denish Bhaarat

dansk ostindiyen
denish Bhaarat
denish East India company (1620–1777)
dano-naarvejiyn upaniveshavaadi (1777–1814)
dainish upaniveshavaadi (1814–1869)
1620 – 1869 Flag of the British East India Company (1801).svg

Flag of the United Kingdom.svg

Flag of डेनिश भारत

Denmark ka dhvaj

Location of डेनिश भारत
Bhaarat mein Denmark aur anya Europeeya bastiyon
rajdhani fort dansborg
bhaasha(eain) denish bhaasha, tamil, hindustaani, baangla
raajaneetik dhaancha upaniveshon
Denmark ke raaja (aur Norway 1814 tak)
- 1588-1648 krishchiyn IV
- 1863-1906 krishchiyn IX
raajyapaal
- 1620-1621 ove gjedde
- 1673-1682 sivert chortsen adeler
- 1759-1760 krishchiyn frederik hoyer
- 1788-1806 peter anker
- 1825-1829 hans de brinchk-seidelin
- 1841-1845 peder hansen
aitihaasik yug saamraajyavaad
- sansthaapit 1620
- visansthaapit 1869
mudra dainish bhaarateeya rupaya
vartamaan mein Flag of India.svg Bhaarat

denish Bhaarat, Bhaarat[1] mein Denmark ke poorv upaniveshavaadi ke liye shabd hai. Denmark ke shahar sahit, 225 varshon se Bhaarat mein aupaniveshik sampatti aayojit trankuebar vartamaan mein Tamil Nadu raajya, shreeraamapur vartamaan mein pashchim Bengal aur nikobaar dweep samooh, Bhaarat ki vartamaan hissa kendra shaasit pradesh ki andamaan aur nikobaar dweep samooh. Bhaarat mein denish upasthiti ve sainya aur na hi markeintaail khatra na to mudrit sah pramukh Europeeya shaktiyon ko thoda mahatva ka tha.[2] denish Bhaarat mein veinchars, kaheen sah, aam taur par aur domina karne mein saksham naheen poonjeekrut under ya vyaapaar maargon par ekaadhikaar gaya Portugal, haulaind aur Britain ki companiyaan shaamil hain. sakta hai ki ek hi raaste mein[3] sabhi baadhaaon ke khilaaf haalaanki ve apne aupaniveshik ki sampatti se jude hue karne mein kaamayaab rahe aur samay par, ke beech yuddh ka laabh traiking dvaara antarraashtreeya vyaapaar mein moolyavaan aala baahar utkeern desh aur tatasth dhvaj ke tahat bada videshi vyaapaar ki peshakash ki.[4][5] is kaaran se unki upasthiti France ke saath unke gathabandhan ke netrutv mein jab 1845, jab tak sahan kar raha tha colony ke british East India company ko saunp diya ja raha hai haar.

anukram

itihaas

trankuebar par fort dansborg 1620 mein sthaapit kiya gaya tha.

satrahaveen mein dach aur angreji vyaapaariyon ki safalta spaais trade dainish marcheint ke beech irshya ka srot tha baj; haalaanki dach par niyantran East Indies sah abhedya dekha gaya tha. yeh dach saahasi marchelis bhaarateeya up mahaadveep mein shaamil hone ke liye Denmark ke protsaahan ke liye 1618 mein boshouver pradaata ke aagaman liya. shuroo mein haalaanki, yeh iraada naheen tha. marchelis ke raajadoot ke samraat ke liye sah pahunche seelon, chenerat adassin purtagaali khilaaf sainya sahaayata ki maang aur dweep ke saath sabhi vyaapaar par ekaadhikaar ka vaada. unki appeal ne apne deshvaasiyon se khaarij kar diya gaya tha, lekin yeh aashvast krishchiyn IV, dene 1616 mein chaartar jaari karne vaale Denmark-Norway ke raaja, denish East India company ke baarah saal ke liye Denmark aur Asia ke beech vyaapaar par ekaadhikaar.

pehle abhiyaan (1618 - 1620)

Admiral ke tahat 1618 mein pehla set paal abhiyaan dimbagranthi gjedde, seelon tak pahunchane ke liye do saal traiking aur raaste mein aadhe se adhik unke chaalak dal ko khone. May 1620 pahunchane par, ve samraat naheen rah gaya hai pehle purtagaali teen varshon ke saath shaanti samjhauta bana kar kisi bhi videshi sahaayata ki ichha paaya. na hi, Admiral ki bechaini ko, samraat sooraj, ya yahaaain tak ki "is desh mein sabse pratishthit raaja" tha.[6] dainish-seelon vyaapaar anubandh paane mein asafal rahane den sankshep praapt karne se pehle konesvaram mandir par kabja kar liya, is baat ki pushti unke vyaapaar nideshak Robert chrappe se shabd.

chrappe poorv mukhya bede ko oresund ek maheene skaauting maalavaahi par ravaana kiya tha. oresund tat karaikkal band purtagaali jahaajon ka saamana karna pada tha aur chaalak dal ke jyaadaatar ko maar daala, ya kaidi liya saath, doob gaya tha. den ke liye ek chetaavani ke roop mein samudra tat par keel par rakha kahaan do chaalak dal ke sadasyon ke pramukhon. chrappe aur chaalak dal ke 13 ve bhaarateeyon ne kabja kar liya aur tanjaur ke naayak (Tamil Nadu mein ab tanjaavur) le jaaya gaya jahaan yeh kinaare karne ke liye kar rahi hai, haalaanki malabe palaayan kiya tha. naayak vyaapaar ke avsaron mein ruchi hone ke liye baahar kar diya aur chrappe unhein trankuebar ke gaanv dene sandhi par baatcheet karne mein kaamayaab[7] aur "ston house" (fort dansborg) aur levi karon ka nirmaan karne ka adhikaar.[8] yeh 20 November 1620 ko hastaakshar kiye gaye.

praarambhik varshon (1621 - 1639)

colony ke praarambhik varshon kahaan Denmark se bheja sabhi vyaapaarik jahaajon ke lagbhag do tihaai ke nuksaan ke saath milkar gareeb prashaasan aur nivesh. saath, durooh[9] laabh unke maal par kiye vaapas kiya ki jahaajon, lekin kul return. poore upakram ki laagat se achhi tarah se kam gir gaya.[10] iske alaava kaaloniyon ki bhaugolik kiraae par lene ke liye baar baar logon ko kya banaaya nasht kar diya hai, jo uchch jvaareeya laharon ki chapet mein tha. sadkon, gharon, prashaasanik bhavanon, aadi baajaaron.[11] haalaanki iraada angreji aur dach vyaapaariyon ke liye ek vikalp banaane ke liye kiya gaya tha, company aur disha raashtreeya sansaadhanon ke antim punarnirdeshan ki vitteeya sthiti tees saal ke yuddh ke liye khud ko seedhe vyaapaar karne ke liye aur bajaay tatasth teesare paksh banane ke liye colony ke prayaason ka parityaag karne ke liye netrutv Bengal ki khaadi mein maal ke liye vaahak.

1625 tak kaarkhaane masuliptnam, kshetr mein sabse mahatvapoorn emporiym mein sthaapit kiya gaya tha aur kam vyaapaar kaaryaalayon pipli aur baalaasor mein sthaapit kiye gaye the. is ke baavajood, 1627 dvaara colony ve apne kabje mein chhod diya sirf teen jahaajon tha aur puaal par karne ke liye naayak ke liye sahamat hue shraddhaanjali asamarth tha, sthaaneeya tanaav badh ki aise gareeb vitteeya sthiti mein tha. dainish upasthiti bhi angreji aur unhein laagat ke bina kisi bhi asar aapareting unke nausenaaon ke sanrakshan ke antargat maana ja raha hai jo dach vyaapaariyon dvaara avaanchhit tha. iske baavajood ve kaaran Europeeya yuddhon mein apne deshon ki bhaageedaari se sambandhit kootaneetik nihitaarth dainish vyaapaar krash naheen kar sake.[12]

1638 mein yeh prayaas bhang kiya hai karne ke liye company ke pramukh hissedaar dvaara kopenahegan mein banaaya gaya tha, lekin prastaav 1648 mein apni mrutyu tak is tarah ke prayaason ka virodh karne ke liye jaari hoga, jo isaai chaturth dvaara asveekaar kar diya tha.[13] hava ke liye isaai ki anichha ke baavajood apne isht prayaas ap haalaanki, vah vaastav mein sharaab pradaata ka samarthan kar sakta hai ki aisa kuchh naheen tha. 1639 mein do jahaajon Denmark, chhristianshavn aur solen se ravaana hue. ye agale 29 varshon ke liye trankuebar ki yaatra karne ke liye pichhle do dainish jahaajon hoga.

parityaag aur alagaav (1640-1669)

  • 1640 - doosari baar dach kile fort dansborg ko bechne ke liye den prayaas.
  • 1642 - denish kaaloniyon mugl saamraajya ke khilaaf yuddh ki ghoshana ki hai aur Bengal ki khaadi mein jahaajon par chhaapa maarane shuroo. kuchh maheenon ke bheetar hi ve samraat ke mugl jahaajon mein se ek par kabja kar liya tha (bangaali puraskaar naam) ko apne bede mein shaamil kiya aur trankuebar mein maal ke avashesh ek bada laabh ke liye.
  • 1643 - company ke nideshak dvaara colony ke nae neta naamit vilem leyel, kopenahegan mein chhristianshavn savaar aata hai. haulaind aur sveedan Denmark par yuddh ki ghoshana ki.
  • 1645 - denish kaarkhaane ki sampatti dach niyantran mein teji se gir jaate hain. naayak trankuebar chhaapa ke chhote band bhejata hai.
  • 1648 - krishchiyn IV, colony mar jaata hai ke sanrakshak. East India company poetes.
  • 1650 - denish East India company bhang.
  • 1655 - naayak ki vajah se shraddhaanjali bhugataan ki kami ke kile ghera daala. sthaaneeya logon dvaara samarthit kila hamle jhelne. eskild Anderson koङasbakke, colony mein pichhle den, neta niyukt kiya hai.
  • 1660 - koङasbakke trankuebar ke shahar ke aaspaas deevaar banaata hai.
  • 1667/8 -. makaassar ke dach vijay masaala vyaapaar mein sab svatantr denish gatividhi samaapt hota hai.[14]
  • 1668 - denish sarkaar captain ki kamaan friget faero Bhaarat, bhejane ke liye sivrdt adelaer. yeh alagaav ke 29 saal samaapt, 1669 May aata hai. unke aashcharya karne ke liye, chaalak dal denish jhanda abhi bhi jagah mein fort fort dansborg aur denish chauki ke oopar udaan paaya. koङasbakke aadhikaarik taur neta niyukt kiya hai.

doosra denish East India company

dainish bhi, kai vaanijyik chaukiyon ki sthaapana ki Tranquebar se sarkaar:

  • 1696 - 1722 oddevaya tore par maalaabaar tat.
  • 1698 - dannemarksnagore par 1714 chhandernagore, ke dakshin gondalpar.
  • 1752 - 1791 kaaleekat.
  • October 1755 frederiksnagore shreeraamapur, vartamaan mein pashchim Bengal.
  • 9 June 1706 - Bhaarat mein do denish mishnariyon moors - Bhaarat mein pehli protesteint mishnariyon. ve jaasoos hone ke naate unhein sandigdh jo unke deshvaasiyon ne svaagat naheen kiya gaya.[15]
  • November 1754 - trankuebar mein denish adhikaariyon ki baithak. kaali mirch, daalacheeni, ganna, kaufi aur kapaas ropan ke uddeshya ke liye upanivesh nikobaar dweep samooh ke liye kiye gaye nirnaya.
  • 1 January 1756 - denish nikobaar dweep kaha naam frederiksoerne (fredarik dweep) ke tahat sampatti.
  • 1763 baalaasor (pehle se hi 1636-1643 ke kabje mein).
  • 1777 mein yeh chaartard company dvaara sarkaar ko khatm kar diya aur denish kraaun upanivesh ban gaya tha.
  • 1789 mein andamaan dweep british adhikaar ban gaya.

nepoliyn yuddh aur giraavat I

dauraan nepoliyn yuddh, british dainish shiping par hamla kiya aur denish East India company ke Bhaarat vyaapaar tabaah ho. August 1802 aur 1808 - May - 1801 mein 20 sitmbar 1815 ko british bhi fort dansborg aur frederiksnagore kabja kar liya.

dainish upaniveshavaadi giraavat I mein chala gaya aur antat: british unamein se hissa bana rahi hai, unamein se kabje mein le liya british Bhaarat : shreeraamapur 1839 mein angrejon ke avashesh tha aur 1845 mein trankuebar aur sabse chhoti bastiyon (11 October 1845 frederiksnagore avashesh, 7 November 1845 anya mahaadveepeeya denish Bhaarat bastiyon avashesh); 16 October 1868 mein 1848 ke baad se dheere - dheere chhod diya gaya tha jo nikobaar dweep samooh, ke liye sabhi denish adhikaar Britain mein avashesh the.

sandarbh

  1. Until 1814 Denmark–Norway.
  2. Ravn Rasmussen, Peter (1996). "Tranquebar: The Danish East India Company 1616 -1669". University of Copenhagen. http://scholiast.org/history/tra-narr.html.
  3. Felbæak, Ole (1990). Den danske Asienhandel 1616-1807: Væardi og Volumen. pp. 320–324.
  4. Poddar, Prem (2008). A Historical Companion to Postcolonial Literatures: Continental Europe and Its Empires. Edinburgh University Press. pa॰ 99. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 9780748623945.
  5. FeldbæaK, Ole (1986). "The Danish trading companies of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, Scandinavian Economic History Review". Scandinavian Economic History Review 34 (3): 204–218. doi:10.1080/03585522.1986.10408070.
  6. Esther Fihl (2009). "Shipwrecked on the Coromandel:The first Indo–Danish contact, 1620". Review of Development and Change 14 (1&2): 19-40
  7. Larsen, Kay (1907). Volume 1 of Dansk-Ostindiske Koloniers historie: Trankebar. Jøargensen. pp. 167–169.
  8. Bredsdorff, Asta (2009). The Trials and Travels of Willem Leyel: An Account of the Danish East India Company in Tranquebar, 1639-48. Museum Tusculanum Press. pa॰ 13. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 9788763530231.
  9. Of the 18 ships that departed from Denmark between 1622 and 1637, only 7 returned. Kay Larsen: Trankebar, op.cit., p.30-31.
  10. Brdsgaard, Kjeld Erik (2001). China and Denmark: Relations Since 1674. NIAS Press. pp. 9–11. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 9788787062718.
  11. Jeyaraj, Daniel (2006). "Trancquebar Colony: Indo-Danish Settlement". Bartholomus Ziegenbalg, the Father of Modern Protestant Mission: An Indian Assessment. ISPCK. pp. 10–27. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 9788172149208. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=CZYAOyJ-6SMC&lpg=PA13&dq=danish%20traders%20Tanjore%20Tranquebar%20india%20colony&pg=PA10#v=onepage&q&f=false.
  12. Lach, Donald (1993). Trade, missions, literature, Volume 3. University of Chicago Press. pa॰ 92. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 9780226467535. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=vk04ZSIZDAEC&lpg=PA92&dq=sale%20of%20Tranquebar%20to%20the%20dutch&pg=PA92#v=onepage&q&f=false.
  13. Feldbæak, Ole (1981). The Organization and Structure of the Danish East India, West India and Guinea Companies in the 17th and 18th Centuries. Leiden University Press. pa॰ 140.
  14. Lach, Donald (1993). Trade, missions, literature, Volume 3. University of Chicago Press. pa॰ 92. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 9780226467535. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=vk04ZSIZDAEC&lpg=PA92&dq=sale%20of%20Tranquebar%20to%20the%20dutch&pg=PA92#v=onepage&q&f=false.
  15. Sharma, Suresh K. (2004). Leiden University Press. Mittal Publications. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 9788170999591. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=sKgPNp8YEhEC&lpg=PA72&dq=danish%20traders%20Tanjore%20Tranquebar%20india%20colony&pg=PA72#v=onepage&q&f=false.