domen naam pranaali

domen naam pranaali (DNS) computer, sevaaon, ya kisi Internet ya ek niji network se jude sansaadhan ke liye ek kramik naamakaran pranaali hai. yeh pratibhaagi ko diye gaye domen naam ke saath vibhinn jaankaari ekatrit karti hai. sabse mahatvapoorn baat yeh hai ki yeh manushyon ke liye arthapoorn domen naamon ko poori duniya mein in upakaranon ko pahachaanane tatha sambodhit karne ke prayojan se networking upakaranon ke saath judi sankhyaatmak (baainari) pehchaan mein badal deti hai. domen naam pranaali ke baare mein aksar prayukt hone waali kahaavat yeh hai ki yeh Internet ke liye "fon book" ke roop mein manushyon ke anukool computer hostanaam ka aaipi edres ke roop mein anuvaad karti hai. udaaharan ke liye, www.example.com anuvaad ke baad 208.77.188.166 ho jaata hai. domen naam pranaali Internet upayogakartaaon ke samooh ke liye ek arthapoorn dhang se domen naam nirdisht karna sambhav banaati hai chaahe upayogakarta kisi bhi sthaan par ho. is vajah se world wide web (WWW) ke haaiparalinks ki aur Internet sampark ki jaankaari nirantar tatha tatasth bani rahati hai chaahe vartamaan Internet rooting vyavastha mein parivartan ho jaae ya upayogakarta mobile upakaran ka prayog kare. Internet domen naamon ko yaad rakhana IP edres yaad rakhane se jyaada aasaan hai jaise 208.77.188.166 (IPv4) ya 2001:db8:1f70::999:de8:7648:6e8 (IPv6). log is baat ki paravaah kiye bagair arthapoorn yooaarael aur E mel pate bana kar iska laabh uthaate hain ki machine (sarvar) unhein kaise dhoondhegi.

domen naam pranaali domen ka naam nirdhaarit karne tatha un naamon ka IP pata aadhikaarik naam sarvar ko nirdisht karke dhooaindhane ki jimmevaari vitrit karti hai. aadhikaarik naam sarvar apne vishesh domen ke prati uttaradaayi hote hain aur badle mein ve apne up-domen ke liye anya aadhikaarik naam sarvar nirdhaarit kar sakte hain. is tantr ne DNS ko baantane, truti sahane aur lagaataar salaah tatha update se bachane ke liye ek kendreeya rajistar ki aavashyakta ko nakaarane yogya bana diya hai.

saamaanyat: domen naam pranaali anya soochanaaon ka bhi sangrahan karti hai jaise mel sarvaron ki soochi jo diye gaye Internet domen ke liye imel sveekaar karti hai. duniya bhar mein vitrit ki ja sakane yogya ki-vard aadhaarit punarnirdhaaran pranaali pradaan karne ki vajah se domen naam pranaali Internet ki suvidha ka ek aavashyak ghatak hai. doosare pahachaanakarta jaise ki RFID taig, UPC code, imel paton aur host naamon mein antarraashtreeya varn tatha vibhinn prakaar ke doosare pahachaanakarta sambhaavit roop se DNS ka prayog kar sakte hain.[1] domen naam pranaali is daataabes seva ki kaaryakshamata ke takaneeki aadhaar bhi paribhaashit karti hai. is prayojan ke liye yeh DNS protokaul ko Internet protokaul suit (TCP/IP) ke hisson ke roop mein DNS mein prayukt hone waali data sanrachanaaon tatha sanchaar exchange ka vistrut vivran paribhaashit karti hai. DNS protokaul ko 1980 ke dashak ke aarambh mein viksit aur paribhaashit kiya gaya tatha Internet engineering taask fors dvaara saarvajanik kiya gaya. (aage dekhein. itihaas).

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anukram

itihaas

network par ek machine ke sankhyaatmak pate ke sthaan par manushya ke pathan yogya naamon ka prachalan TCP/IP se bhi pehle ka hai. yeh prachalan ARPAnet yug ka hai. iske baad ek alag pranaali ka prayog kiya gaya. DNS ka avishkaar 1983 mein TCP/IP ke sheegra baad hi kiya gaya. puraane system mein, network par SRI (ab SRI international) par sthit pratyek computer se ek computer HOSTS.TXT naamak faail praapt karta tha.[2][3][4] HOSTS.TXT faail mein dhoondhe gaye naamon ka sankhyaatmak pata hota tha. aadhunik operating system par aaj bhi ek host faail ya to difault roop mein ya saiting ke maadhyam se maujood hoti hai aur upayogakartaaon ko ek aaipi pata nirdhaarit karne (udaaharan 208.77.188.166) aur DNS ki jaaainch kiye bina ek host naam ke liye anumati deti hai. (udaaharan www.example.net). host faailon par aadhaarit system ki kuchh moolabhoot seemaaen hain, kyonki yeh ek spasht aavashyakta hai ki jab bhi computer ka IP pata badle to usase sampark karne ki koshish karne vaale kampyootaron ko bhi iski host faail se update karne ki aavashyakta padegi.

networking ke vikaas ko aur adhik vishvasaneeya pranaali ki aavashyakta thi jo host mein pate ke badlaav ko keval ek jagah par record kare. doosare host ek soochana pranaali ke maadhyam se is badlaav ke baare mein swayam jaankaari praapt kareinge jisse sabhi host naamon aur unase sambandhit IP paton tak pahuainch sulabh ho jaaegi.

John postel ke anurodh par, paul mokaapetris ne 1983 mein pehli domen naam pranaali ka aavishkaar kiya aur ise laagoo karne ka dhang likha. mool vyaakhya RFC 882 aur RFC 883 mein dikhaai gayi hai jinhein November 1987 mein RFC 1034[5] aur RFC 1035[6] se badla gaya. tippani ke liye kai atirikt anurodh milne ke par mool DNS protokaul ke vistaar ka prastaav kiya gaya hai.

1984 mein, chaar Berkeley mein padhne vaale chhaatron dagalas teri, mark painter, David rigl aur sonniya jhou ne pehla UNIX kaaryaanvan likha jise baad mein raalf kainpabel dvaara poora kiya gaya. 1985 mein, DEC ke kevin Dunlop ne pun: DNS kaaryaanvayan likha aur iska naam BIND rakha jiska matlab tha Berkeley Internet name domen. tab se Mike kairel, fil elmakvist aur paul viksi ne BIND ko jinda rakha hai. 1990 ke dashak ke aarambh mein BIND ko vindoj NT manch par sthaapit kiya gaya.

BIND ko vyaapak roop se, visheshakar yooniks system par vitrit kiya gaya aur yeh Internet par prayog hone wala sabse prabhaavi DNS software hai.[7] atyadhik upayog aur iske mukt srot code ki jaanch ke parinaamasvaroop, saath hi saath teji se aur adhik parishkrut hamle ke tareekon ki vajah se BIND mein kai suraksha khaamiyaan pai gain. isse kai vaikalpik name sarvar aur risolvar prograamon ka vikaas hua. BIND ko skraich se sanskaran 9 mein pun: likha gaya jiska suraksha record doosare aadhunik Internet software se tulana yogya hai.

sanrachana

domen name space

kramik domen naam pranaali jo kshetron mein sangathit hai, pratyek ek naam sarvar ke dvaara sanchaalit hoti hai.

domen name space mein domen naamon ka ek vruksh hota hai. vruksh ke pratyek nod ya patti mein shoonya ya adhik risors record hote hain, jo domen naam ke saath sambaddh jaankaari rakhate hai. vruksh root jon mein shuruaat se jon (kshetron) mein banta hota hai. ek DNS jon mein isse jude hue nod ka ek sangrah hota hai jo aadhikaarik taur par ek aadhikaarik name sarvar dvaara bheja jaata hai. (dhyaan dein ki ek nemasarvar kai jon ko host kar sakta hai.)

kisi bhi jon ki prashaasanik jimmedaari baanti ja sakti hai jisse atirikt jon bante hain. aam taur par ek up-domen ke roop mein puraane space (sthaan) ke ek hisse ke liye adhikaar doosare name sarvar aur prashaasanik ikaai ko saunpe ja sakte hain. puraana jon nae jon ke liye adhikrut naheen rahata.

ek domen naam ke hisse

ek domen naam aamtaur par do ya adhik bhaagon (takaneeki lebal) se bana hota hai, jinhein paaramparik taur par dot se alag kiya jaata hai jaise example.com.

  • sabse daayeen or ka lebal sheersh star ke domen ka pata bataata hai (udaaharan ke liye pata www.example.com mein sheersh star domen com) hai.
  • baain or pratyek lebal ek sabadivijn ya iske baad ke domen ka upadomen darshaata hai. not: "upadomen" aabhaasi nirbharata vyakt karta hai na ki poorn nirbharata. udaaharan ke liye: example.com com domen ka upadomen hai aur www.example.com domen example.com ka ek upadomen hai. saiddhaantik roop mein, yeh sabadivijn (upakhand) 127 staron tak ja sakta hai. pratyek lebal mein 63 oktets ho sakte hain. poora domen naam 253 oktets ki kul lanbaai se adhik naheen ho sakta hai.[8] vyavahaar mein, kuchh domen rajistriyon ki seema aur bhi kam ho sakti hai.
  • ek host naam ek domen naam ko darshaata hai jiske saath ek ya ek se adhik aaipi pate (jaise, 'www.example.com' aur 'example.com domen donon host naam hain, jabki 'com' domen naheen hai) jude hote hain.

DNS sarvar

domen naam pranaali ko ek vitrit daataabes pranaali dvaara niyantrit kiya jaata hai hai, jo client (graahak) -sarvar model ka upayog karta hai. is daataabes ke nod naam sarvar hain. pratyek domen ya upadomen ek ya ek se adhik aadhikaarik DNS sarvar hain jo ki domen aur iske adheen kisi bhi domen ke naam sarvar ke baare mein jaankaari saarvajanik kar dete hain. shrankhal mein sheersh par root nemasarvar hain : sheersh star domen naam (TLD) dekhte (dhoondhate) samay inse poochh-taachh ki jaati hai.

DNS risolvar

inhein bhi dekhein: resolv.conf

DNS ke client chhor ko DNS risolvar kaha jaata hai. yeh maangon ko shuroo karne tatha unhein kramabaddh karne ke liye jimmevaar hai jisse risors (sansaadhan) ka poorn hal (anuvaad) kiya jaata hai jaise domen naam ka IP pate ke roop mein anuvaad.

ek DNS poochh-taachh ya to ek gair punaraavarti (dobaara na hone waali) poochh-taachh ya punaraavarti poochh-taachh ho sakti hai:

  • ek gair punaraavarti poochh-taachh vah hai jismein DNS sarvar ek domen ke liye ek record pradaan karta hai jiske liye vah khud praadhikrut hai, ya yeh anya sarvar se poochhe bina ek aanshik parinaam pradaan karta hai.
  • ek punaraavarti poochh-taachh vah hai jiske liye deeenaes sarvar poori tarah se prashn ka javaab aavashyakataanusaar doosare naam sarvar se poochh kar dega (ya ek truti darshaayega). DNS sarvaron ke liye punaraavarti prashnon ka samarthan aavashyak naheen hai.

risolvar ya risolvar ke sthaan par punaraavarti kar raha anya DNS sarvar kveri haidar mein bits ke prayog dvaara punaraavarti seva ke upayog ki baatcheet karta hai.

aam taur par yeh risolving jaroorat ki jaankaari praapt karne ke liye kai naam sarvaron ke beech se gujarati hai. haalaanki, kuchh risolvar saral dhang se kaarya karte hain aur keval ek naam sarvar ke saath hi sampark kar sakte hain. ye saral risolvar ("stab risolvar" kaha jaata hai) jaankaari praapt karne ke liye ek punaraavarti naam sarvar par nirbhar karte hain.

prakriya

pata dhooaindhane ki takaneek

ek domen naam mein kai naam ghatak (jaise, ahost.ofasubnet.ofabiggernet.inadomain.example) ho sakte hain. vyavahaar mein, poora host naam aksar sirf teen ghatakon se milkar banta hai: jaise ahost.inadomain.example, aur sabse adhik baar www. Inadomain.example. poochh-taachh prayojanon ke liye, software segameint ke daayein se baain or segameint ki vyaakhya karta hai. maarg mein har kadam par, yeh program ek DNS sarvar se agale sarvar ka sanket bataane ka aagrah karta hai jisse ise paraamarsh karna chaahiye.

ek DNS rikrsar edres www.wikipedia.org ka pata lagaane ke liye teen naam sarvaron se salaah leta hai.

jaise ki mool roop mein pariklpit hai, prakriya bahut hi saral hai:

  1. sthaaneeya system ki poorv saiting root sarvaron mein sthit root sanketon ki file ke vishvasaneeya paton se ki jaati hai jo ki srot se sthaaneeya edministretar dvaara naveeneekrut hone ki saath saath update ki jaati hai.
  2. root sarvar se pehli poochh-taachh agale nichle star ke adhikrut sarvar ko khojane ke liye ki jaati hai (hamaare saral host name ke maamale mein root sarvar ko, sheersh star domen example ki vistrut jaankaari ke saath ek sarvar ke pate ke liye kaha jaayega).
  3. doosare star ke domen ki vistrut jaankaari ke saath ek DNS sarvar ke pate ke liye is doosare sarvar se poochh-taachh hogi. hamaare udaaharan mein (inadomain.example).
  4. pichhle charan doharaate hue neeche ki or tab tak badhna jab tak ki antim charan tak na pahuainch jaayein jo ki agale DNS sarvar ke pate ke bajaae antim dhooaindha gaya hal (pata) hoga.

chitr asli host www.wikipedia.org ke liye is prakriya ko dikhaata hai.

is saral roop tantr mein ek mushkil hai: yeh mool sarvar par bhaari bojh daalata hai, kyonki ek pate ki pratyek khoj ke saath pratyek sarvar ke saath poochh-taachh ki shuruaat ho jaati hai. ek system ki sampoorn kaaryapranaali mein mahatvapoorn hone ke naate, pratyek din mein arabon prashnon ka bojh ek durgam adchan paida karega. vyavahaar mein is samasya par kaaboo paane ke liye kaishing ka prayog hota hai aur vaastav mein, root name sarvar ko kul yaataayaat ke bahut kam hisse ka saamana karna padta hai.

sarkular nirbharata aur gloo record

deleegeshan mein naam sarvar IP pate se soocheebaddh hone ki bajaae naam se pradarshit hote hain. iska arth yeh hai ki ek risolving naam sarvar ko ek nirdisht kiye gaye sarvar ke IP pate ko dhooaindhane ke liye ek anya DNS anurodh avashya bhejana chaahiye. choonki is vajah se sarkular nirbharata ki sthiti ho sakti hai, yadi ek domen ke tahat ek name sarvar ko nirdisht kiya jaaye jo iske adheen hai, to yeh aavashyak hai ki aise maamale mein name sarvar deleegeshan ko agale name sarvar ka IP pata bhi avashya pradaan kare. yeh record ek gloo record kahalaata hai.

udaaharan ke liye maaniye ki up-domen en.wikipedia.org ke aur bhi up-domen hain (jaise something.en.wikipedia.org) aur yeh ki inka aadhikaarik naam sarvar ns1.something.en.wikipedia.org hai. ek computer jo ns1.something.en.wikipedia.org ko dhooaindhane ka prayaas kar raha hai, use pehle something.en.wikipedia.org ko dhooaindhane ka prayaas karna hoga. choonki Ns1 bhi something.en.wikipedia.org upadomen ke antargat hai, isliye ns1.something.en.wikipedia.org ko dhooaindhane ke liye something.en.wikipedia.org ko dhoondhana padega jo ki nishchit taur par ek sarkular nirbharata hai, jaise ki oopar bataaya gaya hai. is nirbharata ko en.wikipedia.org ke name sarvar ke gloo record dvaara toda jaata hai jo ki anurodhakarta ko seedhe hi ns1.something.en.wikipedia.org ka IP pata pradaan karta hai jo ns1.somethingen.wikipedia.org ko bootstrap prakriya dvaara dhooaindhane ki prakriya ke liye saksham banaata hai.

kaishing aur jeevan samay

kyonki deeenaes ki tarah ek pranaali dvaara utpann anurodhon ki maatra vishaal hai, iske chalte, dijaainaron ne pratyek deeenaes sarvar par bojh ko kam karne ke liye ek tantr pradaan karne ka nishchaya kiya. aaj tak, DNS resolyooshan prakriya ek safal javaab ke baad ek di gayi avadhi tak kaishing (arthaat ek DNS poochh-taachh ke parinaamon ki sthaaneeya rikaurding aur isse judi salaah) ke liye anumati deti hai. kitne samay tak ek DNS risolvar ek DNS pratikriya ko kaishe mein rakhata hai (arthaat kitne samay tak ek DNS pratikriya maanya rahati hai), yeh ek moolya se nirdhaarit hota hai jisse pratikriya ka jeevan samay (teeteeel) kaha jaata hai. teeteeel DNS pratikriya baahar saunpane vaale sarvar ke edaministretar dvaara tay kiya jaata hai. avadhi ki vaidhata kuchh second se din ya kuchh saptaahon tak bhi ho sakti hai.

kaishing samay

is vitrit aur kaishing sanrachana ke ek ullekhaneeya parinaam ke roop mein, DNS record mein parivartan hamesha turant aur duniya bhar mein prabhaavi naheen hote. ise ek udaaharan ke maadhyam se achhi tarah se spasht kiya ja sakta hai : yadi kisi edaministretar ne host www.wikipedia.org ke liye 6 ghante ka teeteeel set kiya hai aur iske baad IP pata jismein 12:01pm par www.wikipedia.org ko dhooaindha jaana hai, edaministretar ko yeh sochana chaahiye ki vah vyakti jisne 12:00 baje dopahar mein puraane aaipi pate se ek pratikriya ko kaishd kiya hoga, vah 6:00pm tak DNS sarvar se sampark naheen kar sakega. is udaaharan mein 12:01pm aur 6:00pm ke beech ki avadhi ko kaishing samay kaha jaata hai, jo ki ek aise samay ke roop mein sarvashreshth dhang se paribhaashit hai jo tab shuroo hota hai jab aap DNS record mein badlaav karte hain tatha tab samaapt hota hai jab teeteeel dvaara nirdisht samay ki adhiktam seema samaapt ho jaati hai. deeenaes mein parivartan karte samay ise ek mahatvapoorn taarkik soch ke roop mein dekha jaata hai : yeh aavashyak naheen ki pratyek va dekh raha ho jo aap dekh rahe hain. RFC 1912 teeteeel sthaapit karne ke buniyaadi niyamon ko bataane mein madad karta hai.

shabd "prasaar" par dhyaan dein haalaanki yeh is sandarbh mein bahut vyaapak roop se prayukt hota hai, achhi tarah se kaishing ke prabhaav ka varnan naheen karta hai. vishesh roop se, iska arth hai ki [1] jab aap ek DNS parivartan karte hain, yeh kisi tarah anya DNS sarvaron mein fail jaata hai (bajaae iske ki aapki jrurat ke samay anya DNS sarvar aap ke saath jaanch karein) aur [2] ki aapka kaishd kiye gaye record ke samay ki maatra par koi niyantran naheen hai (aap NS record aur aapke domen naam ka upayog karne vaale doosare aadhikaarik DNS sarvar ke alaava apne domen mein sabhi DNS record ke liye teeteeel moolya niyantrit karte hain).

kuchh risolvar teeteeel moolyon ko bhi paar kar jaate hain kyonki protokaul kaishing ke liye 68 saal tak ya bilkul kaishing naheen, ka samarthan karta hai. nakaaraatmak kaishing (record ka astitv mein na hona) ek jon ke adhikrut naam sarvar dvaara nirdhaarit ki jaati hai jismein staart of othoriti (SOA) record ka avashya ullekh kiya jaana chaahiye jab anurodh ke javaab mein koi bhi data reporting ke liye upalabdh naheen hai. SOA rikaard ke nyoonatam kshetr aur khud SOA ke teeteeel ka prayog nakaaraatmak javaab ke liye teeteeel sthaapit karne mein hota hai. RFC 2308

jab aap ek DNS mein parivartan karte hain to bahut se log galat tareeke se rahasyamaya 48 ghante ya 72 ghante ko prachaar samay maanate hain. yadi koi kisi domen ka DNS record badal de ya ek domen ke adhikrut DNS sarvaron ke host naamon ka IP pata (yadi koi ho to) badal de sabhi DNS sarvaron ko nayi soochana ka prayog karne se pehle lamba samay lag sakta hai. yeh isliye hai kyonki vo record jon pairent DNS sarvaron (udaaharan ke liye .Com deeenaes sarvar yadi aapka domen example.com hai), dvaara niyantrit kiye ja rahe hain jo aam taur par 48 ghante ke liye un record ko cash (sangrahit) karte hain. haalaanki, ye DNS parivartan kisi bhi DNS sarvar ke liye tatkaal upalabdh honge jisne unhein kaishd naheen kiya hoga. aur aapke domen par NS record aur adhikrut DNS sarvar naam ke alaava koi bhi DNS parivartan lagbhag turant hoga, yadi aap aise karna chaahate hain. (TTL ko ek ya do baar samay se aage kar ke aur tab tak prateeksha kar ke jab tak ki parivartan se pehle puraana TTL khtm naheen ho jaata).

rivers lukaap (khoj)

"rivers lukaap" shabd diye gaye IP pate se jude naam ko khojane ke liye DNS poochh-taachh ko sandarbhit karta hai.

DNS vishesh domen mein IP pate ko PTR record ke roop mein sangrahit karta hai. IPv4 ke liye, domen in-addr.arpa hai. IPv6 ke liye, rivers lukaap domen ip6.arpa hai.

rivers lukaap ki prakriya karte samay, DNS client pate ko DNS mein prayukt praaroop mein badal deta hai, tatha iske baad hamesha ki tarah deligeshan shrankhala ka paalan karta hai. udaaharan ke liye, IPv4 pata '208.80.152.2', 2.152.80.208.in-addr.arpa mein badal jaata hai. DNS risolvar ki poochh-taachh root sarvaron se hoti hai jo 208.in-addr.arpa jon ke liye ARIN sarvar ki or sanket karta hai. vahaaain se 152.80.208.in ke liye vikeemidiya sarvar niyukt kiye gaye hain aur PTR vikeemidiya name sarvar se 2.152.80.208.in-addr.arpa ke liye poochh-taachh karke lukaap (khoj) poorn karta hai, jiske parinaamasvaroop ek ek aadhikaarik parinaam milta hai.

client/graahak lukaap

DNS nirnaya kram.

upayogakarta aam taur par seedhe ek DNS risolvar ke saath sampark naheen karte. iske bajaay DNS resolyooshan epleekeshan program mein paaradarshi dhang se jagah banaata hai jaise ki web braaujr, E mel graahak aur anya Internet epleekeshan/program. program epleekeshan ke ek aise anurodh jiske liye domen name lukaap ki aavashyakta hai, aise program resolyooshan anurodh ko sthaaneeya operating system mein DNS risolvar ko bhejate hain jo badle main aavashyak sanchaar niyantrit karta hai.

DNS risolvar mein lagbhag hamesha hi haal mein prayukt kiye gaye lukaap ka cash/sangrah (oopar dekhein) hota hai. yadi cash anurodh ka uttar de paae to risolvar cash ka uttar anurodh karne vaale program ko dega. yadi cash mein uttar na ho to risolvar ek ya adhik nirdisht DNS sarvaron ko anurodh bhej dega. jyaadaatar ghareloo upayogakartaaon ke maamale mein, Internet seva pradaata jisse machine sampark sthaapit karti hai, aam taur par is DNS sarvar ki aapoorti karta hai: aise upayogakarta ka sarvar pata mainyual roop se kaunfigr hoga ya DHCP ko nirdhaarit karne ki anumati dega, lekin jahaan system edaministretar dvaara apne DNS sarvar prayog karne ke liye system kaunfigr kiye gaye hain, unka DNS risolvar sangathan ke alag rakhe gaye name sarvar ki or sanket karta hai. kisi bhi paristhiti mein, poochh-taachh kiye jaane wala name sarvar oopar di gayi prakriya ka paalan karega jab tak ki safalataapoorvak parinaam ka pata na lag jaae athva na laga sake. tab yeh apna parinaam DNS risolvar ko yeh maanate hue bhej deta hai ki isne uttar dhoondh liya hai, risolvar uttar ko bhavishya ke liye kaishd (sangrahit) kar leta hai aur uttar ko us sauftaver ke paas vaapis bhej deta hai jisne shuruaat mein prashn poochha tha.

toote hue risolvar

jab risolvar DNS protokaul ke niyamon ka ullanghan karta hai to ek atirikt star ki jatilta ubharati hai. badi sankhya mein Internet seva pradaataaon (ISPs) ne apne DNS sarvar niyamon ka ullanghan karne ke liye yeh maanate hue set kar rakhe hain ki unhein poorn niymabaddh risolvar ke bajaae ek kam mahanga haardaveyar chalaane ki anumati mili hui hai.[9]

jatilta ke antim star ke roop mein, kuchh epleekeshan (jaise ki web braaujr) ke bhi apne DNS cash hote hai, taaki ve swayam DNS risolvar pustakaalaya/laaibreri ka prayog kam karein. ismein atirikt mushkil tab aur jud jaati hai jab DNS muddon ki dibging (galtiyaaain sudhaarana) hoti hai, kyonki yeh data ki taajagi ka pata lagaana aur/ya yeh bataana ki data kis cash se aa raha hai, kathin bana deta hai. ye cash aam taur par bahut kam kaishing samay - ek minute ke aadesh par - kaam karte hain. Internet eksaplorar ek ullekhaneeya apavaad prastut karta hai : recent tak sanskaran aadhe ghante tak DNS record ko cash karta hai.[10]

doosare program/epleekeshan

oopar ullekh ki gayi pranaali kuchh saral paridrushya pradaan karti hai. domen naam pranaali ke kuchh anya kaarya hain :

  • yeh aavashyak naheen ki hostanem aur IP pata ek doosare se van too van aadhaar par (bilkul) mel khaaen. kai hostanem ek IP pate se sampark kar sakte hain jo aabhaasi hosting ke dvaara juda hua hai, isse ek machine kai web saaiton par sanyukt up se kaam karne ki anumati deti hai. vaikalpik roop se ek hostanem kai IP paton ke saath sampark kar sakta hai : isse galti sahane aur lod vitran mein sahaayata milti hai tatha yeh bina truti ke ek site ko bhautik sthaan par le jaane ki anumati deta hai.
  • naam ko IP pate mein anuvaadit karne ke alaava DNS ke kai upayog hain. udaaharan ke liye, mel transfer agent DNS ka prayog yeh pata lagaane ke liye karte hain ki ek vishesh pate ke liye E-mel kahaaain bheji jaae. domen se mel eksacheinjar tak ka raasta MX record dvaara upabdh karaaya jaata hai jo naam ke IP pate tak pahuainchane ke liye galti sahane aur lod vitrit karne waali ek aur parat ko sthaan deta hai.
  • E-mel blaikalist (kaali soochi): DNS pranaali ka kushal dhang se upayog kaali soochi mein daale gaye E-mel host ke IP pate ko sangrahit karne tatha vitrit karne ke liye kiya jaata hai. iski saamaanya vidhi yeh hai ki us host ke IP pate ko ek uchch star domen ke up-domen mein daal diya jaata hai aur vibhinn rikaardon ko sakaaraatmak ya nakaaraatmak dikhne ke liye us naam ka prayog kiya jaata hai. blacklist.com ka ek nimn kaalpanik udaaharan hai,
    • 102.3.4.5 ko kaali soochi mein daala gaya => 5.4.3.102.blacklist.com banaata hai aur 127.0.0.1 par daalata hai.
    • 102.3.4.6 naheen hai => 6.4.3.102.blacklist.com naheen milta, ya difault 127.0.0.2
    • iske pashchaat E-mel sarvar blacklist.com se DNS pranaali ke maadhyam se yeh pata karne ke liye poochh-taachh kar sakte hain ki unase judne wala vishisht host kaali soochi mein hai ki naheen. aaj is tarah ki kai kaali soochiyaaain, ya to muft ya sadasyata ke aadhaar par, imel edministretron aur spaim virodhi software ke prayog ke liye mukhya roop se upalabdh hain.
  • software update: kai anti virus aur vaanijyik software ab naveenatam software ke update ke liye DNS pranaali ka prayog karte hain jisse client sarvar ko har samay update sarvar se judne ki jrurat naheen padti. is tarah ki epleekeshan ke liye DNS record ka cash samay aam taur par apekshaakrut kam hota hai.
  • apne record type banaane ke bajaae preshak neeti ki rooparekha aur domen ki (chaabi) jo ki TXT record hai, ko doosare DNS rikaard type laabh uthaane ke liye dijaain kiya gaya tha.
  • computer ke fail hone ki sthiti mein lacheelaapan pradaan karne ke liye, pratyek domen ko kavar karne ke liye aam taur par kai DNS sarvar upalabdh karaae jaate hain aur sheersh star par terah atyadhik shaktishaali root sarvar hain, tatha eneekaast ke jariye unamein se kai ki atirikt "pratilipiyaaain" duniya bhar mein vitrit ki gayi hain.
  • daainemik DNS (DDNS bhi kaha jaata hai) graahakon ko gatisheelata ke kaaran DNS badalne ki sthiti mein, apna IP pata update karne ki kshamata pradaan karte hain.

protokaul vivran

DNS mukhyat: port sankhya 53[11] par yoojr daataagraam protokaul (UDP) ka prayog anurodh ka uttar dene ke liye karta hai. DNS poochh-taachh mein graahak dvaara poochhe gaye ek UDP prashn ka javaab sarvar dvaara ek UDP parinaam dvaara diya jaata hai. traansamishn control protokaul (TCP) ka prayog tab kiya jaata hai jab uttar ke roop mein data ka aakaar 512 baaits se adhik hai ya fir jon sthaanaantaran jaise kaaryon mein kiya jaata hai. kuchh operating system jaise ki HP-UX mein kuchh aise risolvar laagoo kiye gaye hain jo ki sabhi tarah ki poochh-taachh mein TCP ka tab bhi prayog karte hain, jab iske liye keval UDP hi paryaapt hai.

deeenaes risors/sansaadhan record

ek risors record (RR) domen naam pranaali mein moolabhoot data tatv hai. pratyek record mein ek prakaar (A, MX, aadi), ek samay samaapti seema, ek varg aur kuchh vishesh prakaar ke data hote hain. ek hi prakaar ke risors record ek risors record set ko paribhaashit karte hain. ek set mein risors record ka aadesh aparibhaashit hai, jo risolvar dvaara epleekeshan ko bheja jaata hai, lekin aksar sarvar lod santulan praapt karne ke liye raaund raubin aadesh laagoo karte hain. baharahaal DNSSEC, ek vaidhaanik kram mein poore risors record par kaam karta hai.

ek IP network par bheje jaane vaale sabhi record RFC 1035 aur neeche dikhaae gaye aam praaroop ka prayog karte hain.

RR (sansaadhan record) kshetr
kshetr vivran lanbaai oktets
naam us nod ka naam jisse yeh record sambandhit hai. veriyebal
prakaar aar aar ka prakaar. udaaharan ke liye, MX ka prakaar 15 hai. 2
varg varg code. 2
TTL second mein ahastaaksharit samay jo RR dvaara maanya rahata hai, adhiktam 2147483647 hai. 4
RDLENGTH RDATA kshetr ki lanbaai. 2
RDATA atirikt RR - vishesh data. veriyebal

NAME/naam ek vruksh ke nod ka poori tarah se yogya domen naam hai. wire par, lebal sanpeedn ka prayog karke naam ko chhota kiya ja sakta hai jahaaain vartamaan domen naam ka chhor packet mein pehle se hi ullekh kiye gaye maujooda domen naam ke chhor se badle ja sakte hain.

type/type record ka prakaar hai. yeh data ka svaroop bataata hai aur apne uddeshya ka sanket deta hai. udaaharan ke liye, A record ka prayog domen naam ko ek IPv4 pate par anuvaad karne ke liye kiya jaata hai, NS record yeh soochi pradarshit karta hai ki ek DNS jon mein kaun se naam sarvar lukaap ka javaab de sakte hain aur MX record us mel sarvar ko nirdisht karta hai jo ek E-mel pate mein nirdisht domen ke liye mel ko niyantrit karta hai. (DNS record prakaaron ki soochi bhi dekhein).

RDATA ek type vishesh data hai jaise edres/pata record ke liye IP pate ke roop mein ya praathamikta aur emaeks record ke liye host naam ke roop mein. gyaat record type RDATA kshetr mein lebal sanpeedn ka prayog kar sakte hain, lekin "agyaat" prakaaron ko naaghin karna chaahiye (RFC 3597).

Internet hostanem, sarvar ya IP pate mein mein shaamil aam DNS record ke liye, record ke varg ko IN (Internet) ke liye set kiya jaata hai. iske atirikt, CH (chaaos) aur HS (hesiod) varg bhi maujood hain. pratyek varg DNS jon ke sambhaavit vibhinn deligeshanon ke saath ek poori tarah se svatantr vruksh hai.

jon file mein paribhaashit risors record ke atirikt domen naam pranaali anurodhon ke kai prakaar bhi paribhaashit karti hai, jo keval anya DNS nod ke saath sanchaar mein prayukt hote hain (taar par), jaise jon sthaanaantaran (AXFR/IXFR) ya EDNS (OPT) ke liye.

vaaildakaard DNS record

domen naam pranaali vaaildakaard domen naam ka samarthan karti hai jo aise naam hain jo estarisk lebal, '*', ke saath shuroo hote hain jaise, *.example.[5][12] vaaildakaard domen naam se sambandhit DNS record ek DNS jon mein risors naam utpann karne ke liye, sabhi lebalon mein se poochhe gaye naam se milte julate naam ghata kar, jismein nirdisht vanshaavali bhi shaamil hai, niyam nirdhaarit karta hai. udaaharan ke liye, DNS jon x.example mein, nimnalikhit setaap bataata hai ki x.example ke sabhi upadomen (jinmein upadomen ke upadomen bhi shaamil hain) mel eksacheinjar a.x.example ka upayog karte hain. mel eksacheinjar ko nirdisht karne ke liye a.x.example ke liye record ki jaroorat hai. choonki yeh parinaam vaaildakaard ke Milan se domen name tatha ise upadomen chhod kar praapt hua hai, a.x.example ke sabhi upadomen vaaildakaard parinaamon mein avashya paribhaashit hone chaahiyen.

X.EXAMPLE. MX 10 A.X.EXAMPLE. 
*.X.EXAMPLE. MX 10 A.X.EXAMPLE. 
*.A.X.EXAMPLE. MX 10 A.X.EXAMPLE. 
A.X.EXAMPLE. MX 10 A.X.EXAMPLE. 
A.X.EXAMPLE. AAAA 2001:db8::1 

vaaildakaard record ki bhoomika RFC 4592 mein parishkrut ki gayi thi kyonki RFC 1034 mein mool paribhaasha adhoori thi aur jiske kaaran isko laagoo karne vaale sahi dhang se vyaakhya naheen kar p rahe the.[12]

protokaul eksateinshan

mool DNS protokaul mein nai suvidhaaon ke vistaar ke liye seemit praavadhaan the. 1999 mein paul viksi ne RFC 2671 mein ek vistaar pranaali saarvajanik ki jise DNS ke liye vistaar tantr(EDNS) kaha jaata hai jismein bina kharch badhaae prayukt na hone vaale vaikalpik protokaul tatv the. aisa banaavati risors record opt ke maadhyam se kiya gaya jo keval protokaul ke taar prasaaran mein maujood tha, kintu kisi bhi jon faailon mein naheen tha. praarambhik vistaaron ka bhi sujhaav diya gaya (EDNS0), jaise UDP daataagraam mein DNS sandesh ke aakaar mein vruddhi.

daainemik jon update

ek aadhikaarik DNS sarvar par jon data base mein rakhe rikaardon ko daainemik DNS update ke update DNS opcode ki sahaayata se jod ya hata kar, daainemik dhang se update karta hai. yeh suvidha RFC 2136 mein varnit hai. is suvidha se DNS mein network ke graahakon ko rajistar kiya jaata hai jab ve boot karte hain ya network par upalabdh hote hain. choonki booting karne vaale graahak ko har baar DHCP sarvar dvaara ek alag IP pat saunpa ja sakta hai, is tarah ke graahakon ke liye sthir DNS upalabdh karaana sambhav naheen hai.

antarraashtreeyakrut domen naam

yadyapi takaneeki roop se domen naam mein prayukt kiye jaane vaale varnon par koi pratibandh naheen hai aur usamein gair-ASCII varn bhi shaamil ho sakte hain, par host naam ke liye yeh laagoo naheen hota.[13] host naamon ko jyaadaatar log E-mel aur web braaujing ke liye dekhte aur prayog karte hain. host naam ASCII varnon ke ek chhote sabaset tak hi seemit hain jinhein LDH ke roop mein jaana jaata hai, L A-Z tak chhote aur bade akshar, D sankhya 0-9 tak, H haaifan, aur LDH lebalon ko alag karne ke liye dot; vistrut jaankaari ke liye RFC 3696 khand 2 dekhein. isse kai sthaaneeya bhaashaaon ke naamon tatha shabdon ke pradarshan par ankush lag gaya. ICANN ne pooneekod aadhaarit IDNA pranaali ko manjoori de di hai, jo is vishay par kaam karte hue yoonikod vaakyon ko vaidh varn samooh mein badalta hai. kuchh rajistriyon ne bhi IDNA ko sveekaar kar liya hai.

suraksha mudde

shuruaat mein DNS ko banaate samay suraksha ko dhyaan mein naheen rakha gaya tha.

kamiyon ka ek svaroop DNS cash dooshit hona hai, jo DNS sarvar ko yeh vishvaas dilaata hai ki praamaanik jaankaari praapt ho gayi hai jabki vaastavikta mein aisa naheen hota.

paaramparik roop se DNS parinaam kriptograafi dvaara hastaaksharit naheen hote jisse hamle ki kai sambhaavnaaen badh jaati hain; domen naam pranaali suraksha vistaar (DNSSEC), DNS ko kriptograafi dvaara hastaaksharit parinaam dene ke liye parivrtit kar deta hai. jon sthaanaantaran jaankaari ka samarthan karne kai vistaar bhi uplabh hain.

yahaan tak ki enkripshan dvaara bhi, ek DNS sarvar ek virus ke saath samjhauta kar (ya kahein ki asantusht karmachaariyon dvaara) jo ki sarvar ke IP pate ko ek lambe TTL ke saath ek galat pate par nirdeshit kareinge. yeh Internet upayogakartaaon ke laakhon logon par dooragaami sambhaavit prabhaav daal sakte hain, agar vyast DNS sarvar kharaab IP data ko cash (sangrahit) kar leta hai. ise khtm karne ke liye sabhi prabhaavit DNS cash ko mainyual dhang se saaf karna padega jo lambe TTL (68 saal tak) tak ho sakta hai.

kuchh domen naam doosare, milte julate domen naamon ke dvaara dhokha de sakte hain. udaaharan ke liye, "paypal.com" aur "paypa1.com" alag naam hain, fir bhi upayogakarta antar bataane mein asamarth ho sakta hai jab upayogakarta ka type face (faunt) spasht roop se varn l aur ank 1 mein antar naheen dikhaata. yeh samasya un sistamon mein adhik gambhir hai jo antaraashtreeyakrut domen naamon ka samarthan karte hain. choonki kai akshar hain jo ISO 10646 ke drushtikon se alag hain, kuchh khaas computer screen par samaan dikhaai dete hain. is kamjori ka faayda aksar fishing mein uthaaya jaata hai.

kuchh forward kanafarmd rivers DNS takaneekon dvaara bhi DNS parinaam maanya karne mein sahaayata milti hai.

.

domen naam panjeekaran

ek domen naam ka prayog karne ka adhikaar domen naam rajistraar dvaara pradaan kiya jaata hai jinhein naam aur sankhyaaon ke liye intaranet nigam (ICANN) dvaara maanyata di jaati hai, ek aisa sangathan jo Internet ke naam aur sankhya pranaali ki dekharekh ke hetu pratibaddh hai. ICANN ke atirikt, pratyek sheersh star domen (TLD), jo rajistri ko oparet karta hai, ki dekharekh aur takaneeki service ek prashaasanik sangathan dvaara ki jaati hai. ek rajistri apne adheen TLD mein panjeekrut naam ke daataabes ke rakharakhaav ke liye jimmedaar hai. rajistri ek domen naam rajistraar, jo isi TLD mein naam aavantit karne ke liye adhikrut hai, se panjeekaran ke liye jaankaari praapt karti hai aur ek vishesh seva, whois protokaul ka upayog karke jaankaari ko prakaashit/saarvajanik karti hai.

rajistri aur rajistraar aam taur par ek upayogakarta ke liye ek domen naam pradaan karne aur ek naam sarvar ke difault set upalabdh karaane ki seva ke liye ek vaarshik shulk lete hain. aksar is lenaden ko domen naam ki bikri ya leej kaha jaata hai aur rajistrent ko "maalik" bhi kaha ja sakta hai, parantu vaastav mein is lenaden ke saath aisa koi kaanooni sambandh juda hua naheen hai, keval domen naam ko prayog karne ka ekamaatr vishisht adhikaar milta hai. adhik sahi dhang se, adhikrut upayogakarta "panjeekrut" ya "domen dhaarakon" ke roop mein jaane jaate hain.

ICANN TLD rajistriyon aur domen naam rajistraaron ki ek poori soochi duniya mein prakaashit karti hai. koi bhi kai domen rajistriyon dvaara rakhe gaye WHOIS daataabes mein dekh kar domen naam ke dhaarak ke baare mein jaankaari praapt kar sakta hai.

240 se adhik deshon ke code sheersh star domen (ccTLDs) ke liye, domen rajistriyaan aadhikaarik WHOIS jaankaari rakhati hain. (dhaarak, naam sarvar, samaapti tithiyaaain, aadi). udaaharan ke liye,DENIC, Germany NIC aadhikaarik WHOIS ko .DE domen naam mein rakhati hai. 2001 ke baad se jyaadaatar gTLD rajistriyon (.Org,.BIZ,.INFO) ne is tathaakathit "moti" rajistri drushtikon ko apnaaya hai, arthaat bajaay panjeeyakon ke aadhikaarik WHOIS ko keindreeya rajistriyon mein rakha hai.

COM aur NET domen naamon ke liye, ek "patali" rajistri prayukt hoti hai: domen rajistri (jaise VeriSign) ek buniyaadi WHOIS (rajistraar aur naam sarvar, aadi) rakhati hai. koi bhi vistrut WHOIS (dhaarak, naam sarvar, samaapti tithi aadi) panjeeyak se praapt kar sakta hai.

kuchh domen naam rajistriyaan, jinhein aksar network soochana kendra (NIC) kaha jaata hai, bhi upayogakarta ke liye panjeeyakon ke roop mein kaarya karti hain. pramukh saamaanya sheersh star domen rajistriyaan jaise COM, NET, ORG, INFO domen aur anya ke liye, ek rajistri-rajistraar domen naamak model ka prayog karta hai jismein saikadon domen naam rajistraar shaamil hain (ICANN ya VeriSign par soochi dekhein). prabandhan ki is vidhi mein, rajistri keval domen naam daataabes aur rajistraar ke saath sambandh sthaapit karti hai. panjeekrut ya rajistreint (domen naam upayogakarta) rajistraar ke graahak hain, jo kuchh maamalon mein punarvikretaaon ki atirikt paraton ke maadhyam se bhi ho sakte hain.

ek domen naam darj karne aur naye naam par adhikaar banaae rakhane ki prakriya mein, rajistraar ek domen ke saath judi soochana ke kai pramukh hisson ka upayog karta hai:

  • prashaasanik sampark. ek rajistreint aam taur par domen naam ke prabandhan ke liye ek prashaasanik sampark nirdisht karta hai. prashaasanik sampark ka aamtaur par ek domen par uchchatam star ka niyantran hota hai. prashaasanik sanparkon ko saunpe gaye kai prabandhan kaaryon mein vyaavasaayik jaankaari ke prabandhan se judi sabhi soochanaaen ho sakti hain jaise ki naam ke roop mein record, daak pata aur adhikrut panjeekrut (rajistreint) ki sampark soochana tatha domen rajistri ki aavashyakataaon ke anuroop ek domen naam ka upayog karne ke daayitvon se sambandhit. iske alaava prashaasanik sampark takaneeki aur biling kaaryon ke liye atirikt sampark jaankaari sthaapit karta hai.
  • takaneeki sampark. takaneeki sampark domen naam ke name sarvar ka prabandhan sanbhaalata hai. ek takaneeki sampark ka kaarya domen naam ka domen rajistri ki aavashyakataaon ke saath setaap, domen jon record ko banaae rakhana aur naam sarvar ko nirantar kaaryasheelata pradaan karna hai (jiske liye domen naam tak pahunch aavashyak hai).
  • biling/bhugataan sambandhit sampark. domen naam rajistraar se bill praapt karne aur laagoo fees ka bhugataan karne ke liye jimmedaar party yaani upayogakarta jo "panjeekrut" ya "domen dhaarak" hai.
  • naam sarvar. jyaadaatar rajistraar panjeekaran seva ke bhaag ke roop mein do ya adhik sarvar naam pradaan karte hain. haalaanki, ek rajistreint apne aadhikaarik naam sarvar ko ek domen risors record host karne ke liye nirdisht kar sakta hai. rajistraar ki neetiyaan sarvaron ki sankhya aur sarvar ki aavashyak soochana ke prakaar par nazar rakhati hain. kuchh pradaataaon ko ek host naam aur isi se milte julate IP pate ya keval hostanaam ki aavashyakta hoti hai jo nae domen mein ya to dhoodhane laayak honi chaahiye athva usaka astitv kaheen aur hona chaahiye. paaramparik aavashyakataaon ke aadhaar par (RFC 1034), aam taur par do sarvar ki ek nyoonatam aavashyakta padti hai.

.

durupayog aur viniyman

aalochak aksar domen naam par prashaasanik satta ke durupayog ka daava karte hain. vishesh roop se ullekhaneeya VeriSign site khojak pranaali hai jo sabhi apanjeekrut .Com aur .NET domen ko VeriSign vebapej par bhej deti thi. udaaharan ke liye, VeriSign ke saath ek saarvajanik sabha mein SiteFinder[14] ke baare mein takaneeki chintaaon par bahas karte hue, IETF aur anya takaneeki sansthaaon mein sakriya kai logon ne samajhaaya ki ve kaise VeriSign dvaara, Internet ki buniyaadi suvidhaaon ke ek pramukh ghatak ke badalne se chakit the, jisne iske liye aam sahamati praapt naheen ki thi. pehle pahal SiteFinder ko, website se har Internet poochh-taachh ke liye prayukt kiya gaya aur isne dhan kamaane ke liye prashnon ke liye galat domen naam ka prayog upayogakarta ko VeriSign khoj site par le ja kar kiya. durbhaagya se, anya epleekeshan jaise ki imel ke kai prayogon, prashn ke uttar ki kami ke kaaranon, ne ek sanket diya ki domen maujood naheen hai aur yeh sandesh na bheje sakane yogya sandesh ke roop mein samjha ja sakta hai. mool VeriSign kaaryaanvayan ne mel ke liye is dhaarana ko tod diya, kyonki vah hamesha galat domen naam ko SiteFinder par bhej dete the. jabki VeriSign ne baad mein imel ke saath SiteFinder ka vyavahaar badal diya, fir bhi VeriSign dvaara kiye gaye is krutya ke baare mein ghor virodh pradarshan kiya gaya ki kaise VeriSign ne Internet sanrachana ghatak, jiski suraksha ka jimmevaar VeriSign tha, ke hit ke bajaae apne vitteeya hiton ki taraf adhik dhyaan diya.

vyaapak aalochna ke baavajood, VeriSign ne anichha se ise hataaya jab naam aur number pradaan karne ke liye Internet kauraporeshan (ICANN) ne root naam sarvar ke prabandhan ke anubandh ko radd karne ki dhamaki di. ICANN ne vyaapak sankhya mein vichaar vimarsh patra, samiti ki report aur ICANN ke nirnaya saarvajanik kiye.[15]

ICANN par America ke raajaneetik prabhaav ke baare mein bechaini bhi mahatvapoorn hai. yeh ek .XXX -sheersh star domen ko banaane ke prayaas ke dauraan ek mahatvapoorn mudda tha aur isne vaikalpik DNS root ki or dhyaan kheencha jo kisi ek desh ke niyantran se baahar hoga.[16]

iske atirikt, domen name "frant raning" sambandhit kai aarop hain, jiske tahat rajistraar ko jab whois prashn diye jaate hain, svachaalit roop se apne liye domen naam rajistar kar lete hain. haal hi mein, network solyooshan par is ka aarop lagaaya gaya hai.[17]

domen naam adhiniyam ka satya

sanyukt raajya America mein, domen naam mein satya ke adhiniyam 2003 va 2003 ke raksha adhiniyam ka sanyojan, bhraamak domen naamon ka upayog ban karta hai jo logon ko Internet par ashleel saahitya yukt saaiton par jaane ke liye aakarshit karte hain.

Internet maanak

domen naam pranaali tippaniyon ke liye anurodh (RFC) dvaara paribhaashit, Internet engineering taask fors dvaara prakaashit (Internet maanak) dastaavej hai. RFCs ki nimnalikhit soochi DNS protokaul ko paribhaashit karti hai.

  • RFC 920, domen aavashyakataaeain - mool sheersh star ke nirdisht domen
  • RFC 1032, domen edministretar guide
  • RFC 1033, domen edministretar operation guide
  • RFC 1034, domen naam - vichaar aur suvidhaaen
  • RFC 1035, domen naam - kriyaanvan aur vishishtataaen
  • RFC 1101, network naamon aur anya prakaaron ki deeenaes enkoding
  • RFC 1123, Internet host ke liye aavashyakataaeain-epleekeshan aur sahaayata
  • RFC 1178, apne computer ke liye naam ka chayan karna (FYI 5)
  • RFC 1183, nai DNS RR paribhaashaaen
  • RFC 1591, domen naam pranaali sanrachana aur pratinidhimandal (jaankaari ke liye)
  • RFC 1912, saamaanya DNS parichaalanaatmak aur setaap sambandhit trutiyaaain
  • RFC 1995, deeenaes mein inkreemeintal jon ka sthaanaantaran
  • RFC 1996, jon parivartan ki tatkaal soochana ke liye ek tantr (DNS NOTIFY)
  • RFC 2100, host ka naamakaran (jaankaari)
  • RFC 2136, domen naam pranaali mein daainemik update (DNS update)
  • RFC 2181, deeenaes visheshataaon ka spashteekaran
  • RFC 2182, maadhyamik DNS sarvar ka chayan aur prakriya
  • RFC 2308, deeenaes sambandhit prashnon ki nakaaraatmak kaishing (DNS NCACHE)
  • RFC 2317, vargaheen IN-ADDR.ARPA pratinidhimandal (BCP 20)
  • RFC 2671, DNS ke liye eksateinshan pranaali (EDNS0)
  • RFC 2672, naun-terminal deeenaes naam ka punarnirdhaaran
  • RFC 3225, DNSSEC ki risolvar sahaayata ka sanket dena
  • RFC 3226, DNSSEC aur IPv6 A6 jaanane vaale sarvar/risolvar ke sandesh ke aakaar ki aavashyakataaen
  • RFC 3597, agyaat DNS sansaadhan record (aar aar) prakaaron ki haindaling
  • RFC 3696, naamon ke jaaainch aur parivartan ke lite epleekeshan takaneekein
  • RFC 4343, domen naam pranaali (DNS) prakaran sanvedanaheenata ke baare mein spashteekaran
  • RFC 4592, domen naam pranaali mein vaaildakaard ki bhoomika
  • RFC 4892, naam sarvar udaaharan ki pehchaan ke liye ek tantr ki aavashyakataaeain (jaankaari)
  • RFC 5001, DNS naam sarvar pahachaanane ke vikalp (NSID)
  • RFC 5395, domen naam pranaali (DNS) IANA sujhaav (BCP 42)

suraksha

  • RFC 4033, DNS suraksha parichay aur aavashyakataaeain
  • RFC 4034, DNS suraksha eksateinshans ke liye sansaadhan rikaard
  • RFC 4035, deeenaes suraksha eksateinshans ke liye protokaul sanshodhan

inhein bhi dekhein

luaa truti package.lua mein pankti 80 par: module 'Module:Portal/images/c' not found.

  • uchchatam domen
  • daainemik DNS
  • vaikalpik DNS root
  • DNS sarvar software ki tulana
  • round robin DNS
  • kshitij-vibhaajit deeenaes
  • deeenaes prabandhan software
  • DNS kaishe vishaaktata
  • deeenaes ka apaharan
  • DNS record prakaaron ki soochi

sandarbh

  1. Mockapetris, Paul (2004-01-02). "Letting DNS Loose". CircleID. http://www.circleid.com/posts/letting_dns_loose/.
  2. RFC 3467 - domen naam pranaali (DNS) ki bhoomika
  3. "History of the DNS". http://www.lagunainternet.com/techsupport/history_of_dns.htm. abhigman tithi: 2008-04-29.
  4. Cricket Liu, Paul Albitz. "DNS & BIND". O'Reilly (shown via Google Books). http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=zkZN52WhG8sC&pg=PA3&lpg=PA3&dq=sri+HOSTS.TXT&source=web&ots=wuZ79E-zJ2&sig=btF0Z2nclOnX_UgNj7a1f5S7Uqg&hl=en. abhigman tithi: 2008-04-29.
  5. a aa RFC 1034, domen naam - vichaar aur suvidhaaen, pi. mokaapetris (November 1987)
  6. RFC 1035, domen naam - kriyaanvan aur visheshataaen, pi. mokaapetris (November 1987)
  7. http://mydns.bboy.net/survey/ DNS Server Survey
  8. ek domen naam ki adhiktam lanbaai kya hai? IETF DNSOP kaarya samooh meling soochi par. taar par, DNS baainari praaroop mein, yeh RFC ke 1034 sekshan 3.1 ke anusaar yeh adhiktam 255 oktets ho sakta hai. ek all-ASCII hostanaam ke liye, ise paaramparik dot noteshan roop mein 253 akshar ke roop pradarshit kiya ja sakta hai.
  9. "Providers ignoring DNS TTL ?". Slashdot. 2005. http://ask.slashdot.org/article.pl?sid=05/04/18/198259. abhigman tithi: 2009-01-03.
  10. "How Internet Explorer uses the cache for DNS host entries". Microsoft. 2004. 263558. http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=KB;en-us;263558. abhigman tithi: 2006-03-07.
  11. Mockapetris, P (November 1987). "RFC 1035: Domain Names - Implementation and Specification". http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1035.txt.
  12. a aa RFC 4592 domen naam pranaali mein vaaildakaard ki bhoomika E. luis (July 2006)
  13. shabd host naam ka prayog yahaaain FQDN, ke liye ek host ki tarah kiya ja raha hai, jaise udaaharan ke liye En.wikipedia.org., aur na ki keval (isi udaaharan mein) en ke liye.
    yadyapi adhiktar domen naam vaastav mein host ko nirdisht karte hain, kuchh domen naam DNS pravishtiyon aisa naheen bhi kar sakti hain. is arth mein, ek (FQDN) hostanaam domen naam ka ek prakaar hai, lekin sabhi domen naam vaastavik host naam naheen hain. Cf. yeh host naam banaam domen naam spashteekaran DNS OP IETF kaarya samooh se hai.
  14. McCullagh, Declan (2003-10-03). "VeriSign fends off critics at ICANN confab". CNET News.com. http://www.news.com/2100-1038-5088128.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-09-22.
  15. Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). "Verisign's Wildcard Service Deployment". http://www.icann.org/topics/wildcard-history.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-09-22.
  16. Mueller, M (March 2004). Ruling the Root. MIT Press. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0262632985.
  17. slaishadaut | NSI rajistar pratyek domen ki jaaainch ki gayi

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