dhammapad

dhammapad bauddh saahitya ka sarvotkrusht lokapriya granth hai. ismein buddh bhagavaan ke naitik upadeshon ka sangrah yamak, appamaad, chitt aadi 26 vaggon (vargon) mein vargeekrut 423 paali gaathaaon mein kiya gaya hai. tripitk mein iska sthaan suttapitk ke paaainchavein vibhaag khuddakanikaaya ke khuddakapaathaadi 15 upavibhaagon mein doosra hai. granth ki aadhi se adhik gaathaaeain tripitk ke naana sutton mein prasangabaddh pai ja chuki hain. kuchh gaathaaeain aisi bhi prateet hoti hain jo moolat: parampara ki naheen theen, kintu bhaarateeya gyaan ke us apaar bhandaar mein se li gayi hai jahaaain se ve upanishd, geeta, manusmruti, mahaabhaarat, jainaagam evam panchatantr aadi katha kahaaniyon mein bhi naana prakaar se pravisht hui hain. dhammapad ki rachana upalabdh pramaanon se E.poo. 300 va 100 ke beech ho chuki thi, aisa maana gaya hai.

anukram

mahatva

bauddh sangh mein is granth ka itna gahra prabhaav hai ki usamein paarangat hue bina lanka mein kisi bhikshu ko upasanpada pradaan naheen ki jaati. 'dhammapad ka vyutpattigt arth hai dharmavishyak koi shabd, pankti ya padyaatmak vachan'. granth mein swayam kaha gaya hai- anarth padon se yukt sahasron gaathaaon ke bhaashaan se aisa ekamaatr arthapad, gaathaapad va dhammapad adhik shreyakar hai jise sunakar upashaanti ho jaae (ga. 100- 102). bauddh saadhu praaya: isi granth ki kisi gaatha ya uske anshamaatr ka aadhaar lekar apna pravachan aarambh karte hain, jis prakaar isaai paadari baaibil ke kisi vachan se. is kaarya mein unhein dhammapad ki atthakatha naamak teeka se badi sahaayata milti hai jismein pratyek gaatha ke vishd arth ke atirikt uske drushtaant svaroop ek va anek kathaaeain di gayi hain. yeh attakatha buddhaghosh ya unke kaalavarti kisi anya aachaarya dvaara tripitk mein se hi sangruheet ki gayi hain. ismein vaasavadatta aur udayan ki katha bhi I hai.

dhammapad ka varnya vishay

jo granth itna praacheen hai, jiski bauddh sanpradaaya mein mahaan pratishtha hai, tatha anya vidvaanon ne bhi jiski mukt kanth se prashansa ki hai, usamein saamaanya vyaavahaarik neeti ke atirikt kaisa tatvachintan upasthit kiya gaya hai, iski svabhaavat: jijnyaaasa hoti hain. granth mein bauddhadarshanasammat trishran, chaar aaryasatya tatha ashtaangik maarg ka to ullekh hai hi (ga. 190-192), kintu usamein aatma, nirvaan, punarjanm, punya-paap va svarg narak aadi aisi baaton par bhi kuchh spasht vichaar paae jaate hain jinke sambandh mein swayam bauddh dharm ke naana sanpradaayon mein matabhed hai. yahaaain swayam Bhagwan buddh kehte hain, "main anek janmon roop sansaar mein lagaataar dauda aur us gruhakaarak shareer ke nirmaata ko dhoondhata fira, kyonki yeh baar-baar ka janmamaran du:khadaayi hai. re gruhakaarak, ab mainne tujhe dekh liya, ab too pun: ghar na bana paavega. mainne teri sab kadiyon ko bhagn kar daala, gruhakoot bikhr gaya, chitt sanskaararahit ho gaya aur meri trushna ksheen ho gayi" (ga. 153-54) yahaaain ek jeev aur uske punarjanm tatha sanskaar va trushna ke vinaash dvaara punarjanm se mukti ki maanyata suspasht hai. moksh ka svaroop evam use praapt karne ki kriya ka yahaaain is prakaar varnan hai- "jinke paapon ka sanchaya naheen raha ya jinka bhojanamaatr parigrahashesh raha hai, tatha aasrav ksheen ho gaye hain, unako vah shoonyaatmak va animittak moksh gochaar hai (ga. 92-93). yahaaain paapabandh ke kaaranon, aasravon tatha sanchit karmon ke kshaya se mokshapraapti moksh ke shoonyaatmak aur animittak svaroop ka vidhaan kiya gaya hai. "koi paapakarmi garbh se manushya ya pashuyoni mein utpann hote hain, koi narak ho aur koi sumati dvaara svarg ko jaate hain, tatha jinke aasrav naheen raha ve parinirvaan ko praapt hote hain. antariksh, samudra, parvatavivr aadi jagat bhar mein aisa koi pradesh naheen jahaaain jaakar paapi karmafal paane se chhoot sake" (ga. 126-27) "asatyavaadi paapi aur asanyami kashaayadhaari bhikshu pramaadi, paradharasevi, mithyaadrushti aadi sab narakagaami hai" (306-09). yahaaain jeev ki garbh yoni, narak, svarg va mukti in gatiyon tatha karmafal ki anivaaryata ki sveekruti mein sandeh naheen rahata. braahman ka svaroop ek poore vagg (ga. 383-423) mein batalaaya gaya hai, jo aitihaasik, dhaarmik, saamaajik anek drushtiyon se mahatvapoorn hain. jaati, gotr, jata tatha mrugacharm maatr se evam bheetar maila rahakar baahar mal malakar snaan karne se koi braahman naheen hota. main to braahman usi ko kahooainga jo kaamatrushna ka tyaagi, anaasakt, ahinsak, man-vachan-kaaya se paapaheen, raagadvesh maan se rahit, kshamaasheel, gyaani, dhyaani, ksheenasrav arahant hain. 100 varshon tak prati maas sahasron ka daan dete hue yagya karanevaale ki apeksha ek moohartamaatr aatmabhaavana se pooja karanevaala shreshth hai (ga.106)

vibhinn roop

bauddhadharm vibhinn sanpradaayon mein bainta, Asia mahaadveep ke naana deshon mein faila hai. svabhaavat: deshakaal ki suvidhaanusaar uske saahitya ne bhi vividh bhaashaatmak roop dhaaran kiye. is paristhiti mein bauddh dharm ka yeh pradhaan granth bhi ek roop naheen rah saka. uske naana roopon mein se ek ka pata madhya-Asia ke khutaan naamak pradesh mein chala. vahaaain san 1892 mein ek fraanseesi yaatri ko kharoshtri lipi mein likhit dharm granth ka kuchh ansh mila. usi ka doosra ansh petrograad pahuaincha. in donon ke milaakar senaart saahab ne san 1897 mein usaka sanpaadan prakaashan kiya. yahi granth adhik vyavasthit roop mein varuaa aur mitr dvaara sanpaadit hokar san 1921 mein Calcutta vishvavidyaalaya se prakaashit hua. in sampaadkon ke mataanusaar is dhammapad ki bhaasha gaandhaar pradesh ki hai aur vah apni dhvaniyon aur bhaashaatmak svaroop mein ashok ki shahabaajagadhi va manasehara waali prashastiyon ki bhaasha se mel khaati hai. isliye is granth ka naam "praakrut dhammapad" rakha gaya hai. ismein 12 vagga aur 251 gaathaaeain hain.

senaart dvaara sanpaadit sanskrut mahaavastu ke truteeya parichhed mein dhammapad-sahassavagrg (dharmapadesu sahasr varg:) ke 24 padya uddhrut kiye gaye hain. jabki paali tripitk ke sahassavagg mein kul 16 gaathaaen hi hain. isse prateet hota hai ki mahaavastu ke karta ke sanmukh ek sanskrut padyaatmak dharmapad tha jismein padyon ki sakhya paali dhammapad ki apeksha adhik thi.

cheeni bhaasha mein dhammapad ke chaar anuvaad milte hain, jinmein se ek mein 500, doosare mein 700, teesare mein 900 aur chauthe mein lagbhag 1000 gaathaaon ka anuvaad hai aur unki atthakathaaeain pai jaati hain. inmein se pratham teen ka rachanaakaal isa ki teesari shati va chaturth ka chauthi va naunvi shatiyon ke beech pramaanit hota hai. in chaaron ke mool granth unke vargon tatha gaathaaon ki sankhya evam kram mein bahut kuchh svatantr rahe honge. in chaar mein paali evam praakrut ke ukt do roopon ko milaane se dhammapad ke kam se kam chhah sanskaran hamaare sanmukh aate hain, jinka prachaar E.poo. se lekar 18veen shati tak lanka, syaam, barma, madhya Asia tatha cheen deshon mein hua paaya jaata hai.

dhammapad ki sanrachana

  1. yamak vagg
  2. appamaad vagg
  3. chitt vagg
  4. pushf vagg
  5. baal vagg
  6. pandit vagg
  7. arahant vagg
  8. sahass vagg
  9. paap vagg
  10. dand vagg
  11. jara vagg
  12. atth vagg
  13. lok vagg
  14. buddh vagg
  15. sukh vagg
  16. piya vagg
  17. kodh vagg
  18. mal vagg
  19. dhammatth vagg
  20. maagg vagg
  21. pakeernak vagg
  22. nirya vagg
  23. naag vagg
  24. tanha vagg
  25. bhikkhu vagg
  26. braahman vagg

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vikisors mein dhammapad lekh se sambandhit mool saahitya hai.

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