dhor

dhor (Bovid) us pashuvarg mein aate hain jinke khur hote hain aur pratyek khur aage se madhya bhaag mein fata hota hai. yeh dvikhureeyagan ke antargat ek kul hai. adhikaansh dhoron ke seeng hote hain, jo khopadi ke kinaaron ke hi badhe hue hisse hote hain. inke oopari jabade ke ant mein daaaint naheen hote. is jaati ke paalatu pashu jaise gaaya, bail, bhains tatha jangali pashu jaise bahusinge aadi jugaali karte hain.

anukram

itihaas

aisa ullekh milta hai ki 3,500 i0poo0 misr mein dhor paale jaate the. kheteebaari ke kaaryo mein in dhoron mein se saaaind ka upayog sarvapratham kiya gaya. puraanootan yug (Palaeocene period) mein bhi Bhaarat aur Europe ke dhoron ki jaatiyon ka pata hai. Bhaarat mein kakud ya dillevaale gaaya bail aur Europe mein bina dillevaale paae jaate the. Bhaarat ke gaaya bailon mein aangl nasl ka ullekh vishesh roop se hai. kaansya yug mein vishesh roop se badi jaati ke saaaind the, jo Europeeya jangali saaaindon se praaya: milte-julate the.

fraanseesi vaigyaaniko ke anusaar angreji shabd kaitil (Cattle) French shabd kaital (Catel) se nikla hai, jo laitin shabd kaipatel (Captale) se vyutpann hai aur jiska taatparya dhan athva sampatti hai. liniys ne laitin mein gaaya jaati ke pashuon ke liye bausatauras (Bostaurus) shabd ka prayog kiya hai. tauras ka matlab laitin mein saaaind se hai.

roman aakraman ke samay England mein dhoron ki charcha milti hai. angreji shabd kaitil (Cattle) ka payog saadhaaran roop se un pashuon ke liye kiya gaya jiska sambandh keval gaaya ya saaaind se tha, yadyapi kabhi kabhi is shabd ka prayog aarthik upayogita ke sabhi pashuon ke liye kiya gaya hai.

vargeekaran

praanivijnyaaan sambandhi drushti se dhor khuravaale pashuvarg, angyuleta (ungulata), ke antargat aate hain. visheshakar dhor (Cattle) upavarg fate hue khur (Cloven hoof) samudaaya mein aate hain.

dhoron ko paalatoo banaane ka vichaar manushya jaati mein unki utpaadanashakti ko dekhkar paida hua. yadyapi nishchayapoorvak naheen kaha ja sakta ki manushya ne dhoron ko kab se paalatoo banaaya, tathaapi anumaan hai ki krushi ka kinchit vikaas ho jaane par hi auron ko paalatoo banaane ki aavashyakta hui hobi. at: maanav inko aarthik drushti se paalne laga aur usamein pashuon ke prati sneh tatha dekhbhaal ki ruchi inki upayogita ke kaaran dinon din badhti gayi. nar pashu se kheti baari aadi ka kaam liya gaya aur maada se doodh milne laga. maada vansh ki isi upayogita ko dekhkar gaaya ko gomaata ka sthaan praapt hua. aadhunik yug mein inki upayogita aur bhi badhi aur vyavasaayakshetr mein inke utpaadit vastuon ki maaaing dinaan din badhne lagi, jisse inki dekhabha ke sambandh mein vaigyaanik patddhatiyon ka upayaag kiyejaane laga. dhor shabd ke antargat anek kism ke pashaon k vivran milta hai. is koti mein parignit pashuon ka vibhaajan saamaanyat: praanivijnyaaan sambandhi drushti se nimnalikhit chhah bhaagein mein kiya gaya hai:

1. bhains, Africa, filipaains, misr tatha Iraq mein,

2. bisn, Europe tatha uttari amareeka mein,

3. gaval, ya gaur (Gayal or Gaur) Bhaarat mein,

4. yaak (Yak), Tibet tatha bhootaan mein,

5. jeboo, Africa mein, tatha

6. Europeeya paalatoo dhor.

uparyukt pashuon mein se Bhaarat ki bhains, yaak aur gaval bahut dinon se paalatoo kiye ja chuke hain. ye sab paatiyaaain ek doosare se kaafi milti julati hain. inmein se bhains jaati ko chhodkar anya jaatiyaan mein ek doosare se santaan utpann ho sakti hai. inki varnasankar santaan pashuprajanan ke kaam mein bahut upayogi hoti hai.

is jaati ke pashuon mein bade ya chhote seeng saadhaaranataya dekhne mein aate hain. muainh ke andar oopari jabade ke agale kartan dant bilkul naheen hote. unke sthaan par maans ki moti gaddi (Dental pad) hoti hai. pashu charate samay ghaas ko daaainton aur oopari gaddi ke beech mein pakadkar todta hai. inmein chaar bhaagon mein vibhaajit sanyukt aamaashaya (compound stomach) hota hai, jo udaraguha ke lagbhag teen chauthaai bhaag ko ghere rahata hai; yahaaain tak ki iska vistaar bade pashuon mein 60 gailan ke lagbhag hota hai. khaana nigle jaane ke baad aamaashaya ke bade pratham bhaag, roomen (rumen) mein, aa jaata hai, jahaaain yeh bheegakar naram tatha mulaayam ho jaata hai. jo khaana, maatra mein adhik hone lagta hai, vah yahaaain se pet ke sabse chhote dviteeya bhaag, retikulam (reticulum), mein aa jaata hai. yaheen par maans ke sikudne ki kriya chalti hai, jiske kaaran chaare ka thoda theda bhaag muainh ke andar fir vaapas aata rahata hai. pashu us vaapas aae hue thode thode chaare ko fir se chabaata hai aur iske saath paagur karanevaali kriya bhi hoti rahati hai. isi kaaran in pashuon ko jugaali karanevaala chaupaaya (ruminants) kehte hain. yeh jugaali ki kriya shaanti aur vishraam ki dasha mein hoti hai. chabaane ka yeh kaam lagbhag ek minute tak chalta hai, tatpashchaat khaana fir se nigla jaakar aamaashaya ke truteeya bhaag, omesam (omasum), mein aa jaata hai. yahaaain se fir khaana amaashaya ke chaturth bhaag, ebomesam (abomasum), arthaat vaastavik aamaashaya mein pahuainchata hai. yaheen se vaastavik paachanakriya praarambh haati hai.

pramukh dhor

dhor sansaar ke pratyek raashtra aur desh mein paae jaate hain. paalatoo dhor vaigyaanik tareekon se dinondin nasl, gun evam utpaadan mein pragati kar raha hai. dhoron ke naam unki aayu, ling praaptisthaan aadi ko dhyaan mein rakhakar diye gaye hain. dhoron ke kuchh vargeekaran nimnalikhit hain:

bachhada - janm ke baad se 6-9 maah tak ki aayu ke gau nar ko kehte hain.

bachhiya - bachhiya janm ke baad se 6-9 maah ki aayu tak ki gau maada ko kehte hai.

bail - badhiya kiya hua praudh nar bachhada bail kahalaata hai. saadhaaranataya iska upayog jutaai aur saamaan dhone ke liye kiya jaata hai.

kalor - kalor ko osar bhi kehte hain. yeh vah bachhiya hai, jo ek saal se oopar aayu ki ho aur jiski pehli byaan hi hui ho.

gaaya - vah vayask kalor ya osar hai, jo bachcha dena aur doodh pilaana aarambh kar chuki ho.

saaaind - vah praudh bachhada hai, jo prajanan ke yogya aur bina badhiya kiya hua hota hai.

bhains - yeh paalatoo maada dudha degree dhor hai, jo rang mein kaali, bhoori evam taaainbiya hoti hai. iske lalari naheen hoti evam yeh svabhaav se dheeleedhaali hoti hai. praudh padiya pahili byaan ke baad hi bhains kahalaati hai.

bhainsa (saaaind) - vah praudh katara (paada) hai, jo prajanan ke yogya aur bina vadhiya kiya hua hota hai.

bhainsa - vah praudh katara (paada) hai jo badhiya kiya hua ya bina badhiya kiya hua ho. aam taur se iska prayog jotane aur saamaan dhone ke liye kiya jaata hai.

paada - janam ke baad se 6-9 maah tak ki aayu ke nar bhains ko kehte hain.

padiya - janm ke baad se 6-9 maah tak ki aayu ki maada bhains ko kehte hain.

naslein

duniya mein Bhaarat ke atirikt dhor ki 15 naslein milti hain. Bhaarat evam Pakistan mein dhor ki naslein 44 ke lagbhag hain, jinmein 12 naslein bhains ki bhi shaamil hain. aam taur se naslon ka vibhaajan teen bhaagon mein kiya ga hai. inke sivaaya videshon mein maans ke liye dhor ki nasl hoti hai. is pratha ke liye Bhaarat mein utsaah naheen hai aur na pragati hi dikhaai gayi hai.

1. dairy ki nasl dhor ki ve naslein hain jinki gaaya doodh bahut adhik deti hai aur jinka nar pashu halaka parishrami hota hai, jaise saaheevaal, singhi, jarasi aur aayarashaayar.

2. jodi kaam ki nasl dhor ki ve naslein hain jinka gaaya doodh dene mein achhi hoti hai tatha nar bhi adhik parishrami hota hai. udaaharan, hariyaana, tharapaarakar, short haurn tatha red pol.

3. bhaar dhone ki nasl dhor ki ve naslein hain jinka nar pashu kathin se kathin parishram kar sakta hai aur maada pashu dudha degree naheen hoti; udaaharanaarth naagaur, amrutamahal.

saaheevaal

yeh mukhyat: dudha degree nasl hai, jo doodh ke vyavasaaya ke liye paali jaati hai. is jaati ke pashuon ka rang adhiktar laal hota hai. shareer saadhaaranat: lamba aur maansal hota hai. inki taaainge chhoti hoti hai, svabhaav kuchh aalasi aur khaal chikni hoti hai. is jaati ke bail halaki mehnat kar sakte hain. Bhaarat ke dudha degree pashuon mein is jaati ka vishesh mahatva hai. gaaya ek byaan mein 10,000 pound tak doodh deti hai. is jaati ki gaaeain prataapagadh mein veinti firm, Lucknow ke sarkaari dairy firm chak-ganjariya, Kanpur krushi kaalej aur militri dairy firm, Meerut tatha Gorakhpur mein rakhi gayi hain. vibhaajan ke baad Bhaarat mein is jaati ke pashu bahut kam rah gaye hain. aur ab inke uchit prajanan aur vikaas ke liye yathesht prayatn kiya ja raha hai.

hariyaana

is jaati ke pashu Punjab ke Rohtak, hisaar, karanaal tatha budgaaainv jile evam dehali ke kuchh khaas bhaagon mein paae jaate hain. uttar pradesh mein is jaati ke achhe jaanavar Meerut, mujaffaranagar tatha Aligadh jilon mein paae jaate hain. hariyaana jaati ke bail mehnat ka kaam karne ke liye sabse achhe hote hai. visheshakar jutaai karne aur gaadi kheenchne ke liye ye bail atyant upayukt hote hain. is jaati ke pashu safed ya dhoosar rang ke hote hain. shareer ausat aakaar ka tatha gatha hua hota hai aur bhinn bhinn jalavaayu sahan kar sakta hai. sir utha hua hota hai, muainh lamba aur sainkara haata hai. mastak ki haddi beech mein uthi hui hoti hai, jo is jaati ki shuddhata ki pehchaan hai. seeng ki lanbaai 10 se lekar 12 inch tak hoti hai. bail ke seeng gaaya ke seeng se bade hote hain. yeh jaati doodh aur parishram donon kaaryo ke liye upayaagi hai, iseeliye uttar pradesh tatha Bengal mein sthaaneeya pashuon ke sudhaar ke liye is jaati ko rakha gaya hai. ausat roop se is jaati ki ek gaaya ne 300 din ke ek byaan mein 3,500 pound doodh diya aur 15 maheenon ke antar se bachche diye.

sindhi

is dudha degree jaati ke pashu adhiktar halake laal rang ke hote hain. bhaar ke dudha degree pashuon mein is jaati ka vishesh sthaan hai. gaaya ek byaan mein 9,000 pound doodh deti hai. is jaati ke pashu bahut sheedhr kiksi bhi sthaan ke jalavaayu ke anukool ho jo hain. at: desh ke anya aise bhaagon mein is jaati ko rakha ja raha hai jahaaain uchit prajanan aur chaare daane ki kami ke kaaran adhik sankhya mein pashuon ko naheen rakha ja sakta. is jaati ke saaaind almoda, gadhvaal tatha deharaadoon jile ke oopari bhaagon mein aur mirjaapur tatha Allahabad ki kuchh tahaseelon mein baaainte ja rahe hain.

tharapaarakar

is jaati ke bail halake mehanati tatha gaaeain dudha degree hoti hai. majhole kad ke ye pashu safed tatha dhoosar rang ke hote hain. dudhaarooain gaaeain tatha achhe bail hone ke kaaran is jaati ke pashaon ko kai sarkaari faarmo mein rakha gaya hai aur ye sthaaneeya pashuon ki nasl sudhaarane ke liye bade upayaagi siddh ho rahe hain. gaaya ek din mein kareeb kareeb 7kshksh ser doodh deti hai. pashu sahanasheel haate hain aur inhein rakhane mein adhik kharcha bhi naheen hota,

at: inhein kaheen bhi aasaani se rakha ja sakta hai. sanprati inhein bharaari firm (jhaaainsi) mein baaaintane ke liye rakha gaya hai. is jaati ke pashu sindh ke pashchimi bhaagon mein tatha Bhaarat ke kachh, Jodhpur tatha jaisalamer raajyon mein hain.

kanakatha

is jaati ki gaaya adhik dudha degree naheen hoti. bundelakhand tatha baaainda ki yeh jaati bailagaadi kheenchne tatha kheti ke halake kaam ke liye uparyukt hai. pashuon ka rang dhoosar hota hai,. is jaati ke pashu jhaaainsi jile ke pashu-prajanan-firm, saidapur, mein rakhe gaye hain. bail 20 varsh tak kaarya karne yogya rahate hain. is jaati ke pashuon ke pair pathareeli bhoomi mein kaam karne ke liye bahut majaboot hote hain.

khereegadh

yeh kheeri jile ke khereegadh paragana mein pai jaanevaali mehanati jaati hai. ye pashu adhiktar safed hote hain. chehara chhota or sainkara hota hai. is jaati ke pashu sadaiv kriyaasheel rahate hain. khula rahakar charana inahein vishesh priya hai. taraai kshetr ke liye is jaati ke pashu atyant upayukt hain. is jaati ke kuchh shuddhavansheeya pashu mainjhara sarkaari firm par rakhe gaye hain.

pavaaainr

is jaati ke pashu peeleebheet jile ke pooranapur tatha kheeri jile ke pashchimi bhaagon mein paae jaate hain. ye adhiktar safed ya kaale rang ke hote hain. in shuddhavansheeya pashuon ka muainh chhota aur sainkara hota hai. kaan chhote haate hain. seengein lambe aur seedhe hote hain. is jaati ke ausat saaaind ki lanbaai 50 inch aur gaaya ki lanbaai 45 inch hoti hai. ye pashu adhiktar marakahe hote hain. inhein bhi khula rahakar charana priya hota hai. paaainch varsh mein pashu vayask hote hain. gaaya adhik doodh naheen deti. hemapur sarkaari firm mein is jaati ke pashu rakhe gaye hain.

gangaateeri

is jaati ke pashu adhiktar ganga aur ghaaghara nadiyon ke beech ke bhoobhaag mein, baliya jile mein tatha Gazipur aur banaaras jilon ke aas paas milte hain. in pashuon ka rang safed aur dhoosar hota hai. majhole kad ke in pashuon ki lanbaai 50 inch aur vajan 600 se 700 pound tak hota hai. is jaati ki gaaeain ausat 10 pound doodh prati din deti hai aur adhik se adhik doodh denevaali gaaya 24 pound pratidin deti hai. is jaati ke bail bhi parishram ka kaam karne ke liye achhe hote hain.

angol

isko nelor bhi kehte hain. is jaati ke pashu angol, gantar, vinukonda aur kandukar taallukon mein paae jaate hain. inhein aam taur se krushak hi paalate hain. is jaati ke pashu bade tatha vajan mein 950-1,500 pound tak ke hote hain. inke pair lambe tatha deal bahut ubhara hua hota hai. inka rang safed hota hai. is jaati ke pashu doodh dene aur kathin kaam mein nipun hote hain. bail chalne mein bahut hi tej hota hai. gaaya dugdhakaal mein ausat 3,500 pound doodh deti hai.

amrutamahal

is jaati ke pashu Mysore mein paae jaate hain. inke chehare evam lalari par safed dhabbe hote hain. gardan, deal aadi bhoore rang ke hote hain. is jaati ke pashuon ke seeng lambe aur peechhe ki or seedhe khade rahate hain. seeng ka aakhiri bhaag bahut nukeela hota hai. is jaati ka nar pashu bahut mehanati haata hai. maada pashu doodh bahut kam maatra mein deti hai.

murra

dakshini Punjab tatha Delhi pradesh, uttar pradesh ke uttari bhaag tatha sindh mein is jaati ke achhe pashu milte hain. uttar pradesh ke uttari bhaag tatha sindh mein iska paalan vishesh roop se ghi aur doodh ke vyavasaaya ke liye kiya jaata hai. is jaati ki bhains bahut dudha degree hoti hai tatha iske doodh mein ghrutaansh adhik hota hai. ek byaan mein yeh 2,000 se lekar 5,000 ser tak doodh deti hain. inka rang adhiktar kaala hota hai aur muainh, pair tatha sir par safed dhabbe hote hain. shareer gatha hua tatha bhaari hota hai. peeth chhoti tatha chaudi hoti hai. pichhla bhaag chauda hota hai. sir aur gardan chhote hote hain. seengein chhoti tatha ghumaavadaar heti hain. pair chhote aur majaboot haate hain. pooainchh chhoti hoti hai. is jaati ke saaaindon ka prajanan baaboogadh (Meerut), maadhureekund (Mathura), vetarineri kaalej, Mathura, tatha Lucknow ke sarkaari faarmo par kiya ja raha hai. is jaati ke saaaind kuchh sthaanon ko chhodkar saare pradesh ki sthaaneeya jaati ke pashuon (bhains) ki unnati ke liye sveekrut kiye gaye hain.

bhadaavari

Agra tatha itaava jile ke jamuna evam chanbal ke kachhaaron mein is jaati ke achhe pashu milte hain. manjhole kad ki in bhainson ka rang taaainbe jaisa hota hai aur shareer par baal kam hote hain. ye prati din lagbhag 7 pound doodh deti hai, par doodh mein ghi ki maatra 13 pratishat tak hoti hai. at: ye dugdh udyog ke upayuktahoti hai. is jaati ki bhainsein mehanati hoti hain aur anya jaatiyo ki bhainson ki apeksha garmi adhik sah sakti hai.

taraai

yeh jaati taraaivaale sthaanon mein, visheshakar tanakapur aur raamanagar mein, pai jaati hain. yeh adhiktar khuli rahakar jangalon mein apna nirvaah karti hai. yeh jaati taraai ki jalavaayu achhi tarah sah sakti hai. bhains 4-6 pound doodh rojaana deti hai. bhainsa kathin se kathin kaam kar sakta hai.

neeli

ye Punjab mein raavi ke pashchimi bhaag mein pai jaati hain. inka kad tatha bhaar murra se adhik hota hai. inka maatha sudaul hota hai. is jaati ke pashuon ke pair evam pooainchh avashya bhoori hoti hain. neeli bhains murra se bhi khoobsoorat aur dudha degree hoti hai. iska vajan 1,000 se 1,300 pound tak hoti hai. 250 din ke dugdhakaal mein yeh ausat 3,500 pound doodh deti hai.

gaaya ki videshi naslein

inmein se kuchh nimnalikhit hai:

jarasi

yeh jaati english channel ke jarasi naamak dweep se nikli hai. Phillip faali ne 1734 i0 mein jarasi ka ullekh kiya tha. rang halka laal hota hai. shareer par bikhre safed dhabbe jahaaain tahaaain hote hain. kuchh ka rang kaala ya kreem ka sa ho sakta hai. shareer majhola evam gatha hua hota hai. pooainchh ka bhaag aage se chauda hota hai. gardan naati evam patali hoti haidya pooainchh aur kaan lambe hote hain. iske doodh mein makkhan ausat 5.25 pratishat hota hai. achhi gaaeain ek doogdhakaal mein 10,752 se lekar 23,677 pound tak doodh deti hain. doogdhakaal 350-356 din tak ka hota hai.

aayarashaayar

yeh jaati sakautalaind ke aaspaas pai jaati hai. yahaaain na adhik thandh hoti hai aur na adhik garami. is pashu ke pair chhote hote hain. yeh laal tatha safed rang ki chitkabari hoti hai, ya poore shareer se laal ya safed hoti hai. iska paalana bada aasaan hota hai. saadhaaran aahaar se iska nirvaah ho sakta hai. achhi gaaya ek byaan mein 10,955 se 19,215 pound tak doodh de sakti hai. iska ausat vajan 1,015 se 1,400 pound tak hota hai. iske doodh mein makkhan 4 prati shat ke lagbhag hota hai. dugdhakaal 305 din ke lagbhag hota hai.

shairtahaurn

yeh jaati England ke yaurk, dooraham aadi ilaakon mein pai jaati hai. yaurkashaayar mein 1580 i0 mein is jaati ke paae jaane ka ullekh hai. is jaati ke pashu bade deal daul ke haate hain. maada pashu, maansavaali nasl mein, doodh denevaali gini jaati hai tatha nar pashu mons ikattha karne mein nipun hota hai. 1,000-2.200 pound tak hota hai.

garnasi

garnasi dweep mein is nasl ka janm hua. 17veen shataabdi ke lagbhag is jaati ke pashu England mein aae. amareeka mein iski badi pratishtha hai. iski gaaya 800 se 1,400 pound tak bhaar ki hoti hai. is jaati ka mastak bada, gardan lambi evam patali hoti hai. shareer ka rang halaka peela hota hai. iska doodh sunahale rang ka hota hai, jise upabhokta bahut pasand karte hain. gaaya ek dugdhakaal mein 10,435 se 17,844 pound tak doodh deti hain. doodh mein makkhan ausatan 4.9 pratishat tak hota hai.

holsataain freejiyn

yeh haulaind ki jagat prasiddh jaati hai. is jaati ka praacheen ullekh kaheen naheen milta. yeh jaati amareeka mein bahut paali jaane lagi hai. iska rang safed ya kaala hota hai. safed evam laal rang ka pashu amareeka mein rajistar naheen hota. gaya ka ausat vajan 1,500 pound tak tatha saaaind ka 2,200 se 2,400 pound hota hai. doodh mein ausatan 3.45 pratishat makkhan hota hai. is jaati ki gaaya adhik se adhik se adhik 38, 607 pound aur kam se kam 15,004 pound tak doodh dete rikaard ki gayi hai.

aashram

dhoron ko makaan mein sharan dene ka uddeshya unakon dhoop, varsha tatha kharaab mausam se surakshit rakhana hai. inke ghar kachche aur pakke donon tarah ke hote hain aur in gharon ke naam bhi pruthak-pruthak hote hain. bachhadon tatha kataron ke rahane ke sthaan ko chayanashaala, gaaya bail tatha bheins ke sthaan ko goshala, doodhavaale pashuon ki jagah ko dugdhashaala, saaaind ke sthaan ko goshaala, doodhavaale pashuon ki jagah ko dugdhshaala, saaaind ke nivaasasthaan ko saaaindghar, dairy ko gavyashaala, beemaar pashuon ke rahane ke sthaan ko rogeegruh aadi kehte hain. dhor ke rahane ka sthaan saaf suthara ko rogeegruh aadi kehte hain. dhor ke rahane ka sthaan saaf suthara aur havaadaar hona chaahiye. oopari chhat dhoop tatha varsh se raksha kar sake tatha saath hi bahut thandhak ya garami bhi na utpann hone de, aisi honi chaahiye. pashushaala ka farsh aisa dhaalavaaain ho jo saari gandagi ko naali ke raaste baahar baha sake. farsh ki satah aise padaartho se banaani chaahiye jo malamootr ko seekhanevaali na ho. hava auradhup makaanon ko svaasthyaprad rakhane mein kaafi madad deti hain. at: makaan mein soch vichaarakar khidki tatha roshani rakhana ati aavashyak hai. pashu ke liye baada hona bhi mahatvapoorn, jismein yeh svachhadataapoorvak vichr sake. isse pashuon ki aavashyakataanusaar kasarat ho jaati hai, jo svaasthya ko banaati hai.

aahaar

dhor ka aahaar santulit, svaadisht aur vividh prakaar ka hona chaahiye. pashu ki khuraak hi shari ko uchit taap pradaan karne, vyarth vastuon ko shareer se baahar nikaalne, parishram mein utsaah rakhane, vibhinn angon mein honevaali kami beshi ko poora kate, santaan dhaaran karne ki shakti ko banaae rakhane tatha chayan ke badhaav aadi mein madad karti hai. maada pashu ko garbhaavastha mein tatha doodh dene ke kaal mein santulit raashan tatha atirikt shakti utpann karne ka rashan bhi diya jaata hai. dhor ke bhojan mein bhi sabhi prakaar ke padaarthon ka, jaise paani, proteen, charbi, shakkar, khanij dravya, vitaamin aur enjaaim aadi ka shari mein vishesh mahatva hai. inka uchit maatra mein hona bahant jaroori hai. pashu ke bhojan mein ye aasaani se mil sakein, iska dhyaan rakhana chaahiye. uttam ghaas ke chaare se pashuon ko praaya: ve sabhi poshak tatv mil jaate hain jo shareeranirvaah ke liye aavashyak hain. hare chaare mein in padaartho ka baahulya rahata hai. jyon jyon chaara pakata hai tyon-tyon poshan-gun usamein kam hote jaate hain. pashu ke bhojan mein namak, kailasiym aur fausforas ka hona paramaavashyak hai. namak khino se pahachaanakriya theek rahati hai tatha jo namak paseene ke saath niklata hai, poora ho jaata hai. kailasiym aur fausforas pashu ki haddiyon tatha seeng ko majaboot banaate hain. dudha degree pashu ki kailasiym aur fausforas ki jo maatra doodh mein chali jaati hain, vah bhi poori ho jaati hai. dhor ke bhojan mein dheere dheere parivartan bhi karna chaahiye. khuraak ko achaanak badal dene par pashu ki paachanakriya mein gadbadi paida ho jaati hai. pashu saadhaaranataya ek hi prakaar ke vaataavaran ke aadi hote hain. thoda sa bhi parivartan hone se unapar bahut jald prabhaav padta hai.

utpaadan

gaaya tatha bheins donon se doodh byaane ke baad praapt hota hain. doodh ka maanav ke jeevan mein adhik mahatva hai. godugdh atyant hi laabhakaari bataaya gaya hai. baalakon ke liye to vishesh roop se gaaya ke doodh ki vyavastha ki jaati hai. aahaaron mein doodh ka aahaar poorn aahaar maana jaata hai, kyonki yeh svaadisht, balavardhak van jaldi pachanevaala hota hai.

Denmark, England, osteliya, nyoojeelaind, amareeka aadi deshon mein doodh aur makkhan ke dhandhe ka atyadhik vikaas hua hai. nyoojeelaind mein doodh ka utpaadan prati manushya 244 auns, Denmark mein 148 auns, ostriya mein 244 auns, ostriya mein 79 auns, kainaada mein 66 auns aur Bhaarat mein 6 auns hai.

doodh se kreem, makkhan, cheej, (cheese) ghi, khoaan, malaai, rabadi, chhena aadi taiyaar karte hain. 100 pound doodh mein se 6 pound ghi, ya 7 pound makkhan ya 85 pound daheen, ya 25 pound khoaa, ya 20 pound chhena, ya 20 pound malaai, ya 40 pound rabadi taiyaar ki ja sakti hai.

pashu shav bahut upayogi aur moolyavaan hota hai. isse khaal, maans, haddi, charabi, aaintadi, khur aur seeng praapt hota hai. khaal saaf karke audyogik va kheti baari ke kaam ki vastuon ko taiyaar karte hain. maans se khaad banaai ja sakti hai. yadi gas yantron ke liye iska upayog kiya jaaya to isse roshani aur khaana pakaane ke liye gas mil sakti hai. haddi se khaad taiyaar hoti hai. charabi ka istemaal saabun banaane mein kiya jaata hai. chiknaane ke anek yog bhi taiyaar hote hain. aaintadiyon se tennis evam badminton ke lin gat (taaaint) banaaya ja sakta hai. seeng aur khur se khilaune, kanghi, chashmein ka frem tatha batan aadi banaate hain.

rog

maanav ki bhaaainti pashuon mein bhi naana prakaar ki beemaariyaaain hoti hain, jo golaalak ko bahut haani pahuaincha sakti hain. ye rog saadharanataya do bhaagon mein baaainte ja sakte hain - (1) saadhaaran rog, (2) sankraamak ya chhootavaale rog.

pashupaalak ko chhootavaali beemaariyon se pashu ki raksha karni chaahiye. aavashyakataanusaar yathaasamaya teeka lagavaana chaahiye. bhinn bhinn beemaariyon ke liye pruthak-pruthak surakshaatmak teeke hote hain.

anya baatein

bail, gaaya evam bhains pratyek minute mein 12-16 baar saaains lete hain tatha inki naadi prati minute mein 45.50 baar chalti hai. inka ausat taap 101.4 faarenahaait hota hai.

kalor ya osar dhaai-teen saal ki avastha mein saaaind se milne yogya ho jaati hai aur kareeb kareeb isi aayu mein saaaind bhi prajanan ke yogya ho jaata hai. gaaya aur bhains praakrutik roop se har 21 vein din garam hoti rahati hai. garbh sthaapit ho jaane par kram band ho jaata hai. inmein garam avastha 12 se 18 ghante tak rookati hai. garbhaadhaan krutim roop se pichkaari dvaara karaate hain, ya praakrutik roop se saaaind dvaara milaakar karaate hain. gaaya ki garbhaavastha ausat 285 din aur bheins ki 310 din ki hai.