dhalavaan loha

aayaran-semeintaait meta-stebal daayagraam.

dhalavaan loha (Caste aayaran) aam taur par dhoosar rang ke lohe ko kaha jaata hai lekin iske saath-saath yeh ek bade punj mein lauh ayaskon ka mishran bhi hai, jo ek galanakraantik tareeke se thos ban jaata hai. kisi bhi dhaatu ki khandit satah ko dekhkar uske mishr dhaatu hone ka pata lagaaya ja sakta hai. safed dhalavaan lohe ka naamakaran iski khandit safed satah ke aadhaar par kiya gaya hai kyonki ismein kaarbaaid sambandhi ashuddhiyaan pai jaati hain jiski vajah se ismein seedhi daraar padti hai. dhoosar dhalavaan lohe ka naamakaran iski khandit dhoosar satah ke aadhaar par kiya gaya hai, iske khandit hone ka kaaran yeh hai ki grefaait ki paratein padaarth ke tootane ke dauraan padne waali daraar ko vikshepit kar deti hain jisse anginat nai daraarein padne lagti hain.

mishr (ayask) dhaatu mein paae jaane vaale padaarthon ke vajan (wt%) mein se 95% se bhi adhik loha (Fe) hota hai jabki anya mukhya tatvon mein kaarban (C) aur silikaun (Si) shaamil hain. dhalavaan lohe mein kaarban ki maatra 2.1 se 4 wt% hoti hai. dhalavaan lohe mein silikaun ki paryaapt raashi, saamaanya roop se 1 se 3 wt% hoti hai aur iske falasvaroop in dhaatuon ko trigut Fe-C-Si (loha-kaarban-silikn) dhaatu maana jaana chaahiye. tathaapi dhalavaan loha ghaneekaran ka siddhaant dviaadhaari loha-kaarban charan aarekh se samajh aata hai, jahaan galanakraantik bindu 1,154 °ase (2,109 °afai) aur 4.3 wt% kaarban ke 4.3 % vajan (4.3 wt%) par hai. choonki dhalavaan lohe ki sanrachana ka anumaan is tathya se hi lag jata hai ki, iska 1,150 se 1,200 °ase (2,100 se 2,190 °afai) galanaank (pighlane ka taapamaan) shuddh lohe ke galanaank se lagbhag 300 °ase (572 °afai) kam hai.

pitvaan dhalavaan lohe ko chhodkar, baaki dhalavaan lohe bhangur hote hai. nimn galanaank (kam pighlane vaale taapamaan), achhi dravata, aakaar dene ki yogyata, ichhit aakaar dene ki utkrusht yogyata, viroopan karne ke liye pratirodh aur jeern hone ke pratirodh ke saath dhalavaan loha anuprayogon ki vyaapak shreni ke saath engineering saamagri ban gaye hain, pipe aur masheenon aur motor vaahan udyog ke kuchh hisson, jaise cylinder heds (upayog mein giraavat), cylinder block aur giyrabauks ke dabbe (kesej)(upayog mein giraavat) mein iska prayog kiya jaata hai. yeh okseekaran (jang) ke dvaara kshaya hone aur kamjor ho jaane mein pratirodhi hai.

anukram

utpaadan

dhalavaan loha skraip aayaran aur skraip steel ki paryaapt maatra ke saath pig aayaran ko pun: pighlaakar aur avaanchhaneeya dooshanakaari tatvon jaise faasforas aur salfar ko door karne ke liye vibhinn charanon ka upayog karke banaaya jaata hai. anuprayog ke aadhaar par, kaarban aur silikaun saamagri ko vaanchhit star tak kam kiya jaata hain, jo 2-3.5% aur 1 se 3% kramash: ke beech kuchh bhi ho sakta hai. kaasting dvaara antim roop ke utpaadan se pehle anya tatvon ko fir pighlein hue padaarth mein joda jaata hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

lohe ko kabhi kabhi ek vishesh prakaar ki visfot bhatthi, jise kupola kehte hai, mein pighlaaya jaata hai lekin jyaadaatar vaidyut praveshan bhattiyon mein pighlaaya jaata hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein] pighlane ki prakriya ke poore hone ke baad pighlein hue lohein ko ek bhatthi ya karachhul mein daal diya jaata hai.

prakaar

dhalavaan loha dren, bekaar aur veint paaiping

mishradhaatu tatv

dhalavaan loha ke gun vibhinn mishradhaatu tatvon athva mishradhaatuon alloyant ke mishran se badalate rahate hain. kaarban ke baad, silikaunahi sabse mahatvapoorn mishradhaatu (alloyant) hai jo kaarban ko baahar nikaal deta hai. iske bajaay kaarban grefaait ke roopon mein badal jaata hai falat: naram lohe ban jaate hain, sikudan ko kam kar dete hain, shakti ko kam karte hai aur ghanatv ko bhi kam kar dete hain. gandhak (salfar), jab milaaya jaata hai, to aayaran salfaaid,banta hai, jo grefaait ka gathan rokata hai aur kathorata ko badhaata hai. salfar ke saath samasya yeh hai ki yeh pighle hue dhalavaan lohe ko nistej (akriyaasheel) banaata hai, jo kam chalne ke dosh (kam tikaaupan) ka kaaran banta hai. salfar mainganeej ke prabhaav ke pratikaarake liye lauh salfaaid ke bajaay mainganeej salfaaid milaaya jaata hai. mainganeej salfaaid pighle laavaaki tulana mein halake hain isliye pighlan aur dhaatumal se baahar aakar tairane lagte hain. salfar ko beasar ke liye mainganeej ki aavashyak maatra 1.7 × salfar saamagri + 0.3 % hai. yadi isse adhik maatra mein mainganeej milaaya jaata hai to mainganeej kaarbaaidaki utpatti hoti hai jo bhoore lauh ke sivaaya, kathorata aur drutasheetan mein vruddhi karta hai, jahaan mainganeej ka ghanatv aur kshamata 1% badh jaati hai.[1]

mishradhaatuon (alloyants) mein nikal sabse adhik aam hai kyonki yeh grefaait sanrachana aur parlaait pearliteko parishuddh karta hai, majabooti (kathorata) badhaata hai aur kathorata ke kaaran motaai ke beech ke khand mein asamaanata ko kam karta hai. grefaait mukt kam karne ke liye thodi maatra mein kromiymakalachhul mein mila diya jaata hai, thandak paida karne ke liye aur kyonki yeh shaktishaali [[kaarbaaid staaibilaaijar {/1 hai, isliye sanyojan ke roop mein aksar {2}niklako milaaya jaata hai.]] 0.5% kromiym ke vikalp ke roop mein thodi si maatra tinki milaai ja sakti hai. thanda kam karne ke liye, grefaait parishkrut karne ke liye aur dravata mein vruddhi ke liye, taanba (kaupar) ko 2.5% par 0.5 ke anupaat mein kalachhul mein ya bhatthi mein milaaya jaata hai. thanda badhaane ke liye tatha grefaait aur parlaait (pearlite) ki sanrachana ko parishkrut karne ke liye molibdenam Molybdenum 1% par 0.3 ke anupaat mein milaaya jaata hai; aksar uchch kshamata vaale lohe ke gathan ke liye yeh taanba, nikal aur kromiym ke sanyojan ke roop mein milaaya jaata hai. taaiteniym agaisakaarak (degasser) aur ni:oksakarani (deoxidizer) ke roop mein milaaya jaata hai, lekin yeh taralata bhi badhaata hai. sanyojan mein drudhta, kathorata mein vruddhi aur garmi sahane tatha pratirodh karne ki kshamata mein vruddhi ke liye vanaadiym vanadium dhalavaan lohe mein 0.15-0.5% ke anupaat mein milaaya jaata hai. 0.1-0.3% jirokoniam zirconium grefaait banaane ke liye, ni:oksakaran (deoxidize) mein aur dravata mein vruddhi mein madad karta hai.

kitna atirikt silikaun joda ja sakta hai yeh jaanane ke liye pitvaan lohe mein pighla vismut 0.002 se 0.01% ke anupaat mein mila diya jaata hai. pitvaan lohe ke utpaadan mein sahaayata karne ke liye safed lohe mein, [[boraan (boron)/0} milaaya jaata hai, yeh vismuth ke khuradurepan ke prabhaav ko bhi kam kar deta hai.|boraan (boron)/0} milaaya jaata hai, yeh vismuth ke khuradurepan ke prabhaav ko bhi kam kar deta hai.[1]]]

dhoosar dhalavaan loha

dhoosar dhalavaan loha ek visheshata iski apni grefaaitik sookshm sanrachana (graphitic microstructure) hona hai, jiske kaaran dhaatu dhoosar deekhata hai. yeh sabse adhik istemaal kiya jaane wala dhalavaan loha hai aur vajan ke aadhaar par sabse vyaapak roop se prayog mein aane wala dhalavaan padaarth hai. adhiktar dhalavaan lohon mein 2.5 se 4.0% kaarban ka, 1 se 3% silikaun ka aur shesh lauh ka ek raasaayanik sanyojan hota hai. dhoosar dhalavaan loha mein ispaat ki tulana mein kam tanya shaktiaur kam praghaat pratirodhaki kshamata hoti hai, lekin iski sanpeedak (compressive) kshamata nimn aur madhyam kaarban ispaat ke saath tulaneeya hai.

safed dhalavaan loha

silikaun ki alp maatra aur teji se thanda karne ke saath, safed dhalavaan lohe mein kaarban, pighle padaarth se dhaatveeya sthreereekaranmetastable ke charan mein thos cementite hokar, Fe3C, baahar avakshepit (precipitates) ho jaata hai, bajaay grefaait ke roop mein. sanyojit (Cementite) padaarth jo pighle roop se apekshaakrut bade kanon ke roop mein avakshipt (precipitates) ho jaata hai, aamtaur par, ek anya galanakraantik mishran mein, jahaan ek aur charan hai (jo thanda hone par ostenaait austenitese maartenasaait martensite mein parint ho sakta hai). ye galanakraantik kaarbaids (carbides) itne adhik bade hain ki avakshepan ko kathorapan pradaan karte hain (jiski kuchh steels mein, jahaan feraait maitriks ke maadhyam se gatimyata mein avyavastha paida kar sanyojit avakshepan [[plastic{/0 mein {0}viroopan]]rok sakta hai. balki, ve dhalavaan loha ke thok parimaan mein kathorata mein vruddhi karte hain ekamaatr apni swayam ki bahut uchch kathorata ke aadhaar par evam paryaapt maatra mein unke ansh hone ke kaaran, itna ki mishran ke ek niyam ke dvaara sahi anumaan ke nikat (approximated) pahuncha ja sakta hai. kisi bhi maamale mein, majabooti ki keemat par ve kathorata pradaan karte hain. choonki kaarbaaid padaarth ke ek bade ansh mein maujood hai, safed dhalavaan lohe ko ek yathochit tareeke se sarmet cermet ke roop mein vargeekrut kiya ja sakta hai. safed loha kai sanrachanaatmak upayogon ke liye bahut hi bhangur ghatak hai, lekin achhi kathorata aur gharshan pratirodhakata tatha apekshaakrut kam laagat ke kaaran, yeh aise anuprayogon mein prayog ke roop mein satahon ke anusaar jaiseki (prerit karanevaalaaaur [[kundalit vakr) gaara panp baal milon mein shel laainars aur liftar baars, tatha svajaat (aatmamoolak) peesane ki chakkiyon mein, koyale ko choor-choor kar peesane vaale (pulverisers) mein baal aur chhalle aur khudaai ki baalti (faavade)backhoe|kundalit vakr)gaara panp baal milon mein shel laainars aur liftar baars, tatha svajaat (aatmamoolak)[[peesane ki chakkiyon mein, koyale ko choor-choor kar peesane vaale [[(pulverisers) mein baal aur chhalle aur khudaai ki baalti (faavade)backhoe]]]]]] ke daant (haalaanki dhalavaan madhyam- kaarban chitraala (martensitic) ispaat is anuprayog ke liye adhik saamaanya hai).

ghani dhalaai ko kaafi teji se thanda karna aur pighle padaarth ko thos banaana kaafi kathin hai kyonki safed dhalavaan loha pighlata hi rahata hai. haalaanki, teji se thanda karne ke liye safed dhalavaan lohe ka ek khol ka istemaal kiya jaata, jiske baad bacha hua padaarth dheere-dheere thanda hokar dhoosar dhalavaan lohe mein badal jaata hai. parinaamasvaroop kaasting (dhalaai) se, jise sheetal dhalaai chilld kaasting kehte hain, kathor satah aur kuchh-kuchh kada inteeriyr ka laabh milta hai.

lohe meinkromiym (Cr)ke uchch pratishat ke upayog dvaara safed dhalavaan loha banaaya ja sakta hai, kromiym Cr ek majaboot kaarbaaid banaane wala tatv hai, at: krom ke paryaapt uchch pratishat par lohe se grefaait ka avakshepan daba diya jaata hai. uchch-krom safed lauh mishr dhaatuen, bhaari parimaan mein dhalaai mein sahaayak hain (udaaharan ke liye ek 10-tan ka prerit karanevaala (imapelar) reteeli dhalaai honi chaahiye, arthaat, ek uchch sheetaleekaran dar ki aavashyakta naheen hoti hai, saath hi saath prabhaavashaali gharshan pratirodh pradaan karne mein bhi sahaanyak hota hai.

pitvaan dhalavaan loha

pitvaan loha safed lohe ki dhalaai ke roop mein shuroo hota hai, jispar tab taap ka prabhaav lagbhag [15] 900 °ase (1,650 °afai) par daala jaata hai. grefaait, dheere dheere alag se is prakriya se baahar nikal aata hai, taaki satah tanaav ke paas itna samay rahe ki ise andaakaar aakruti vaale kan naki papadiyaae hue chhote-chhote tukade ke roop mein aakar grahan karne de. apnenimn abhimukhi anupaat ke kaaran, golaakaar kan (spheroids) apekshaakrut chhote evam ek doosare se door hain aur aamne-saamane kam paar anubhaagahone ke kaaran ek daraar ya fonon (phonon) paida karte hain. chhoti-chhoti papadiyon ya kanon ke vipreet inki bhi kund seemaae hain, jo bhoore dhalavaan loha ki tanaav saghanata ki samasyaaon ko badha deta hai. saamaanyataya, dhalavaan lohe ke gun lagbhag halke steel jaise hi hain. kaise ek bade hisse ko pitva lohe mein dhaala ja sakta hai iski bhi ek seema hai, kyonki yeh safed dhalavaan loha se nirmit hai.

namaneeya (tanya) dhalavaan loha

ek aur haal-filhaal mein vikaas gaanthadaar (pindaakaar) loha ya namaneeya dhalavaan loha hai. chhoti maatra mein maigneeshiym ya sairiym ko in mishr dhaatuon ke saath mila kar grefaait ki satahon ke kinaaron se milne se grefaait ke avakshep ki vruddhi dheemi ho jaati hai. anya tatvon ke saath saavadhaaneepoorvak niyantran aur sahi samay, kaarban ko golaakaar kanon ke roop mein alag ho jaane deta hai jaise hi dhaatu thos aakaar grahan karta hai. ye gun namaneeya (tanya) dhalavaan lohe ke samaan hain, lekin bhaagon ko bade vargon ke saath dhaala ja sakta hai.

dhalavaan lohe ke tulanaatmak gunon ki taalika

dhalavaan lohe ke tulanaatmak gun
[2]
naam [% vajan] dvaara naamamaatr sanrachana prakaar aur avastha utpaadan kshamata [[[ksi|[ksi]] (0.2% ofaset)] tanan kshamata [ksi] deergheekaran [%(2 inchamein] kathorata [[[Brinell paimaane]|[Brinell paimaane]]] upayog
bhoora dhalavaan loha (ASTM)(A48) C3.4,Si18 MN 0.5 dhalavaan - 25 0.5 180 engine cylinder block, flaaivheels, giyrs hai, machine- upakaran ke aadhaar
safed dhalavaan loha C 3.4, Si0.7, MN 0.6 dhalavaan (jaise dhala) - 25 0 450 beyaring satahein
pitvaan loha (ASTM A47) 2,5 si, 1,0 si, 0.55 MN dhalavaan (pakaaya hua) 33 52 12 130 eksel beeyarings, track pahiye, svachaalit krainkshaift
tanya ya gaanthadaar loha C 3.4, P0.1, Mn 0.4 Ni1.0, Mg 0.06 dhalavaan 53 70 18 170 giars, kainmshaifts, krenkshaafts (kreinkadhuri)
tanya ya gaanthadaar loha (ASTM A339) - dhalavaan (thandaakar paani chadhaaya hua) 108 135 5 310 -
Ni-hard type 2 C2,7, Si 0.6, MN 0.5,Ni4.5, Cr 2.0 reteela dhalavaan - 55 - 550 uchch kshamata ke anuprayog
Ni-pratirodhak taaip 2 C 3.0, Si 2.0 Mn1.0,Ni20.0, Cr 2.5 dhalavaan - 27 2 140 taap aur jang se pratirodh

aitihaasik upayog

chitr:Ww1.JPG
A dhalavaan loha wagon vheel

kyonki dhalavaan loha apekshaakrut bhangur hai, yeh aise prayojanon ke liye upayukt naheen hai jahaan ek tej dhaar ya lacheelepan ki aavashyakta hai. yeh sanpeedn ke tahat majaboot hai, lekin tanaav ke antargat naheen. dhalavaan loha ka sarvapratham cheen mein aavishkaar kiya gaya (yeh bhi dekhein: Du Shi), aur pighli dhaatu ko chhoti moortiyaaain aur hathiyaar banaane ke liye saanche mein dhaal dete the. aitihaasik drushti se, iske aaranbhik upayogon mein top aur gole bhi shaamil hain. henari ashtam ne England mein top ki dhalaai shuroo ki. jald hi, angrej lohe ke shramikon ne visfot [[]]bhatthiyon ka upayog kar jo dhalavaan loha se topon ke nirmaan ki takaneek viksit ki, jo peetal ke prachalit topon ki tulana mein adhik bhaari, magar jyaada saste the, tatha England ki nausena ko aur bhi behtar banaane mein saksham the. veld ke aayaran master ne 1760s ke dashakon tak loha ka utpaadan jaari rakha aur bahaali ke baad aayudh mein mukhya upayog mein loha bhi ek tha.

kai english visfot bhattiyon mein dhalavaan lohe ke bartan us samay banaae jaate the. 1707 mein, ibraaheem darbi (Abraham Darby) ne bartanau (aur ketaliyon) ko patali banaane ki vidhi ko peteint karavaaya aur isliye apne pratidvandviyon ki tulana mein sasta kar sake. iska matlab tha ki unki kaulabrukadel bhattiyaan bartan ke aapoortikrtaaon mein pramukh ban gain, ek aisi gatividhi jismein ve 1720s aur 1730s ke dashakon mein ek chhoti sankhya mein anya kok-keevisfot bhattiyon mein shaamil ho gaye.

[[Thomas nyookomein Thomas Newcomen dvaara bhaap ke engine ke vikaas ne aage chalakar dhalavaan loha ko baajaar pradaan kiya, kyonki moolat: peetal se bane engine cylinder|Thomas nyookomein Thomas Newcomen dvaara bhaap ke engine ke vikaas ne aage chalakar dhalavaan loha ko baajaar pradaan kiya, kyonki moolat: peetal se bane engine cylinder ]] ki tulana mein dhalavaan loha kaafi sasta tha. John vilkinsan dhalavaan loha ke ek mahaan pratipaadak the, jo anya cheejon ke alaava James vaat ki viksit bhaapinjanake liye cylinderon ko dhaalate rahe jab tak ki 1795 mein soho faaundri ki sthaapana naheen ho gayi.

dhalavaan lohe ke pul

sanrachanaatmak prayojanon ke liye dhalavaan lohe ka upayog 1770 ke antim dashakon mein aarambh hua, jab ibraaheem darbi III ne lohe ka pul banaaya, haalaanki chhote beemon ka pehle se hi hone laga tha, jaiseki kolabrukadel (Coalbrookdale) ki visfot bhattiyon mein is tarah ka istemaal kiya gaya hai. Thomas paain (Thomas Paine) ke ek peteint ke baad, anya aavishkaar bhi shaamil hain. jaise-jaise audyogik kraantimein gati aane lagi dhalavaan lohe ke pul aam baat ban gaye. Thomas telaford, apastreem mein jalasetu par apne pul bildvaas Buildwas ke liye aur fir par laungadan-on-turn par bane shreeusbari Shrewsbury.nahar ke liye is saamagri ko apnaaya.

iska anusaran chark krutrim jalapranaali (Chirk Aqueduct) aur pontasaailaait krutrim jalapranaali Pontcysyllte Aqueduct)ke liye kiya gaya jin donon mein hi haal-filhaal ke jeernoddhaar mein iska istemaal barkaraar raha. aarambh mein dhalavaan lohe ke beam ke pulon ka dhadlle se prayog kiya jaata raha, jaiseki livrapool aur Manchester railway ke liye Manchester tarmins ke vaatar street par bana pul[[]]. samasyaaon tab paida huin jab [[chestar aur holeehed railway ke liye chestar ke di nadi par bana ek naya pul|chestar aur holeehed railway ke liye chestar ke di nadi par bana ek naya pul]] May 1847 mein dhvast ho gaya, kam se kam ek varsh ke baad ise khola gaya tha. [[di pul ki aakasmik ghatna beam ke kendra par ek gujarati hui train ke atyadhik lod ke kaaran hui aur isi tarah ke kai pul dhvast hue aur aksar dhalavaan lohe sepunarnimit hue.]] pul ki design mein glati thi, dhalavaan lohe ki pattiyaaain se bandhe hue the, jo bhool se sanrachana ko sudrudh karne ke liye aisa kiya gaya lag rahe the. nichle kinaaron mein kam tanaav ke saath, beems ke kendron mein jhukaav tha, jisme dhalavaan lohe ki tarah, chinaai kaafi kamjor thi.

pul ke nirmaan ke liye dhalavaan lohe ke istemaal ka sabse achha tareeka meharaab(aarch) ka upayog hai, taaki sabhi padaarth sanpeedn mein bane rahein. dhalavaan loha, fir se chinaai ki tarah, sampeedan mein bahut majaboot hai. doosare prakaar ke lohe ki tarah aur aur vaastav mein aam taur par adhikaansh dhaatuon ki tarah, tanaav mein majaboot hai aur tootane ya daraar padne mein kathor-pratirodhi bhi. pitvaan lohe aur dhalavaan lohe ke beech sambandh, sanrachanaatmak prayojanon ke liye hai, ho sakta hai lakdi aur patthar ke beech ke rishte ke anuroop hi socha jaata hai.

fir bhi, dhalavaan lohe ka anuchit tareeke se sanrachanaatmak istemaal jaari raha jabatak ki 1879 mein te rel pulTay Rail Bridge ki gambhir durghatana naheen ghati jiske liye upayog mein aayi saamagri ki gunavatta par bhaari sandeh hai. te brij (Tay Bridge) mein taai chhadon aur tech lagaane ke liye istemaal kiye gaye mahatvapoorn lags ke saath column ke abhinn ang the aur ve durghatana ke praarambhik daur mein asafal rahe. iske alaava, bolt ke chhed bhi chhedan yantr se chhed naheen kiye gaye the, sabhi tanaav chhed ki lanbaai mein failane ke bajaay taai ki chhadon par pad gaye jo ek kone mein rakhe hue the. pratisthaapan pul lohe aur ispaat se banaaya gaya.

aage chalakar bhi pul dhvast hue, haalaanki, fir bhi 1891 mein noravud jankshan par rel durghatana ghati. rel laainon ke neeche bane brijon mein antat: hajaaron dhalavaan lohe ki patariyaan steel ke samakaksh badal di gayeen.


File:Original_Tay_Bridge_before_the_1879_collapse.jpg|uttar se orijinl teya pul File:Tay bridge down.JPG|uttar se faulen teya pul File:Ironbridge 6.jpg|inglaind ke kolabrukadel par the aayaran brij over the rivr severn. File:Eglinton Castle & Tournament Bridge 1884.jpg|dhalavaan loha se nirmit the eglintan tournament pul, uttari aayarashaayar, Scotland File:WalesC0047.jpg|jameen se the pontasiseelaait aikvidkt, laangolen, vels dekha gaya.


imaaratein

dhalavaan lohe ke stambhon ne vaastukaaron ko oonchi imaaraton ke nirmaan ke liye aavashyak atyadhik moti deevaaron ke bina bhi kisi bhi oonchaai ki imaarat ki chinaai mein saksham banaaya. is tarah ke lacheelepan ke kaaran oonchi imaaraton mein badi khidkiyon ke liye jagah ki gunjaaish hui. shahari kendron mein New York shahar ke soho (SoHo)dhalavaan loha ke aitihaasik jile ki tarah utpaadan hetu imaaratein aur dipaartameintal stores dhalavaan lauh-stambhon par banaae gaye hain taaki din ke ujaale ko andar aane mein koi dikkat na ho. patale dhalavaan lauh-stambh bhi itna vajan to sanbhaal hi sakte hain anyatha kaarkhaanon mein oopar farsh ki satah kholne aur charchon aur sabhaagaaron mein side laainon ke liye moti chinaai stambh ya mote paae ki aavashyakta hoti.

kapda milein

ek anya mahatvapoorn upayog kapade ki milon mein kiya gaya. milon ke bheetar hava mein oon, san ya kapaas mein nihit jvalanasheel faaibar se kaataai ki jaati hai. nateejatan, kapda milon mein ek khatarnaak jvalanasheel pravrutti maujood rahati hai. samaadhaan ke liye unhein poori tarah gair dahanasheel saamagri se banaaya jaana tha aur imaarat ke liye, jvalanasheel lakdi ki jagah lohe ke frem, khaaskar dhalavaan lohe ke, pradaan karne ko hi suvidhaajanak paaya gaya. aisi pehli imaarat ditheringtan Ditherington. mein shreeusasberri Shrewsbury ki shroffshaayar Shropshire, thi kai anya godaamon ke lohon ke khambhe aur beam banaane mein dhalavaan lohe ka upayog kiya gaya, haalaanki doshapoorn design ke kaaran, daraar vaale beam ya adhik bhaar kabhi kabhi imaarat girne aur sanrachanaatmak vifalta ki vajah bane.

audyogik kraanti ke dauraan, dhalavaan lohe ka bhi vyaapak roop se frem aur machinery ke doosare sthaayi kal-purjon sahit kapda milon mein kataai aur baad mein bunaai ki masheenon ke liye bhi istemaal kiya gaya. dhalavaan lohe ka bade paimaane par istemaal hua hai aur kai kasbon mein dhalaaikhaane hain jo audyogik aur krushi machinery ka utpaadan karte hain.

inhein bhi dekhein

  • Caste-aayaran aarkitekchar
  • meehanaait
  • saind kaasting

sandarbh

  1. a aa Gillespie, LaRoux K. (1988), Troubleshooting manufacturing processes (4th san॰), SME, pa॰ 4-4, aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 9780872633261, http://books.google.com/books?id=SX_SO_CkiUIC&pg=PT195&lpg=PT195.
  2. lyons, William si. aur plisga, Gary J. (eds.) staindard haindabuk of petrolium & natural gas engineering, elseviyr, 2006

aage padhein

  • John glog aur derek brijvautar, (a history of dhalavaan loha in aarkitekchar, Allen end anavin, landan (1948)
  • Peter aar levis, byooteeful railway brij of the silvari teya: ri investeegeting the teya brij dijaistar of 1879, tempas (2004) aaiesabeen (ISBN) 07524 3160 9
  • Peter aar luis, dijaistar on the di: Robert steefeinsan's nemesis of 1847, tempas (2007) aaiesabeeen ISBN 0-7524-4266-2
  • George leyard, richrd gundalach aur klaus roharig, ebraisan-rejistant dhalavaan loha haindabuk, eesaem intaranaishanal (2000) aaiesabeeen (ISBN) 0-87433-224-9

baahari links