dhoomaketu

hel-baup dhumaketoo 29 March 1997 mein pejin, kroeshiya mein dekha gaya

dhoomaketu sauramandaleeya nikaaya hai jo patthar, dhool, barf aur gas ke bane hue chhote-chhote khand hote hai. yeh graho ke samaan soorya ki parikrama karte hai. chhote path vaale dhoomaketu soorya ki parikrama ek andaakaar path mein lagbhag 6 se 200 varsh mein poori karte hai. kuchh dhoomaketu ka path valayaakaar hota hai aur vo maatr ek baar hi dikhaai dete hai. lambe path vaale dhoomaketu ek parikrama karne mein hajaaron varsh lagaate hai.

adhiktar dhoomaketu barf, kaarban daaioksaaid, methane, amoniya tatha anya padaarth jaise siliket aur kaarbanik mishran ke bane hote hai.

anukram

dhoomaketu ke bhaag

dhoomaketu ke teen mukhya bhaag hote hai -

  1. naabhi
  2. coma
  3. poochh

naabhi dhoomaketu ka kendra hota hai jo patthar aur barf ka bana hota hai. naabhi ke chaaron or gas aur ghul ke baadal ko coma kehte hai. naabhi tatha coma se nikalne waali gas aur dhool ek poonchh ka aakaar le leti hai.

jab dhoomaketu soorya ke najadeek aata hai, saur-vikirn ke prabhaav se naabhi ki gaison ka vaashpeekaran ho jaata hai. isse coma ka aakaar badhkar karodon meal tak ho jaata hai. coma se nikalne waali gas aur ghool aravon meal lambi poochh ka aakaar grahan kar leti hai. saur-hava ke kaaran yeh poochh soorya se ulti disha mein hoti hai. jaise-jaise dhoomaketu soorya ke najadeek aata hai, poonchh ka aakaar badhta jaata hai.

naabhi

tempal 1 dhoomaketu ki naabhi jiska vyaas lagbhag 6 kilometer hai
dhumaketoo ki naabhi ka vistaar 100 meter se lekar 40 kilometer se adhik tak maana jaata hai | yeh chattaan, dhool, barf aur jameen hui gaison jaise ki kaarban monooksaaid, kaarban daaioksaaid, methane aur amoniya se bane hote hai | dravyamaan bahut kam hone ke kaaran dhoomaketu ki naabhi apne gurutv ke antargat golaakaar roop dhaaran naheen kar paata aur iseeliye usaka aakaar aniyamit hota hai |
inhein aksar gandi barfeeli geind jaise lokapriya roop mein varnit kiya jaata hai | inki shushk dhool ya chattaani satahon ke haal ke nireekshanon se pata chala hai ki inki barf parat ke neeche chhipi hui rahati hai | dhoomaketu mein vibhinn prakaar ke kaarbanik yaugik bhi hote hai | gaison ka varnan pehle hi kiya ja chuka hai | iname mithenol, haaidrojan cynide, formeladehaaid, ithenol aur ithen jaise kaarbanik yaugikon ke saath saath shaayad lambi-shrrunkhala ke hydrocarbon aur emino aml jaise jatil anu bhi paae jaate hai | san 2009 mein is baat ki pushti ho chuki hai ki dhumaketoo ki dhool mein emino aml glaaiseen paaya gaya tha |
aashcharyajanak roop se dhumaketoo ki naabhi hamaari saur pranaali mein paae jaane vaale sabse kam paraavartak nikaaya hai | giotato antariksh yaan ne paaya ki heli dhumaketoo ki naabhi aapatit prakaash ka lagbhag chaar pratishat bhaag paraavartit karta hai tatha deep space 1 ne khoj ki ki boreli dhoomaketu ki satah aapatit prakaash ka keval 2.4 % se 3.0 % hi paraavartit karta hai | isi tarah esfaalt saat pratishat prakaash paraavartit karta hai |

dhoomaketu ke bhautik gun neeche saarani mein diya gaya hai -

dhumaketoo ka
naam
vistaar
ki.mi.
ghanatv
gram/se.mi.3
dravyamaan
ki.gra.
heli dhumaketoo 15×aa8×aa8 0.6 3×aa1014
tempal 1 7.6×aa4.9 0.62 7.9×aa1013
19 P boreli 8×aa4×aa4 0.3 2×aa1013
81 P wild 5.5×a4.0×aa3.3 0.6 2.3×aa1013

coma

san 2007 mein homs dhumaketoo (17 P / homs) neeli aayan poonchh dikhaata hua
baahari sauramandal mein dhoomaketu jama hua aur bahut chhote aakaar ka hota hai is kaaran pruthvi se iska pata lagaana bahut kathin ya lagbhag asambhav hai | lekin jaise hi yeh androoni sauramandal mein pravesh karta hai saur vikirn ke kaaran dhumaketoo ka asthir padaarth bhaap bankar dhool ko saath lekar dhaara ke roop mein naabhi se baahar niklata hai | bahut badi maatra mein nikaalne waali dhool aur gas ki yeh dhaara dhumaketoo ke chaaron or atyant kamjor vaataavaran banaati hai jise coma kaha jaata hai |

kaksheeya lakshan

dhoomaketu ko usaki bhraman kaksha ke aadhaar par vargeekrut kiya gaya hai | chhoti bhramanakaksha vaale dhoomaketuon ki kaksha 200 varsh se chhoti hoti hai jabki lambi bhramanakaksha vaale dhoomaketuon ki kaksha bahut lambi hone ke baavajood soorya ke gurutvaakarshan ke andar hoti hai | ekal bhraman dhumaketooon ki kaksha paravalayaakaar ya ativaalaayaakaar hone se aise dhoomaketu ek baar soorya ka chakkar lagaakar hamesha ke liye sauramandal ke baahar chale jaate hai | chhoti kaksha vaale enke dhoomaketu ki kaksha soorya aur guru ke beech sthit hai | aisa maana jaata hai ki chhoti kaksha vaale dhumaketooon ki utpatti kyuipar belt mein jabki lambi bhramanakaksha vaale dhumaketooon ki utpatti oort baadal mein hoti hai | aisi maanyata hai ki jab soorya aakaashaganga ki parikrama karte hue kisi taare ke paas se gujarata hai ya jab soorya ka sambhaavit saathi taara nemesis ya plenet ex uske najadeek aata hai tab dhoomaketu bahut lambi bhramanakaksha dhaaran karte hai |

kam dravyamaan aur andaakaar kaksha ke kaaran dhoomaketu kabhi kabhi bade grahon ki taraf aakarshit hote hai aur isse usaki kaksha par asar padta hai | chhoti kaksha vaale dhumaketooon ka ek kendra (paravalaya ke do kendra hote hai) bade grahon ki kaksha ke andar sthit hota hai | yeh spasht hai ki oort baadal se aane vaale dhumaketooon ki kaksha par bade grahon ka asar padta hai | badi sankhya mein aise dhumaketooon par vishesh roop se bruhaspati ka asar padta hai jiska dravyamaan sauramandal ke anya sabhi grahon ke dravyamaan se bhi jyaada hai |

parikrama kaksha par padne vaale prabhaav ke kaaran kabhi kabhi pehle se khoje gaye dhoomaketu kho jaate hai | kabhi kabhi aisa hota hai ki khoje gaye nae dhoomaketu ke gahan adhyayan ke baad yeh gumashuda dhoomaketuon ke roop mein pahachaane jaate hai | 11P/ tempal - swift - leeniyr dhoomaketu iska udaaharan hai | san 1869 mein usako sabse pehle dekha gaya, 1908 ke baad bruhaspati ke prabhaav ke kaaran usaki kaksha badal gayi aur vah antariksh mein kaheen ojhal ho gaya | san 2001 mein leeniyr naam ke vaigyaanik ne usaki fir se khoj ki thi |

naamakaran

vaigyaanik paddhati ke vikaas ke pehle dhumaketooon ke naam kai tareekon se rakhe jaate the | 20 veen sadi ke pehle dhumaketooon ke naam varsh ke aadhaar par rakhe jaate the, jaise ki ' 1580 ka mahaan dhumaketoo ', ' sitmbar 1882 ka mahaan dhumaketoo ' | edamand heli naam ke vaigyaanik ne siddh kiya ki 1531, 1607 aur 1582 mein dekha gaya dhoomaketu ek hi tha aur 1957 mein fir se dikhne ki bhavishyavaani ki | vaastav mein 1959 mein yeh dhoomaketu aasmaan mein fir se dikha tab usaka naam heli dhumaketoo rakha gaya | isi prakaar aavarti dhumaketooon (enke dhumaketoo aur beyala dhumaketoo) ke naam usaki bhraman kaksha ki ganana karne vaale ke naam par rakhe gaye | uske baad se aavarti dhumaketooon ke naam usaki khoj karne vaale ke naam par rakha jaata raha hai parantu keval ek baar dikhne vaale dhumaketooon ke naam aaj bhi jis varsh dikhaai dete hai usi varsh ke naam par rakha jaata hai |

20 veen sadi ke shuruaat se dhumaketooon ke naam uske khojakarta par se rakhe ja rahe hai aur yeh parampara aaj bhi jaari hai | iske naam pehle ke teen khojakartaaon par rakhe jaate hai | kai dhumaketooon ki khoj yaantrik saadhanon se hoti hai aise dhumaketooon ke naam in saadhanon par se rakhe jaate hai | dhoomaketu ' aai.aar.A.S.-aaraaki-aalakok ' ki khoj aai.aar.A.S. upagrah tatha shaukiya avalokanaakarta jenichi aaraaki aur jorj aalakok ne svatantr roop se ki thi | kabhi kabhi ek hi vaigyaanik ya dal do se jyaada dhumaketooon ki khoj karte hai aise dhumaketooon ke naam ke peechhe ank lagaaya jaata hai jaise ki shoomekar-levi 1 | May 2005 tak SOHO ne 950 dhumaketooon ki khoj ki hai |

badi sankhya mein dhoomaketu ki khojon ne naamakaran ki prakriya ko avyavahaarik bana diya | san 1994 mein antaraashtreeya khagoleeya sangh ne nai naamakaran pranaali anumodit ki | dhoomaketuon ke naam ab use khoje gaye varsh dvaara, use khoje gaye pakhavaade ke sanket dvaara aur usi varsh ki khoj ki kram sankhya dvaara darshaaya jaata hai | is tarah ki pranaali kshudragrah ke liye pehle se hi upayog ki ja rahi hai | is prakaar san 2006 ke February maheene ke doosare pakhavaade (arthaat 15 fravari se 28/29 fravari ke beech) mein khoja gaya dhumaketoo jo ki us varsh ka khoja gaya chautha dhoomaketu hai to usaka naam 2006 D4 hoga | dhoomaketu ki prakruti ko darshaane ke liye upasarg bhi joda jaata hai |

upasarg is prakaar hai -

  • P/ ek aavarti dhoomaketu darshaata hai (parikrama ki avadhi 200 varsh se kam) |
  • C/ ek anaavarti dhoomaketu darshaata hai (poorvavarti paribhaasha ke anusaar aavarti naheen hai) |
  • X/ ek dhoomaketu jiski kaksha ki ganana vishvasaneeya naheen hai ko darshaata hai (saadhaaranataya, aitihaasik dhoomaketu) |
  • D/ ek aavarti dhoomaketu jo gaayab ho gaya hai, toot gaya hai ya kho gaya hai ko darshaata hai |
  • A/ ek nikaaya jise galati se dhoomaketu ke roop mein pahachaana gaya parantu vaastav mein vah ek kshudragrah hai |

udaaharan ke liye hel-baup dhoomaketu ka naam C/1995 O1. hai | isi prakaar heli dhoomaketu jo ki sabse pehle aavarti dhoomaketu ke roop mein pahachaana gaya hai ka naam 1P/1682 Q1. hai | kuchh dhoomaketu aise hai jise pehle kshudragrah ki shreni mein rakha gaya aur use ajeeb naam diya gaya jaise ki P/2004 EW38 |

hamaare sauramandal mein paanch pind hai jo dhoomaketu aur kshudragrah donon mein soocheebaddh hai : 2060 chiron (95 P/chiron), 4015 Wilson –harringaton (107 P/Wilson –harringaton), 7968 elst–pijaarro (133 P/elst –pijaarro), 60558 echeklus (174 P/echeklus) aur 118401 linear (176 P/linear)|

itihaas

pauraanik maanyata ke anusaar dhoomaketu ka aagaman apashakun laane wala maana jaata tha | kuchh logon ne ise girte taare ki sanjnyaa di thi | arastoo ne apni pratham pustak mitriyoloji mein dhoomaketu ki charcha ki thi | pehle ke kai buddhijeeviyon ne ise sauramandal ke grahon ke roop mein maanyata di thi | parantu arastoo ne is dhaarana ko nakaar diya kyonki grah aakaash mein ek nishchit nakshatr mein dikhaai dete hai jabki dhoomaketu aasmaan mein kaheen bhi dekhe ja sakte hai | arastoo ke anusaar dhoomaketuon ka janm pruthvi ke baahari vaataavaran mein hua tha | dhoomaketuon ki tarah ulka, erora, boroliyaas aur aakaashaganga ke liye bhi arastoo ki yahi maanyata thi | arastoo ke is mat se kai tatkaaleen buddhijeeveeyon ne asahamati jataai thi | seneka ne necharal kveshchan mein is mat par asahamati vyakt ki hai | unke anusaar dhoomaketuon par baahari vaataavaran ya pavan ka koi asar naheen hota hai | tab ke maanav ko antariksh ke baare mein bahut kam gyaan tha |

kuchh prasidgh dhoomaketu

baahari kadiya