pragati hui. 1911 E. mein jahaaain great Britain mein keval saat lakh post aaainfis telifon the vahaaain 1912 E. mein unki sankhya badhkar chaalees lakh ho gayi thi.

svachaalit pranaali (The Automatic System)

dviteeya vishvayuddh mein telifon nirmaan mein prayukt honevaali saamagri ka abhaav hone laga tha. is kaaran svachaalit telifon pranaali ki pragati aur vistaar ka kaarya avaruddh ho gaya tha, kintu saralata aur suvidha ki drushti se atyant mahatvapoorn hone ke kaaran vishvayuddh ki samaapti ke saath hi is pranaali ke vistaar ka kaarya atyant drut gati se hone laga. ismein yadi 15 meal ke andar hi vaarta karni ho, to oparetar ki aavashyakta naheen padti. trank kaal ke liye bhi svayanchaalit pranaali ka vyavahaar karne ka prayatn kiya ja raha hai.

telifon yantr ki rachana

telifon yantr mein ek preshitr (transmitter) aur ek graahi (receiver) ek vishesh prakaar ke dibbe ya case ke andar rakhe hote hain. ek lambi dor, jo vastut: pruthagnyast (insulated) taaron ka ek punj hoti hai, us dibbe ya case ke andar ki vidyutpranaali se telifon set ko jodti hai.

preshitr (transmitter)

telifon ka yeh bhaag dhvanyoorja (acoustical energy) ko vidyudoorja (electrical energy) mein parint karta hai. ismein uchchaarit dhvanitrangein ek tanupat (diaphragm) mein, jiske peechhe rakhe hue kaarban ke kan (granules) paraspar nikat aate aur failate hain, teevr kanpan utpann karti hain. isse kaarban ke kanon mein pratirodh (resistance) kramash: ghatata aur badhta rahata hai. falasvaroop telifon chakr mein pravaahit honevaali vidyudvaara ki prabalata bhi kam ya adhik hua karti hai. ek second mein dhaara ke maan mein jitni baar parivartan hot hai use usaki aavrutti (frequency) kehte hain. saadhaaranataya preshitr 250 se 5,000 chakr prati second tak ki aavruttiyon ko sugamata se preshit kar leta hai aur lagbhag 2,500 chakr prati second ki aavrutti atyant utkrushtataapoorvak prashit karta hai. preshitr evam graahi (receiver) ki is visheshata ke kaaran hi shrota ko vakta ki vaarta theek aisi prateet hoti hai maanon vah paas hi kaheen bol raha hai.

saadhaaran preshitr mein ek tanupat hota hai, jo siron par atyant drudhta se kasa rahata hai. vakta ke mukh se prasfutit dhvani vaayu ke maadhyam se ispar padti hai. uchcharit dhvani ki teevrata aur mandata ke anusaar parde par padne waali vaayu daab bhi ghatati badhti hai. kaarban kanon par daab mein parivartan hone se unka pratirodh bhi usi kram se nyoonaadhik hua karta hai jiske falasvaroop vidyudvaara bhi dhvani ki teevrata ke anupaat mein hi ghatati badhti hai. kaarban prakaashth ki rachana is prakaar ki jaati hai ki kaarban ki yaantrik avabaadha (impedance) nyoonatam ho, taaki preshit ki kisi bhi sthiti ke liye uchch adhimishran dakshata (modulating efficiency) praapt ho. abheesht aavrutti anukriya (frequency response) praapt karne ke hetu parde ko dohari anunaadi pranaali (resonant system) se sanyugmit (coupled) kar diya jaata hai, to parde ke peechhe ek prakoshth, prashitr ekak tatha ek plastic ke pyaale dvaara nirmit hoti hai. ye donon prakoshth bune hue sootron se dhake hue chhidron dvaara sanyojit hote hain. sampoorn preshitr tantr vishesh roop se nirmit prakoshth mein rakha jaata hai.

graahi (Receiver)

graahi ke paraantaritr (transducer) ka kaarya vidyudoorja ko dhvanyoorja mein parint karna hota hai. iski avabaadha praaya: 1,000 chakr prati second ke liye 150 om hoti hai.

graahi tantr praaya: do prakaar ke hote hain:

(1) dvidhravi (bipolar) graahi aur

(2) valaya aarmechar (ring armature) graahi.

telifon graahi ke avayav

1. aarmechar, 2. chhalledaar jhanjhari (ferrule grid), 3. parada, 4. tanupat, 5. sthaayi chunbak, 6. kudanli (coil), 7. dhruv khand 8. sire ka patt, 9. dhvaaniki pratirodh, 10. vairistar (varistor) tatha 11. pashch kakshika.

dvidhruvi graahi to telifon parichaalak (telephone operator) ke hedafon (headphone) mein laga hota hai aur valaya aarmechar uchch dakshataavaale telifon graahiyon mein hota hai. is telifon ki upayogita ka mukhya kaaran iski nimn dhvani-avabaadha tatha vistrut aavrutti vistaar ke liye uchch-shaktti-anukriya (high power response) ki upalabdhi hai. is uddeshya ki poorti ke liye ismein ek halaka gunbadaakaar parada hota hai, jo kisi chunbakeeya padaarth ke valayaakaar aarmechar se sanyukt hota hai. parde mein ek chhidr hota hai, jo nimn aavrutti ko chhaan (filter) deta hai. yeh parda ek vidyuchchunbak ke saamane telifon ki shrotrika (earpiece) par laga hota hai. vidyuchchunbak par patale taar ka ek kudanli lapeti rahati hai. vidyuchchunbak aur parda uparyukt maarmechar dvaara paraspar sambandhit hote hain. dhvanitrangon dvaara prabhaavit parivrti (varying) vidyudvaara vidyuchchunbak mein hokar gujarati hai, jisse chunbakeeya kshetr mein bhi usi kram se nyoonata aur adhikta hua karti hai. isse parada bhi vidyuchchanubak ki or kam aur adhik khinchata rahata hai aur is prakaar usamein teevr kanpan utpann hota hai. parde ke kanpan se vaayu mein pun: dhvanitrangein utpann hoti hain, jo theek vaisi hi hoti hain jaisi doorasth preshitr mein vakta dvaara uchcharit dhvani se utpann hoti hain.

telifon line

telifon laainon ka kaarya preshitr se graahi tak sanvaadon ka vahan karna hai. praarambh mein is hetu lohe ke taaron ka upayog kiya jaata tha, kintu ab taaainbe ke taaron ka vyavahaar hota hai, kyonki taaainba lohe ki apeksha uttam vidyuchchaalak hota hai aur ksheen vidyudvaara ko bhi apne mein se pravaahit hone deta hai. telifon laainein pratyek telifon ko ek kedreeya kaaryaalaya se sanyojit karti hain, jise telifon kendra (exchange) kehte hain. isi prakaar ve nagar ke ek kendra ko doore keindron se tatha ek nagar ke mukhya kendra ko doosare nagar ke mukhya kendra se jodti hain. saadhaaranataya telifon laainein dharati se oopar, khanbhon (poles) ke sahaare, ek sthaan se doosare sthaan tak jaati hai, kintu ab vyast nagaron mein jahaaain telifon vyavastha ka jaal sa fail gaya hai bhoomishth kebalon (cables) ke roop mein inhein joda ja raha hai. ek bhoomishth kebal mein 4,000 telifon ke taar rakhe jaate hain.

bahut lambi dooriyon ko paar karanevaali telifon taaron ki pranaaliyon mein nirvaat nalikaaeain athva electronic nalikaaeain, jinhein taapaayanik (thermionic) nalikaaeain kehte hain, laga di jaati hain. inka kaarya lambi doori paar karne par, ksheenapraaya ho jaane waali vidyudvaara ki prabalata ko pravardhit karna hota hai. iske kaaran telifon kebalon mein bahut patale taaron ko (jinka pratirodh mote taaron ki apeksha adhik hota hai) pratyukt kar sakana sambhav ho gaya hai aur parinaamasvaroop ek keval mein adhik sankhya mein taar rakhe ja sakte hain. telifon taaron mein vidyudvaara ki prabalata sthir rakhane ke liye bhaaran kundali (loading coils) ka bhi praaya: upayog kiya jaata hai.

uchch aavruttivaali pratyaavarti dhaara ke upayog se telifon pranaali mein ek anya mahatvapoorn vikaas hua hai. telifon vaarta dvaara utpann honevaali vibhinn prakaar ki tarangon ko sanyukt karke pratyaavarti dhaara ek vaahak dhaara (carrier current) ko janm deti hai. keindreeya sangraahi station par un vibhinn prakaar ke sanketatarangon ki is dhaara mein se "chhaintaai" hoti hai aur tab unhein unke uchit sthaan ko preshit kiya jaata hai.

anya upakaran

uparyukt angon ke atirkt telifon pranaali mein svich patt (switch board) bhi ek mahatvapoorn ang hota hai. iski sanrachana atyant jatil hoti hai aur yeh aadhunik yantrakala aur engineering kaushal ka ek utkrusht namoona hai. yeh kedreeya telifon kendra mein rahata hai. sabhi telifon isse sambandhit hote hain. pratyek telifon ke number is patt par likhe rahate hain aur pratyek number ke oopar ek chhota sa balb laga hota hai. jab aap telifon uthaate hain to yeh balv jal uthata hai aur iske sanmukh baitha hua telifon oparetar ek plag dvaara apne hedafon (headphone) ka sambandh aapke telifon se sthaapit karta hai. aapse vaanchhit telifon number gyaat karke vah aapke telifon ka sambandh us telifon se sthaapit karta hai aur apne saamane lage hue batan ko dabaakar us doosare telifon ki ghanti bajaata hai. is prakaar vah doosare sthaan ke vyakti ko soochana dekar aap donon ki vaarta praarambh karta hai. yadi doosare telifon ka sambandh us kendra se naheen hota to vah us kedr se, jahaaain se vaanchhit telifon ka sambandh hota hai, aapke telifon ka sambandh jodta hai aur vahaaain se aapke telifon ka sambandh vaanchhit telifon ke saath poorvokt vidhi se sthaapit kara diya jaata hai.

daayal telifon

graahi evam preshitr vyavasthaaeain uparyukt saadhaaran telifon ke sadrush hote hue bhi, daayal telifon mein vakta evam shrota ke beech seedha sampark sthaapit karne ki atirikt visheshata hoti hai. telifon yantr ke oopari bhaag mein ek vruttaakaar daayal hota hai, jiski paridhi par shoonya se 9 tak ke ank kram se ankit hote hain. iske oopar ek vruttaakaar chakr (disc) ghoomta hai, jiski paridhi par das bade bade chhidr is prakaar bane hote hain ki sthir avastha mein pratyek chhidr daayal ke kisi vishesh ank ke oopar padta hai. yeh chakr ek keindreeya aksh ke chaaron or ghoornan karta hai. thoda sa ghumaakar chhod diye jaane par, yeh pun: apni praarambhik avastha mein vaapas aa jaata hai. graahi ko telifon set par se uthaakar vakta apne vaanchhit telifon ke number ke pratham ank ke oopar vaale chhidr mein uaingali daalata hai aur chakr vahaaain tak ghuma le jaata hai jahaaain use ruk jaana padta hai. uaingali hata lene par chakr pun: apni praarambhik sthiti mein aa jaata hai. is prakaar vah kram se abheesht telifon ke number ke pratyek ank chhidr mein baari baari se uaingali daalkar chakr ko ghumaata aur chhodta hai. jab chakr chhoda jaata hai to vah karr karr ki anek laghu dhvaniyaaain utpann karta hua vaapas lautata hai. yeh dhvani telifon se jaanevaali vidyutaddhaara ko prabhaavit karti hai aur isse kedreeya kaaryaalaya mein sthit svichein band hoti hain. jab pratyek ank se sambandhit svichein band hoti hain tab abheesht telifon se sambandh sthaapit hota hai. yadi abhisht telifon vyast hoga to aapka seeti ki si dhvani sunaai degi. yadi aapne galat number daayal kiya to doosare prakaar ki dhvani sunaai degi. daayal telifonon ka adhik dooriyon ke liye upayog naheen kiya jaata.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain