dasharoop

dasharoop naatyaparampara

abhineya kaavya ko roop athva roopak kehte hain. "roopyate naatyate iti roopam; roopaamev roopakam" - is vyutpatti ke anusaar drushya kaavyon ki saamaanya sanjnyaa "roop" ya "roopak" hai. roopak do prakaar ke hote hain :

1. prakruti aur

2. vikruti.

sarvalakshan se sarvaang se paripusht drushya ko prakrutiroopak kaha gaya hai jaise naatak; aur prakrutiroopak ke dhaaainche mein dhale hue parantu apni apni kuchh visheshata liye hue drushya kaavya vikrutiroopak kahe gaye hain. saamaanya niyam hai- "prakrutivd vikruti: karttavya".

ubhaya prakaar ke roopakon mein bharat dvaara savishesh mahatva ke das roop maane gaye hain jo dasharoop ke naam se sanskrut naatyaparanpara mein prasiddh hain. unki paginna karte hue bharatamuni ne kaha hai-

naatakan saprakaranamaङako vyaayog ev ch.
bhaan: samavakaarashch veethi prahasanan dim:.. (na.sha. 18-2)
ihaamrugashch vijnyaeyo dashamo naatyalakshane.
eteshaan lakshanamahan vyaakhyaasyaamyanupoorvash: . (na.sha. 18-3)
(1. naatak, 2. prakaran, 3. ank arthaat utsrushtaank, 4. vyaayog, 5. bhaan,
6. samavakaar 7. veethi, 8. prahasan 9. dim aur 10. ihaamrug)

ye das roop hain. in das roopon mein kuchh vistrut roop hain aur kuchh laghukaaya. inke kalevar ka aayaam ek ank ki seema se lagaakar das ank tak ka ho sakta hai. inmein mukhya ras shrrungaar ya veer hota hai. inki kathaavastu paaainch sandhiyon mein vibhkt haati hai. poorn roop se paripusht roopon mein paaainchon sandhiyaaain pai jaati hain; anya laghukaaya roopon mein apne apne aayaam ke maatraanusaar beech ki sandhiyaaain chhaaaint di jaati hain. pratyek roop ki kathaavastu aadhikaarik ev praasangik roopan se vibhaajit hoti hai. pradhaan purush ko naayak kehte hain, jiska mukhya lakshya roop ka kaarya samjha jaata hai. kaarya ki paaainch avasthaaeain hoti hain. aarambh, yatn, praaptyaasha, niytaapti aur falaagam. kaarya ka upper naam arth hai jiski paaainch prakrutiyaaain maani gayi hain : beej, bindu, pataaka, prakari aur karya. kaaryaavastha aur arthaprakruti ke samaanaantar sanyog se kramash: paaainch sandhiyaaain ghatit hoti hain : mukh, pratimukh garbh, vimarsh aur nirvahan. roopakon mein abhineet vastu drushya evam shravya hoti hai; shravya bhi do prakaar ki kaheen gayi hain : niyat shravya aur sarvashravya. kathaavastu ke us bhaag ko jo saamaajik neeti ke viruddh ho, ashleel ya shaastranishddh ho, athva mukhya kaarya ka anupakaarak ho, rangamanch par pradarshit na karne ka vidhaan hain; parantu poorvaapar sandarbh se avagat karaane ke hetu poorvokt prakaar ke jis kathaabhaag se prekshakavarg ka parichay hona anivaarya ho vah ansh katipya amukhya paatron ke samvaad dvaara upasthit kiya jaata hai. aise samvaad ko arthopakshepak kehte hain jiske paaainch prakaar hain : vishkanbh, praveshak, choolika, ankamukh aur ankaavataar.

roopakon ke paatr vividh shreni ke hote hain : divya, adivya evam divyaadivya. pratyek paatr apni prakruti ke anusaar uttam, madhyam athva adham maana gaya hai. paatron ke dvaara prayukt boli evam paraspar sanbhaashan ke bhi niyam hain. uttam paatr sanskrut ka prayog karte hain, shesh paatr praayen vividh praakrut athva deshi bhaashaaon ka. pratyek paatr ko visheshat: pradhaan paatron ke vyavahaar ko vrutti kehte hain jo antarang bhaavon ki vibhinn cheshtaaon ki sahachari hai. kaishiki, saatvati, aarabhati aur bhaarati naamak chaar vruttiyaaain pramukh maani gayi hain. dasharoopon ke abhinay mein desh aur kaal ke anuroop veshabhoosha, aamod pramod evam anya naatakeeya upakaranon ke sambandh mein praayogik niyam bhi vividh paatron ke saamaajik star ke anuroop nirdisht hain jinka samaavesh naatyashaastr mein "pravrutti" ke antargat kiya gaya hai. saath hi nrutya, vaadya evam sangeet ka sahayog, praakrutik prushthabhoomi, pashu pakshi ka saahacharya roopak ke prasaadhan maane gaye hain. roopakon ki rachana mein gadya evam padya donon ka prayog kiya jaata hai ataev dasharoopon ki ganana kaavyabhed ki drushti se mishr kaavya mein ki jaati hai. dasharoop ka mukhya uddeshya manoranjan hote hue bhi ye taatkaalik saamaajik sthiti ko pratibinvit karte hain; saath hi saath maanav jeevan ke sadaadarshon ki or kaantaasanmat sanket bhi karte hain.

dasharoop granth

naatya ke dasharoopon ke lakshan aur unki visheshataaon ka pratipaadan karanevaala yeh ek granth hai. anushtup shlokon dvaara rachit "dasharoop" naamak granth dhananjaya ki kruti hai.

vistrut jaankaari ke liye dasharoopakam dekhein.