dharmasootr

anukram

dharmasootron ka udbhav evam vikaas

dharmasootron mein varnaashram-dharm, vyaktigat aacharan, raaja evam praja ke karttavya aadi ka vidhaan hai. ye gruhyasootron ki shrunkhala ke roop mein hi upalabdh hote hain. shrautasootron ke samaan hi, maana jaata hai ki pratyek shaakha ke dharmasootr bhi pruthak-pruthak the. vartamaan samay mein sabhi shaakhaaon ke dharmasootr upalabdh naheen hote. is anupalabdhi ka ek kaaran yeh hai ki sampoorn praacheen vaaङamaya aaj hamaare samaksh vidyamaan naheen hai. usaka ek bada bhaag kaalakavalit ho gaya. iska doosra kaaran yeh maana jaata hai ki sabhi shaakhaaon ke pruthak-pruthak dharmasootron ka sambhavat: pranayan hi naheen kiya gaya, kyonki in shaakhaaon ke dvaara kisi anya shaakha ke dharmasootron ko hi apna liya gaya tha. poorvameemaansa mein kumaaril bhatt ne bhi aisa hi sanket diya hai.

aaryon ke reeti-rivaaj vedaadi praacheen shaastron par aadhrut the kintu sootrakaal tak aate-aate in reeti-rivaajon, saamaajik sansthaanon tatha raajaneetik paristhitiyon mein paryaapt parivartan evam pragati ho gayi thi at: in sabko niymabaddh karne ki aavashyakta anubhav ki gayi. saamaajik vikaas ke saath hi uthi samasyaaeain bhi pratidin jatil hoti ja rahi theen. inke samaadhaan ka kaaryabhaar anek vaidik shaakhaaon ne sanbhaal liya, jiske parinaamasvaroop gahan vichaar-vimarsh poorvak sootragranthon ka sampaadan kiya gaya. in sootragranthon ne is deerghakaaleen bauddhik sampada ko sootron ke maadhyam se surakshit rakha, iska pramaan in sootragranthon mein uddhrut anek praacheen aachaaryon ke mat-mataantaron ke roop mein milta hai. yeh to vikaas ka ek kram tha jo tatkaalik paristhiti ke kaaran nirntar ho raha tha. yeh vikaasakram yaheen par naheen ruka apitu sootragranthon mein bhi samayaanukool parivartan evam parivrdhan kiya gaya jiske falasvaroop hi paravarti smrutiyon ka janm hua. nayi-nayi samasyaaeain fir bhi ubharati raheen. unke samaadhaanaarth smrutiyon par bhi bhaashya evam teekaaeain likhi gayeen jinke maadhyam se praacheen vachanon ki naveen vyaakhyaaeain ki gayeen. is prakaar apne se poorvavarti aadhaar ko tyaage bina hi nootan siddhaanton tatha niyamon ke samayaanukool pratipaadan ka maarg prashast kar liya gaya.

dharmasootron ka svaroop

jaisa ki naam se hi vidit hai ki dharmasootron mein vyakti ke dharmasambandhi kriyaakalaapon par vichaar kiya gaya hai, kintu dharmasootron mein pratipaadit dharm kisi vishesh pooja-paddhati par aashrit na hokar samast aacharan va vyavahaar par vichaar karte hue sampoorn maanavajeevan ka hi niyntrak hai. 'dharm' shabd ka prayog vaidik sanhitaaon tatha unke paravarti saahitya mein prachur maatra mein hota ja raha hai. yahaaain par yeh avadheya hai ki paravarti saahitya mein dharm shabd ka vah arth drushtigochar naheen hota, jo ki vaidik sanhitaaon mein upalabdh hai. sanhitaaon mein dharm shabd vistrut arth mein prayukt hai. atharvaved mein pruthivi ke gyaarah dhaarak tattvon ki ganana 'pruthiveen sdhaarayanti' kehkar ki gayi hai. isi prakaar riagved* mein 'taani dharmaani prathamaanyaasan' kehkar yahi bhaav prakat kiya gaya hai. is prakaar yeh dharm kisi deshavishesh tatha kaalavishesh se sambandhit na hokar aise tatvon ko parignit karta hai jo samast pruthivi athva uske nivaasiyon ko dhaaran karte hain. ve niyam shaashvat hain tatha sabhi ke liye aparihaarya hain. maiksamoolar ne bhi dharm ke is svaroop ki or in shabdon mein ingit kiya hai- praacheen bhaaratavaasiyon ke liye dharm sabse pehle anek vishyon ke beech ek ruchi ka vishay naheen tha apitu vah sabka aatmasamarpan karaane waali vidhi thi. iske antargat na keval pooja aur praarthana aati thi apitu vah sab bhi aata tha jise ham darshan, naitikta, kaanoon aur shaasan kehte hain. unka sampoorn jeevan unke liye dharm tha tatha doosari cheejein maanon is jeevan ki bhautik aavashyakataaon ke liye nimitt maatr theen. sanhitaaon ke paravarti saahitya mein dharm keval varnaashram ke aachaar-vichaar tatha kriyaakalaapon tak hi seemit rah gaya. upanishit-kaal mein dharm ka yahi svaroop upalabdh hota hai. chhaandogya upanishd* mein dharm ke teen skandh ginaae gaye hain. inmein yagya, adhyayan tatha daan pratham, tap dviteeya tatha aachaaryakul mein vaas truteeya skandh hai. spasht hi inke antargat vargon mein roodh hokar paravarti kaal mein poojaapaddhati ko bhi dharm ne apne mein samaavisht kar liya.

itna hone par bhi sabhi ne dharm ka mool ved ko maana jaata hai. manu ne to is vishay mein 'dharm jijnyaaasamaanaanaan pramaanan paraman shruti:' tatha 'vedoऽkhilo dharmamoolam' aadi ghoshana karke vedon ko hi dharm ka mool kaha hai.* Gautam dharmasootr mein to praarambh mein hi 'vedon dharmamoolam'.* 'tadvidaan ch smrutisheele'* sootron dvaara yahi baat kahi gayi hai. ye donon sootr manusmruti ke 'vedonऽkhilo dharmamoolam smrutisheele ch tadvidaam' shlokaansh ke hi roopaantar maatr hain. isi prakaar vaasishth dharmasootr* mein bhi 'shrutismrutivihito dharm:' kehkar dharm ke vishay mein shruti tatha smruti ko pramaan maana hai. baudhaayan dharmasootr mein shruti tatha smruti ke atirikt shishtaacharan ko bhi dharm ka lakshan kehkar manusmruti mein pratipaadit shruti, smruti tatha shishtaacharan ko hi sootr roop mein nibddh kiya hai. is prakaar dharm ke lakshan mein shruti ke saath smruti tatha shishtaacharan ko bhi sammilit kar liya gaya. darshanashaastr mein dharm ka lakshya lok-paralok ki siddhi* kehkar atyant vyaapak kar diya gaya tatha ek prakaar se samast maanav-jeevan ko hi iske dvaara niyntrit kar diya gaya. vaisheshik darshan ke ukt lakshan ka yahi arth hai ki samast jeevan ka, jeevan ke pratyek shvaas evam kshan ka upayog hi is reeti se kiya jaae ki jisse abhyudaya tatha ni:shreyas ki siddhi ho sake. ismein hi apna tatha doosaron ka kalyaan nihit hai. dharm maanav ki shaktiyon evam lakshya ko sankuchit naheen karta apitu vah to manushya mein aparimit shakti dekhta hai jiske aadhaar par manushya apne lakshya ko praapt kar sakta hai. abhyudaya tatha ni:shreyas ki siddhi naamak lakshya itna mahaan hai ki isse baahar kuchh bhi naheen hai. ise praapt karne ki ni:seem sambhaavanaaeain manushya mein nihit hain. is prakaar jeevan ke pratyek paksh par dharm vichaar karta hai tatha apni vyavastha deta hai.

dharmasootron ka mahatva evam praathamikta

is vyavastha ke pratipaadak hi dharmasootr tatha smrutiyaaain hain. dharmasootrakaaron ne apne-apne granthon dvaara maanavajeevan ko is prakaar niyantrit karne ka yatn kiya ki jisse vah ukt donon lakshyon ko praapt kar sake. dharmasootrakaaron ne maanav jeevan se sambandhit pratyek samasya par vichaar karke apni vyavastha di hai jisse ki maanav jeevan vyavasthit roop se chal sake. iseeliye unhonne varnadharm, aashram-dharm, raajadharm, prajaadharm, khaanapaan, paap, praayashchitt, jaati-pratha, daayaad, vivaah aadi pratyek pramukh vishyon par uttam reeti se vivechan kiya.

dharmasootron ka vyakti ke saamaajik jeevan ki drushti se atyant mahatva hai. manushya ek saamaajik praani hai. samaaj mein rahakar hi use apne aachaar-vyavahaar, naitikta aadi ka paalan karna hota hai. samaaj ki drushti se apne aap ko niyntrit karna hota hai. uchhruङ-khalata-niyam-rahitta ya anaitikta ke rahate samaaj chal naheen sakta. dharmasootron mein vyakti ke saamaajik jeevan ke sampaadanaarth niyam banaae gaye hain. un niyamon ke dvaara hi samaaj mein vyakti ke karttavya tatha adhikaaron ka niyntran hota hai. dharmasootron mein samaaj ke vibhinn vargon ke paarasparik aachaar-vyavahaar aadi ka bhi kramik varnan rahata hai tatha vibhinn sthitiyon se gujarte hue vyakti ke kartavya evam adhikaaron ka bhi ullekh rahata hai. kabhi-kabhi dharmasootr gruhyasootron ke pratipaadya vishyon par bhi vichaar karte prateet hote hain kintu aisa kam sthaanon par hi hai. gruhyasootron mein paakayajnya, vivaah, sanskaar, shraaddh, madhupark aadi ka varnan rahata hai. is prakaar gruhyasootron mein vyakti ke gruhasth jeevan ke sanchaalanaarth aise reeti-rivaaj tatha niyamon ka varnan hai jo vyakti ke dhaarmik jeevan ko sanyamit tatha anushaasit karte hain kintu vyakti ka jeevan keval dharm tak hi to seemit naheen hai. use saamaajik jeevan bhi jeena hota hai jahaaain usaki kuchh saamaajik samasyaaeain hoti hain, uske saamaajik evam naitik daayitv bhi hote hain jinke poorn na karne par ya unako todne par dand ka vidhaan bhi kiya jaata hai. dharmasootron ka mahatva isi drushti se hai ki in saamaajik evam naitik daayitvon tatha inke poorn na karne par vividh prakaar ke dandon ka vidhaan dharmasootrakaar hi karte hain. is prakaar dharmasootron ka kshetr samaaj mein vyaapt vividh vargon tatha aashramon ke jeevan aur unki samasyaaon tak vistrut hai, jabki gruhyasootron ka kshetr apni shaakhaaon ke antargat prachalit niyamon tatha reeti-rivaajon tak hi seemit hai.

mahatva

dharmasootron ka mahatva unke vishay-pratipaadan ke kaaran hai. saamaajik vyavastha ka aadhaar varnaashram-paddhati hai. dharmasootron mein varnaashram-vyavastha ke aadhaar par hi vividh vishyon ka pratipaadan kiya gaya hai. inmein varnon ke kartavyon tatha adhikaaron par paryaapt prakaash daala gaya hai. dharmasootrakaar aapatkaal mein bhi man se hi aachaar-paalan par bal dete hain. ayogya tatha dooshit vyakti se parigrah ka sarvatha nishedh kiya gaya hai. varnon evam aashramon ke kartavya-nirdhaaran ki drushti se bhi dharmasootr paryaapt mahatva rakhate hain. dharmasootron ke kaal tak aashramon ka mahatva paryaapt badh gaya tha at: dharmasootron mein etaadvishyak paryaapt nirdesh diye gaye hain. sabhi aashramon ka aadhaar gruhasthaashram hai tatha usaka aadhaar hai vivaah. dharmasootron mein vivaah par paryaapt prakaash daala gaya hai. yahaaain par yeh vishesh hai ki ashtavidh vivaahon mein sabhi dharmasootrakaaron ne na to ek kram ko apnaaya tatha na hi unki shreshthata ke taaratamya ko sabhi ne sveekaar kiya. pratolom vivaah ki sarvatr ninda ki gayi hai. vivaahoparaant pati-patni ke dhaarmik krutya ek saath karne ka vidhaan hai. dhan-sampatti par donon ka samaan roop se adhikaar maana gaya hai. gruhasth ke liye panyach mahaayajnya tatha sabhi sanskaaron ki anivaaryata yahaaain par pratipaadit ki gayi hai. dharmasootrakaar is baat se bhi bhaleebhaaainti parichit the ki maryaada-ullanghan se samaaj mein varnasankarata utpann hoti hai. dharmasootrakaaron ne varnasankar jaatiyon ko bhi maanyata pradaan karke unki saamaajik sthiti ka nirdhaaran kar diya tatha varnavyavastha ka paalan karaakar varnasankarata ko rokane ka daayitv raaja ko saunp diya gaya. Gautam dharmasootr* mein jaatyutkarsh tatha jaatyapakarsh ka siddhaant bhi pratipaadit kiya gaya hai. is prakaar varnaashram ke vividh kartavyon ka pratipaadan karke iske saath paatak, mahaapaatak, praayashchitt, bhakshyaabhakshya, shraaddh, vivaah aur unke nirnaya, saakshi, nyaayakarta, aparaadh, dand, rian, byaaj, janm-mrutyuvishyak ashauch, stri-dharm aadi aise sabhi vishyon par dharmasootron mein vichaar kiya gaya hai, jinka jeevan mein upayog hai.

aachaar ki mahatta

dharmasootrakaaron ne vyakti ke aachaar evam vyavahaar par bahut bal diya hai. aachaar hi maanav ka aadhaar hai; vahi dharm ka tatv hai, is baat ko dharmashaastrakaar bhali-bhaaainti jaante the. manusmruti mein to aachaar par yahaaain tak bal diya gaya hai ki use hi 'param dharm' kah diya gaya tatha kaha gaya hai ki aachaarabhrasht vyakti ko ved bhi pavitra naheen kar sakta. isi prakaar ka vichaar vasishth dharmasootr* mein vyakt kiya gaya hai. hamein dharm ko apne vyavahaar mein utaarana chaahiye, na ki keval shabdamaatr mein. yadyapi sadaachaar ka paalan atyant aparihaarya hai. tabhi samaaj sthir rah sakta hai, kintu iske saath hi yeh tathya bhi smaraneeya hai ki sadaachaar ka paalan atyant hi kathin kaarya hai. satat prayatn karte rahane par bhi aacharan-bhrashtata sambhav hai tatha kuchh vyakti jaanboojhkar bhi samaaj-virodhi tatha shaastr-virodhi aacharan kar dete hain. aachaaraheenata kisi bhi kaaran se ho, aisa vyakti patit kahalaata hai. dharmasootrakaar is baat ko achhi prakaar jaante the. ve yeh bhi jaante the ki aise vyakti ko duraacharan athva uske aparaadh ka dand to milna hi chaahiye, kintu yadi vah man se apne paapakarm par paashchaataap karta hai to pun: use shreshth banane ka avsar pradaan karna chaahiye na ki sadaiv ke liye hi uske jeevan ko andhakaaramaya bana dena chaahiye. isi uddeshya se dharmasootrakaaron ne dushtaachaari ke liye anek prakaar ke dandon evam praayaashchiton ka vidhaan kiya jaata hai jisse vah vyakti shuddh ho sake. dharmasootron ki drushti mein aparaadhi vyakti ghruna ka paatr naheen hain, balki vah sneh evam sahaanubhooti ka paatr hai.

dharmasootrakaaron ki maanyata ke mool mein karm siddhaant hain, jiske anusaar kiya hua koi bhi shubhaashubh karm nasht naheen hota, apitu achhe-bure kisi na kisi fal ko avashya hi utpann karta hai. un karmon ka fal chaahe isi janm mein mil jaae, chaahe agale janm mein, kintu vah milega avashya. isliye vartamaan tatha bhaavi donon hi janm shuddh ho sakein, yahi dharmasootrakaaron ka yatn hai. aachaarashaastr ke mool mein karmasiddhaant hi hai. yahi paap ko door karne ki prerana deta hai. varnaashram dharm ke saath hi dharmasootron mein raajadharm ka bhi gahan vivechan kiya gaya hai. raaja mein daiveeya ansh ki kalpana ki gayi hai. dharmasootron mein raaja ke kartavya, adhikaar evam samaajavirodhi tatvon ke liye dand-vyavastha par bhi vichaar kiya gaya hai. dharm tatha arth ke virodh ki sthiti mein raaja ko dharm ka hi paksh lena chaahiye. raaja ke liye yuddhaadi ke niyamon ka ullekh bhi in granthon mein kiya gaya hai yatha braahman, peeth dikhaane wala, bhoomi par baithane wala ye avadhya kahe gaye hain. is prakaar dharmasootr raajashaastr ke pramukh vishyon tatha upaadaanon ki saamaanya vivechana prastut karte hain. is prakaar apne samay mein varnaashram ke kartavyon ka nirdhaaran karke dharmasootrakaaron ne samaaj ko uchit disha dene mein mahatvapoorn bhoomika ka nirvaah kiya hai. saath hi aparaadhon ke liye vividh prakaar ke praayashchit tatha dand-vidhaan karke samaaj ko aparaadhamukt karne ka bhi yatn kiya. saamaajik reeti-rivaajon evam aachaar-vyavahaar ko maanyata pradaan karna dharmasootrakaaron ka hi kaarya tha. prateet hota hai ki us kaal mein dharmasootrakaar samaaj ko saamaajik evam naitik drushti se niyntrit evam sanyamit karne mein lage hue the. ek sabhya evam svasth samaaj ke liye yeh anivaarya tha.

praasangikta

aaj samaaj mein poorvaapekshaya anek parivartan ho chuke hain. yatha-aaj raajaneetik pranaali evam nyaaya-vyavastha badal chuki hai. shiksha ka svaroop tatha sansthaaeain bhi ve naheen hain, jo praacheenayug mein theen. varnavyavastha ka sthaan janmagat jaati-pratha ne le liya hai. saamaajik tatha naitik moolya bhi poorvaapekshaya parivrtit hue hain. daayaad tatha sampatti-vibhaajan aadi ke liye bhi aaj raajaneetik kaanoon hi sarvamaanya hain, ityaadi. aise samay mein in dharmasootron ki parimit praasangikta hi maani ja sakti hai. Gautam tatha baudhaayan aadi dharmasootron se hamein paryaapt maatra mein bhaugolik sanket bhi praapt hote hain, yatha baudhaayan dharmasootr* mein shishton ke desh ki seema batalaayi gayi hai. yahi aaryaavart hai tatha is pradesh ka aacharan anyon ke liye pramaan hai. manusmruti mein bhi iska ullekh kiya gaya hai.* mein anya aachaaryon ka mat bhi diya gaya hai ki ganga tatha yamuna ke beech ka pradesh bhi aaryaavart hai. is prakaar bhaugolik jaankaari dene ke roop mein bhi ye sootragranth mahatvapoorn sthaan rakhate hain. in dharmagranthon mein anek praacheen aachaaryon ke maton ka naam lekar ya bina naam liye hi ullekh kiya gaya jisse hamein unke mat jaanane mein bhi sahaayata milti hai. dharmasootron* se hamein jaatiyon ki utpatti ka itihaas jaanane mein bhi paryaapt sahaayata milti hai.

dharmasootr tatha dharmashaastr mein antar

(1) adhiktar dharmasootr ya to kisi sootracharan se sambaddh kalp ke bhaag hai ya gruhyasootron se sambandh rakhate hain, jabki dharmashaastr kisi bhi sootracharan se sambandhit naheen hain.

(2) dharmashaastr padyamaya hain, jabki dharmasootr gadya ya gadya-padya mein hote hain.

(3) dharmasootron mein apni shaakha ke ved athva charan ke prati aadar vishesh rahata hai, jabki dharmashaastron mein aisa naheen hai.

(4) dharmasootron mein vishay-vivechan ka koi nishchit kram naheen rahata, jabki dharmashaastron mein sabhi vishyon ka aachaar, vyavahaar tatha praayashchitt in teen bhaagon mein vibhaajan karke kramabaddh tatha vyavasthit vivechan upalabdh hota hai.

maiksamoolar ke anusaar dharmashaastr dharmasootron ke roopaantar maatr hain. unka svatantr astitv naheen hai. tadanusaar manusmruti maitraayani shaakha ke kisi praacheen maanav dharmasootr ka naveen sanskaran maatr hai.

dharmasootr tatha gruhyasootr

gruhyasootr tatha dharmasootr donon hi smaartt hain. kabhi-kabhi dharmasootr apne kalp ke gruhyasootron ka anusaran bhi karte hain tatha gruhyasootron ke hi vishay ka pratipaadan karte hain. tathaapi unki satta evam praamaanikta svatantr hai. is samay chaar hi dharmasootr aise upalabdh hain jo apne gruhyasootron ka anusaran karte hain. ye hain – baudhaayan, aapastamb, hirnyakeshi tatha vaikhaanas gruhyasootr. anya gruhyasootron ka anusaran karne vaale dharmasootr is samay upalabdh naheen hain. yeh bhi maana jaata hai ki apne-apne kalp ke gruhyasootr tatha dharmasootr ka kartta ek hi vyakti hota tha. dau॰ raamagopaal ne is vishay mein yeh vichaar prakat kiya hai- 'yeh to siddh hai ki ek hi kalp ke gruhyasootr tatha dharmasootr ka kartta kae hi vyakti tha, kintu is vishay mein matabhed paaya jaata hai ki ek hi shaakha ke sabhi gruhyasootron ke anuroop dharmasootron ki bhi rachana ki gayi thi ya keval kuchh shaakhaaon ke kalpon mein hi yeh visheshata rakhi gayi thi.' kundal laala sharma bhi dharm, shraut tatha gruhyasootr in teenon ka kartta ek hi vyakti ko maanate hue likhte hain- 'yeh siddhaant sthir samajhna chaahiye ki ek kalp ke shraut, gruhya tatha dharmasootron ke kartta ek hi vyakti the.' yadi inke kartta ek hi vyakti the to ye granth samakaalik rahe honge. ek hi kartta ne kaun-sa sootragranth pehle racha tatha kaun-sa baad mein, isse inke paurvaaparya par vishesh antar naheen padta. dau॰ Umesh chandr paandeya ne dharmasootron ke teekaakaaron ke aadhaar par aisa sanket bhi diya hai ki dharmasootr, shraut tatha gruhyasootron se poorv vidyamaan the, kintu dau॰ paandeya ne is tathya ko asveekaar karte hue pratipaadan kiya hai ki dharmasootr shrautasootr tatha gruhyasootron ke baad ki rachanaaeain hain.*

dharmasootron ka rachana-kaal

Gautam, baudhaayan tatha aapastamb dharmasootron ko anya dharmasootron ki apeksha praacheen maana jata hai tatha inka kaal 300 i॰apoo॰ tatha 600 i॰apoo॰ ke madhya rakha jaata hai. maanav-jeevan ko niyantrit karne ke liye manusmruti aadi dharmashaastr tatha gautamaadi ke dvaara praneet dharmasootron ke roop mein do prakaar ke granth upalabdh hote hain. prashn hai ki dharmashaastr poorvavarti hai ya dharmasootr poorvavarti hain? vidvaanon ne donon hi pakshon mein apni vyavastha di hai. ant: saakshya ke aadhaar par dharmashaastron ko dharmasootron se poorvavarti maana ja sakta hai, kyonki dharmasootron mein dharmashaastr tatha inke kartaaon ka ullekh anekatr hua hai. iske liye nimn udaaharan drashtavya hain jahaaain par ki* dharmashaastr ka ullekh hua hai-'tasya ch vyavahaaro vede dharmashaastraakhyaaङagaani upaveda: puraanam.' itna hi naheen, apitu Gautam dharmasootr mein manu ka saakshaat naam bhi liya gaya hai.* dharmasootron mein anek sthaanon par 'AK'* tatha 'aachaarya'* aadi shabdon dvaara anyon ke mat ka bhi ullekh kiya gaya hai. is aadhaar par kuchh vidvaanon ne nishkarsh nikaala hai ki ye sanket dharmashaastron ki or hi hain. kintu ukt kathan anumaan par hi aadhrut hai. 'AK' tatha 'aachaarya:' aadi shabdon ke dvaara anya dharmasootrakaaron ka smaran bhi kiya ja sakta hai keval dharmashaastrakaaron ka hi naheen. at: is hetu ko dharmashaastron ki poorvakaalikta ke roop mein upasthit naheen kiya ja sakta. punarapi Gautam dharmasootr mein manu dharmashaastron ka ullekh hone se inko Gautam dharmasootr se poorvavarti maanana hi sameecheen hai.

kundanalaal sharma ne apna aashay in shabdon mein vyakt kiya hai- sootr-rachana se poorv bhi padyaatmak rachana thi kintu vah nasht ho gayi. byoohalar ke anusaar is prakaar ke shlok smrutishaayabhoot lokaprachalit padyon ke ansh the. maiksamoolar ne dharmashaastron ki apeksha dharmasootron ko poorvavarti maana hai. stentsalar ka anuvaad karte hue maiksamoolar ne balapoorvak yeh mat vyakt kiya hai ki sabhi padayaatmak dharmashaastron ki rachana bina kisi apavaad ke praacheen sootr-rachanaaon ke aadhaar par ki gayi thi. dau॰ bhaandaarakar ka bhi yahi vichaar hai ki dharmasootron ki rachana ke pashchaat hi anushtup chhand vaale dharmashaastron ki rachana ki gayi. ma॰ama॰apee॰avee॰ kaane isse sahamat naheen hain. unke anusaar dharmasootr poorvavarti hain tatha dharmashaastr paravarti- 'isi prakaar kuchh bahut puraane sootron yatha baudhaayan dharmasootr mein bhi ek shlok uddhrut hain', isse yeh spasht ho jaata hai ki shlokabaddh dharmagranth dharmasootron se bhi poorv vidyamaan the. manusmruti aadi dharmashaastron ke kaal par vichaar karte hue hamein yeh bhi dhyaan mein rakhana hoga ki yaaskaachaarya ne nirukt mein manu ka naam liya hai. at: maanana hoga ki yaask se poorv dharmashaastr vidyamaan the. yaask ka kaal 800 i॰ poo॰ maana jaata hai. manusmrutyaadi dharmashaastr isse poorvavarti hain tatha dharmasootr yaask ke samakaaleen ya isse bhi uttaravarti siddh hote hain. itna to nishchit hai ki dharmasootron mein praacheenatam Gautam, baudhaayan aur aapastamb ke dharmasootr isa poorv 600 aur 300 ke beech ke samay ke hain.*

pramukh dharmasootr

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain