dayaaraam

dayaaraam (1767-1852 E) madhyakaaleen gujaraati bhakti-kaavya parampara ke antim mahatvapoorn vaishnav kavi the. unke avsaan ke saath madhyakaal aur Krishna-bhakti-kaavya donon ka paryavasaan ho gaya. is yugaparivrtan ke chinh-kuchh kuchh dayaaraam ke kaavya mein hi lakshit hote hain. bhakti ka vah teevr bhaavaaveg evam ananya samarpanamayi nishtha jo narasi aur meera ke kaavya mein paryaapt maatra mein upalabdh hoti hai unki rachanaaon mein us roop mein praapt naheen hoti. uske sthaan par maanaveeya prem aur vilaasita ka samaavesh ho jaata hai yadyapi baahya roop paramparaagat gopi-Krishna leelaaon ka hi rahata hai. isi sankramanakaaleen sthiti ko lakshit karte hue Gujarat ke prasiddh itihaasakaar-saahityakaar kanhaiyaalaal maanakalaal munshi ne apna abhimt vyakt kiya ki "dayaaraamanun" bhaktakaviyon maan sthaan na thi, pranayana amar kaviyomaan chhe. yeh kathan atyuktipoorn hote hue bhi dayaaraam ke kaavya ki aantarik vaastavikta ki or spasht ingit karta hai.

jeevani

dayaaraam ka janm narmadaatatavarti saathodara ke chaandod naamak gram mein prabhuraam naagar ke ghar hua tha. baalyakaal mein hi anaath ho jaane ke kaaran unka praarambhik jeevan astavyasta mein beeta. pehle ve keshavaanand sannyaasi ke shishya hue, fir ichhaaraam bhatt ke, jo pushtimaargeeya vaishnav the. dayaaraam ne anek baar teerthayaatra ke uddeshya se Bhaarat-bhraman kiya. Mathura vrundaavan ki krushnabhakti tatha ashtachhaap ke kaviyon ke brajasaahitya ne unhein vishesh aakarshit kiya. braj mein hi unhonne vallabh sanpradaaya ke tatkaaleen Goswami shri vallabhalaal ji se deeksha grahan ki tatha aajeevan pushtimaargeeya bane rahe. "anubhavamanjari" naamak apni rachana mein dayaaraam ne swayam ko nandadaas ka avataar maana hai. unamein mitrapremi nandadaas jaisi rasikta yathesht maatra mein thi ismein sandeh naheen, kyonki unhonne bhi baalavidhva ratanabaai ke prati apne laukik prem ko aadhyaatmik upaasana ka virodhi naheen maana aur uske guru ka samarthan tak praapt kiya. ve ashtachhaap ke kaviyon ki tarah swayam sangeetajnya bhi the tatha unhonne gopi prem se pariplaavit bahutasankhya pad (garabi) rache hain. bhaavasamruddhi ki drushti se unka garabi saahitya Gujarat me vishesh lokapriya evam samaadrut raha hai. Baroda ke dhanik gopaaladaas ki or se praapt ganapativandana ke prastaav ko unhonne "ek vayon gopeejanavallabh, nahin svaami beejo re" likhkar vaapas kar diya jo Krishna ke prati unke ananya bhaav ka parichaayak hai. sanpradaaya-sambandh hone par unka naam dayaashankar se dayaaraam ho gaya jo sakheebhaav ke apnaane par dayaasakhi ban gaya. antim roop unki bhakti ki strain prakruti ka parichaayak hai. santon ki tarah kaheen kaheen unhonne karmakaand ke baahya saadhanon ka khandan bhi kiya hai aur apni bhakti ko premabhakti ki sanjnyaa pradaan ki hai.

krutiyaaain

dayaaraam ki krutiyon mein "vallabh no parivaar", "chauraasi vaishnavamanu dhola", "pushtipth rahasya" tatha "bhakti-poshan" unke pushtimaargeeya hone ka vishesh parichay deti hain. "rasikvallabh", "neetibhkti na pado" tatha "satasaiya" (brajabhaasha mein likhit) se kavi ke dhaarmik, daarshanik vichaaron ka parichay milta hai. "ajaamilaakhya", "vruttaasuraakhyaan", "satyaabhaamaakhyaan", "okhaaharan", aakhyaanaparanpara ke pauraanik kaavya hain. bhaagavatapuraan par aadhaarit "dashamaleela" tatha "raasapanchaadhyaayi aadi leelaakaavya anya pauraanik aakhyaanon se kuchh bhinn hain aur unamein bhaktibhaav ki prachurata hai. "narasinh Mehta ni handi" narasi ke jeevan se sambaddh hai. "shadaritu varnan" varnanaatmak prakrutikaavya hai. inke atirikt "garabi sangrah" mein dayaaraam ke "oormigeet" arthaat bhaavaatmak geya pad sangruheet hain. "prashnottaramaalika" jaise kuchh anya chhote kaavya bhi unhonne rache hain.

dayaaraam bahubhaashaavijnya the aur unhonne sanskrut, maraathi, punjabi, braj aur urdoo mein bhi kaavyarachana ki hai. unki adhikaansh rachanaaeain "bruhat kaavyadohan" mein prakaashit ho chuki hain tatha anek ke svatantr sanskaran bhi chhape hain.

baahari kadiyaaain