dhaatukarm

dhaatunirmaata kaarkhaane mein ispaat ka nirmaan
Delhi ka lauh-stambh bhaarateeya dhaatukarm ke gaurav ka saakshi hai.

dhaatukarm padaarth vigyaan aur padaarth abhiyaantriki ka ek kshetr hai, jiske antargat dhaatuon, unase bani mishradhaatuon aur antardhaatvik yaugikon ke bhautik aur raasaayanik gunon ka adhyayan kiya jaata hai.

anukram

itihaas

manushya dvaara praacheenatam gyaat dhaatu sona hai. taanbe ki khoj ke baad sabhyata mein vyaapak parivartan hua. taamr yug ki sabhyataayein apne pehle ki paashaanakaaleen sabhyataaon se kaafi unnat theen. vruhad rup se prayukt hone waali pehli dhaatu taanba thi, tatpashchaat kaanse aur lohaalohe ki khoj hui.

nishkarshan dhaatukarm

jin khanijoain se kisi dhaatu ko prachur yaani atyaadhik maatra me kam kharche par praapt kiya jaata hai us khanij ko us dhaatu ka ayask kehte haiain, jaise- kaaainpar ko kaaainpar paayaraait se, ailyuminiym ko baaainksaait se, tatha led ko gailena se praapt kiya jaata hai. nishkarshan dhaatukarm dhaatuon ke parishodhan se sanbandhit hai. dhaatuon ko ayaskon se parishodhit kiya jaata hai. ayask saamaanyat: aaksaaid ya salfaaid ke rup mein paaye jaate hain. ayaskon ko raasaayanik ya vaidyut vidhi se apachayit kiya jaata hai.

dhaatukarm : lohas tatha aloh

aadhunik yug mein dhaatuon ka mahatva kisi se chhipa naheen hai. vichaar karke dekha jaae to sahaj hi gyaat ho jaaega ki dainik kaarya mein aanevaali chhoti se chhoti silaai ki suiyon se lekar rel ke vishaalakaaya engine, vimaan, motor gaadiyaaain, saaikilein, jahaaj, bhojan ke baratan, vibhinn prakaar ke aujaar ityaadi sabhi kisi na kisi dhaatu athva mishradhaatu se bane hain (dekhein falak). itna hi naheen, ye vastueain jin kaarkhaanon mein banaai jaati hain, unki masheenein tatha yantr bhi kisi na kisi vastu dhaatu ke hi bane hote hain. is prakaar dhaatuon ki mahatta ko bhali prakaar samjha ja sakta hai parantu iske saath hi yeh jaan lena bhi aavashyak hai ki ye dhaatueain prakruti mein apne vaastavik roop mein naheen pai jaateen. adhiktar dhaatueain oksaaid, salfaaid athva kaarbonet ke roop mein pai jaati hain, jo nyoonaadhik maatra mein vijaateeya padaarthon (gangue materials), jaise choona, silika, maigneeshiya ityaadi, se mili hui hoti hain. prakruti mein pai jaanevaali dhaatuon ke is roop ko ayask (ore) kehte hain. vibhinn ayaskon se dhaatuon ko unke vaastavik roop mein praapt karne tatha unka parishkaar karne, ya unhein aakaar dene, ki vidhiyon ko dhaatukarm kehte hain. aaj ke vishv mein dhaatukarm ka kshetr bahut vistrut ho gaya hai aur ise mukhyat: do bruhat‌ vargon mein vibhaajit kar diya gaya hai :

  • (1) utpaadan dhaatukarm tatha
  • (2) bhautik dhaatukarm (Physical metallurgy)

utpaadan dhaatukarm ko bhi do bruhat‌ bhaagon mein baaaint diya gaya hai :

  • (1) lohas (ferrous) tatha
  • (2) aloh (non-ferrous).

lohas dhaatukarm mein loh tatha ispaat ke utpaadan aur unako aakaar dene ki vibhinn vidhiyon ka samaavesh hota hai. pramukh dhaatuon mein lohe tatha ispaat ka sthaan sarvopari hai. ispaat mein jitne bhautik aur yaantrik gun vidyamaan hain utane anya kisi dhaatu athva usaki mishradhaatu mein naheen. iske saath hi yeh adhikaansh dhaatuon se sasta padta hai. aloh dhaatukarm mein un sabhi dhaatuon ka parishkaar karna tatha aakaar dena sammilit hai jo lohas dhaatukarm ke kshetr mein naheen aateen, jaise taamr, jasta, vang, sees, svarn, rajat, ailyoomeeniym, maigaineej ityaadi.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain