dhvani pradooshan

ek Boeing 747-400 London ke heethro havaai adde

dhvani pradooshan ya atyadhik shor kisi bhi prakaar ke anupayogi dhvaniyon ko kehte hain, jisse maanav aur jeev jantuon ko pareshaani hoti hai. ismein yaataayaat ke dauraan utpann hone wala shor mukhya kaaran hai. janasankhya aur vikaas ke saath hi yaataayaat aur vaahanon ki sankhya mein bhi vruddhi hoti jiske kaaran yaataayaat ke dauraan hone wala dhvani pradooshan bhi badhne lagta hai. atyadhik shor se sunane ki shakti bhi chale jaane ka khatra hota hai.

anukram

dhvani ke srot

duniya bhar mein sabse jyaada shor ke srot parivhan pranaaliyon, motor vaahan ka shor hai, kintu ismein vaimaanik shaur-sharaaba tatha (aircraft noise) rel se hone wala shor bhi shaamil hai.[1] kharaab shahari niyojan (urban planning) dhvani pradooshan ko badha sakta hai, kyonki iske saath-saath audyogik aur aavaaseeya imaaratein aavaaseeya kshetron mein dhvani pradooshan ka kaaran ban sakte hain.

anya sroton mein kaaryaalaya ke upakaran, factory machinery, nirmaan kaarya, upakaran, bijli upakaran, prakaash vyavastha (lighting) gunagunaana evam audio manoranjan system aate hai. .

maanav svaasthya par prabhaav

' shor svaasthya prabhaav (Noise health effects) donon ki prakruti svaasthya aur vyavahaar (behavioral) jaisi hoti hai. pasand na ki jaane waali dhvani ko dhvani shor-sharaaba kaha jaata hai. yeh avaanchhit dhvani shaareerik aur maanasik svaasthya ko haani pahuncha sakti hai. dhvanik pradooshan chidchidaapan evam aakraamakata ke atirikt uchch raktachaap, tanaav, karnakshved, shravan shakti ka hraas, neend mein gadbadi aur anya haanikaarak prabhaav paida kar sakta hai..[2][3][4] iske alaava, tanaav aur uchch raktachaap svaasthya samasyaaon ke pramukh hain, jabki karnakshved smruti khona, gambhir avasaad aur kai baar asamanjas ke daure paida kar sakta hai.[3][5]

shor-sharaaba ke prati lagaataar pradarshan se dhvani prajanit shravan shakti ka hraas (noise-induced hearing loss) ho sakta hai. gambhirvyaavasaayik shor-sharaaba (occupational noise) ki pratichhaaya mein aane vaale purooshon mein isse door rahane vaale purooshon ki tulana mein shranvan sanvedanasheelata ka gambhir hraas (significantly) hota hai, haalaaainki shravan sanvedanasheelata mein antar samay ke saath-saath kam hone lagte hain aur 79 varsh[6] ki aayu hote hote donon samoohon ke purooshon mein antar ki pehchaan karna kathin ho jaata hai. ghoomane firne athva audyogik shor-sharaabe ke sampark mein adhik aane waali maabaan (Maaban) janajaati (tribesmen) ki tulana Amreeki ki aadarsh janasankhya se karne par aisi jaankaari mili hai jisse gyaat hota hai ki paryaavaraneeya shor shraabe ke halke uchch star ke sampark mein aane par shravan shakti ka hraas hota hai.[2]

shor-sharaaba ka uchch star hdaya sambandhi rogon (cardiovascular) ko janm de sakta hai tatha aath ghantake ki ekal avadhi ke dauraan maadhyamik uchch star keprabhaav mein aane se rakt chaap mein paanch se das binduon tak ki vruddhi tatha tanaav (stress)[7] evam vesokansatrikshan (vasoconstriction) mein badhotari ho sakti hai. jisse uchch raktachaap (increased blood pressure) ke saath-saath koronari aartari rog ho sakte hain. (coronary artery disease)

shor pradooshan chidchidepan ka bhi ek kaaran hai. Spain ke shodhakartaaon dvaara 2005 mein kiye gaye ek adhyayan mein paaya hai ki shahari kshetron mein rahane vaale ghareloo log dhvani pradooshan mein kami laane ke liye prati varsh lagbhag chaar yooros[8] kharch karna chaahate hain.

paryaavaraneeya prabhaav

shor-sharaaba pashuon mein tanaav paida karne, preedetar/shikaar ki pehchaan tatha bachaav evam prajanan evam neveegeshan ke sambandh mein sampreshan ke samay dhvani ke upayog ke saath hastakshep dvaara naajuk santulan koparivrtit karte hue jaanvaron par gahra prabhaav daal sakta hai. adhik der tak dhvanik pratichhaaya mein bane rahane se asthaayi ya sthaayi taur par shravan shakti ka hraas.[9] ho sakta hai.

pashu jeevan par shor-sharaabe ka prabhaav upayog hetu aavaas mein kami (reduction of usable habitat) la sakta hai jo shor sharaabe vaale kshetron ke kaaran ho sakta hai tatha jo khatre mein padi prajaatiyon ke maamale mein vilupteekaran (extinction) ke maarg ka ek bhaag ho sakta hai..dhvani pradooshan ke kaaran hone waali kshati ke sarvottam gyaat maamalon mein se ek samudri vhel (beached whale) ki kuchh vishesh prajaatiyon ki mrutyu hoti hai jinhein sena ki topon ki bhanyakar garjana arthaat sonaar dvaara samudra ke kinaare la diya jaata hai (sonar).[10]

shor-sharaaba prajaatiyon ko tej aavaaj mein vaarta karne mein saksham banaata hai jise lombaard sthaaneeya pratikriya kehte hain.[11] vaigyaaniko aur shodhakartaaon ne eseaise program aayojit kiye hain jinse vhel ke gunagunaane ki avadhi ki lanbaai us samay adhik hoti hai jab panadubbi ditektar on hote hain[12] yadi praani oonche aavaaj mein theek prakaar se " baat " naheen karte hain tab apni aavaaj anthropogenic (anthropogenic) dhvani ke dvaara nakaabaposh (masked) kar di jaaegi. ye anasuni aavaajein chetaavaniyaan bhi ho sakti hain jo apna shikaar khojane athva budabudaane ki taiyaari kar rahi hon. jab ek prajaati tej aavaaj mein baatein shuroo karti hai tab yeh doosari prajaati ki aavaaj ki nakal (mask) karti hai jisse sampoorn paaristhitiki tantr svat: hi tej goonjane lagta hai.

jebra finch (Zebra finch) yaataayaat ke kaaran paida hone vaale shor sharaabe ke sampark mein aate samay apne sahayogiyon ke saath tulanaatmak roop se kam vishvasneeya rah jaata hai. yeh badal sakta hai vikaasavaadi ki aabaadi ke path ko chun kar " seksi " gun, sapping sansaadhanon ko aam taur par anya gatividhiyon ke liye samarpit hai aur is tarah ka netrutv karne ke liye aanuvanshik aur gahra vikaasavaadi parinaam hain .[13]

shaman aur dhvani ka niyantran

yeh dhvani tube (sound tube) mein melaborn, Australia, mein sadkamaarg par shor-sharaaba (roadway noise) ko saundaryashaastr ke kshetron se alag na hote hue kam karne ke liye dijaain ki gayi hai.

praudyogiki ko shor karne ya hataane ke roop mein nimn prakaar laagoo kiya ja sakta hai :

sadak par hone vaale shor sharaabe (roadway noise) ko shaant karne ke liye vibhinn rananeetiyaan hain jinmein dhvani avarodhak (noise barrier), vaahanonki gati par pratibandh, sadak ke dharaatal mein parivartan, bhaari vaahanon par pratibandh (heavy duty vehicle), yaataayaat niyantran ka upayog jo break aur gati badhaane ko kam kare tatha taayaron ki dijaain shaamil hain. in ranneetiyon ko laagoo karne ka ek mahatvapoorn kaarak sadak par hone vaale shor sharaabe (roadway noise) ke liye computer model (computer model) hai jismein sthaaneeya jalavaayu, mausam (meteorology), yaataayaat sanchaalan tatha sankalpanaatmak shaman ko paribhaashit karne ki kshamata hoti hai. shaman - nirmaan ki laagat ko kam kiya ja sakta hai basharte ye upaaya sadkamaarg pariyojana ke niyojan charan mein uthaae gaye hon.

kam shor karne vaale jait injanon (jet engine) ki design ke dvaara bhi kuchh seema tak vaimaanik shor-sharaabe (Aircraft noise) ko kam kiya ja sakta hai. iski pahal 1970 aur 1980 ke dashak mein ki gayi thi. is rananeeti ne shahari dhvani star mein haalaanki seemit hi sahi lekin ullekhaneeya kami laai hai. sanchaalan par punavichaar, jaise udaan path (flight path)s aur din ka samay runway ke upayog mein ferabadal havaai adde ke paas rahane waali aabaadi ke liye laabh pradarshit hai. 1970 mein efaee (FAA) dvaara praayojit aavaaseeya ritrofit (inasuleshan) prograamon ne bhi sampoorn amareeka ke hajaaron gharon ke aavaaseeya (residential) shor sharaabein ko kam karne mein praapt safalta ka aanand uthaaya hai.

audyogik shor (Industrial noise) ke prati shramikon ka sampark mein aane ko 1930 se hi sambodhit kiya jaata raha hai. in parivrtanon mein audyogik upakaran aur jhatke sahan karne vaale santr evam kaaryasthal par bhautik baadhaaon ki dijaain shaamil hai.

vaidh sthiti

1970 ke dashak tak sarkaaron ne shor ko paryaavaraneeya samasya ki tulana mein ek " upadrav " ke roop mein hi dekha tha. amareeka mein raajamaarg aur vaimaanik shor-sharaabe ke liye sangheeya maanak banaae gaye hain, yahaan praanton aur sthaaneeya sarkaaron ke paas vishesh adhikaar hain jo bhavan nirmaan sanhita (building codes),shahari niyojan (urban planning) tatha sadak vikaas se sambandhit hain. Canada aur Europeeya sangh kuchh aise raashtreeya, praanteeya, ya raajya ke kaanoon hain jo dhvani ke khilaaf hamaari raksha karte hain.

shor kaanoon aur niyam, nagarapaalika ke beech vyaapak bhinnata pai jaati hai jo vaastav mein kuchh shaharon mein bilkul dekhi naheen jaati hai. ek adhyaadesh mein upadrav vaale kisi bhi shor - sharaabe ko rokane ke liye saamaanya nishedh ho sakta hai athva din ke samay taaa kuchh vishesh gatividhiyon ke liye shor sharaabe ke star hetu vishesh dishaanirdesh nirdhaarit kar sakta hai.

jyaadaatar shahar adhyaadesh (ordinance)s dhvani rok lagaane ke oopar ek seema se adhik sampatti teevrata se anadhikaar p ¥ ? line raat mein, aamtaur aur 6 baje ke beech 10 hoon aur din ke dauraan uchch star ki dhvani ko pratibandhit karne ke liye kadam uthaate hain lekin aisa karte samay pravartan asamaan rahata hai. kai nagarapaalikaaen shikaayaton par anuvarti kaaryavaahi naheen karti hain. yahaan tak ki jis nagarapaalika mein kaanoon laagoo karne ka kaaryaalaya hai vahaan ho sakta hai ki keval chetaavani dekajaareekarane ki ichha hi ho kyonki aparaadhiyon ko adaalat mein le jaana mahanga hota hai.

dhvani pradooshan par bahut se sangharsh utsarjak evam praaptakarta ke beev vichaaravimrsh se sulajhaae jaate hain. ankush prakriya desh ke hisaab se badalti hai aur ismein sthaaneeya prashaasan visheshakar police ke saath sanyojan dvaara kaarravaai shaamil ho sakti hai. dhvani pradooshan praaya: hota rahata hai kyonki shor-sharaabe se prabhaavit hone vaale logon mein se keval 5 se 10 pratishat hi aupachaarik taur par shikyat (complaint) darj karaate hain. bahut se logon ko apne kaanooni adhikaaron ke baare mein jaankaari ki jaagrukta naheen hain aur ve naheen jaante hain ki shikyat kaise darj karaai jaati hai.

yeh bhi dekhiye

sandarbh

  1. si. Michael hogan aur Gary letashau raajamaarg niyojan evam shor-sharaaba ke beech sambandh , Amreeki civil engineers samiti dvaara eesaseei ki kaaryavaahi shahari parivhan diveejan ke vishesh sammelan 21 -23 May 1973, Chicago, ilinaaya . American shahari parivhan prabhaag
  2. a aa esarojen aur pi.olin, shravan shakti hraas aur koronari hrudaya rog (Heart Disease), abhilekhaagaar Otolaryngology (Otolaryngology), 82:236 (1965)
  3. a aa jeemamaidaan, aavaaseeya kshetron mein vyaktigat evam sthiti parivrtanon ka prabhaav , society of America ki dhvanik patrika, 93 : 2753 -2763 (1993)
  4. kaarl deekretar,manushya par dhvani ke prabhaav , shaikshik press (1985)
  5. esarojen aur pi.olin shravan shakti hraas evam koronari, hrudayarog (Heart Disease) Otolaryngology (Otolaryngology), ke abhilekhaagaar 82:236 (1965)
  6. jesas bereero, marsadeej saanchej, monsat) rate vilaadarich-gro (2005), shaanti ke liye log kitna karne ki ichha rakhate hain?ek daleeya moolyaankan adhyayan ", eplaaid arthashaastr, 37 (11)
  7. samudri paryaavaran mein Anthropogenic shor ke prabhaav[mrut kadiyaaain]
  8. www.dosits.org / shabdaavali / paup / lvr.htm
  9. vividhta mein koobad vhel (Megaptera novaeangliae) ke sambandh mein geet ki lanbaai kam aavrutti dhvani prasaaran
  10. miliys S (2007).uchch maatra, kam nishtha : pakshi ke roop mein kam vishvaasayogya mand dhvani, vigyaan samaachaar vaulyoom . 172, pi.116. (sandarbh)

baahari kadiyaaain