darshanashaastr

darshanashaastr (yoonaani:φaaιaaλaaοaaσaaοaaφaaίaaα, jarman,French:Philosophie, angreji:Philosophy, Spanish:Filosofíaa) vah gyaan hai jo param satya aur prakruti ke siddhaanton aur unke kaaranon ki vivechana karta hai. darshan yathaarth ki parakh ke liye ek drushtikon hai. daarshanik chintan moolat: jeevan ki arthavatta ki khoj ka paryaaya hai. vastut: darshanashaastr svatv, arthaat prakruti tatha samaaj aur maanav chintan tatha sanjnyaaan ki prakriya ke saamaanya niyamon ka vigyaan hai. darshanashaastr saamaajik chetna ke roopon mein se ek hai. Philosophy ke arthon mein darshanashaastr pad ka prayog sarvapratham paaithaagoras ne kiya tha. vishisht anushaasan aur vigyaan ke roop mein darshan ko pleto ne viksit kiya tha. usaki utpatti das-svaami samaaj mein ek aise vigyaan ke roop mein hui jisne vastugat jagat tatha swayam apne vishay mein manushya ke gyaan ke sakal yog ko aikyabaddh kiya tha. yeh maanav itihaas ke aaranbhik sopaanon mein gyaan ke vikaas ke nimn star ke kaaran sarvatha svaabhaavik tha. saamaajik utpaadan ke vikaas aur vaigyaanik gyaan ke sanchaya ki prakriya mein bhinn bhinn vigyaan darshanashaastr se pruthak hote gaye aur darshanashaastr ek svatantr vigyaan ke roop mein viksit hone laga. jagat ke vishay mein saamaanya drushtikon ka vistaar karne tatha saamaanya aadhaaron va niyamon ka karne, yathaarth ke vishay mein chintan ki tarkabuddhiprak, tark tatha sanjnyaaan ke siddhaant viksit karne ki aavashyakta se darshanashaastr ka ek vishisht anushaasan ke roop mein janm hua. pruthak vigyaan ke roop mein darshan ka aadhaarbhoot prashn svatv ke saath chintan ke, bhootadravya ke saath chetna ke sambandh ki samasya hai.[1]

anukram

darshan aur filausfi

praay: filausfi ko darshan ka angreji samaanaarthak samjha jaata hai parantu donon mein spasht antar hai. bhaarateeya darshan aur 'filaasafi' (de:Philosophie, en:Philosophy) ek naheen kyonki darshan yathaarthata, jo ek hai, ka tatvajnyaaan hai jabaki filaasafi vibhinn vishyon ka vishleshan. isaliye darshan mein chetna ki meemaansa anivaarya hai jo paashchaatya filaasafi mein naheen. maanav jeevan ka charam lakshya dukhon se chhutakaara praapt karke chir aanand ki praapti hai. samast darshanon ka bhi ek hi lakshya dukhon ke mool kaaran ajnyaaan se maanav ko mukti dilaakar use moksh ki praapti karavaana hai. yaani ajnyaaan va paranparaavaadi aur roodhivaadi vichaaron ko nasht karke satya gyaan ko praapt karna hi jeevan ka mukhya uddeshya hai. sanaatan kaal se hi maanav mein jijnyaaasa aur anveshan ki pravrutti rahi hai. prakruti ke udbhav tatha soorya, chandra aur grahon ki sthiti ke alaava paramaatma ke baare mein bhi jaanane ki jijnyaaasa maanav mein rahi hai. in jijnyaaasaaon ka shaman karne ke liye uske anvarat prayaas ka hi yeh fal hai ki ham log itne viksit samaaj mein rah rahe hain. parantu praacheen rishi-muniyon ko is bhautik samruddhi se na to santosh hua aur na chir aanand ki praapti hi hui. at: unhonne isi satya aur gyaan ki praapti ke kram mein sookshm se sookshm evam goodhtam saadhanon se gyaan ki talaash aarambh ki aur ismein unhein safalta bhi praapt hui. usi satya gyaan ka naam darshan hai.

drushyatehyaneneti darshanam (drushyate hi anen iti darshanam)

arthaat asat evam sat padaarthon ka gyaan hi darshan hai. paashchaatya filauspi shabd filaus (prem ka)+sofiya (prajnyaa) se milkar bana hai. isliye filausafi ka shaabdik arth hai buddhi prem. paashchaatya daarshanik (filausafar) buddhimaan ya prajnyaaavaan vyakti banana chaahata hai. paashchaatya darshan ke itihaas se yeh baat jhalak jaati hai ki paashchaatya daarshanik ne vishay gyaan ke aadhaar par hi buddhimaan hona chaaha hai. iske vipreet kuchh udaaharan avashya mileingein jismein aacharan shuddhi tatha manas ki parishuddhata ke aadhaar par paramasatta ke saath saakshaatkaar karne ka bhi aadarsh paaya jaata hai. parantu yeh aadarsh praachya hai na ki paashchaatya. paashchaatya daarshanik apne gyaan par jor deta hai aur apne gyaan ke anuroop apne charitra ka sanchaalan karna anivaarya naheen samajhta. keval paashchaatya rahasyavaadi aur samaadheevaadi vichaarak hi iske apavaad hain.

bhaarateeya darshan mein param satta ke saath saakshaatkaar karne ka doosra naam hi darshan hain. bhaarateeya parampara ke anusaar manushya ko param satta ka saakshaat gyaan ho sakta hai. is prakaar saakshaatkaar ke liye bhakti gyaan tatha yog ke maarg bataae gaye hain. parantu daarshanik gyaan ko vaigyaanik gyaan se bhinn kaha gaya hai. vaigyaanik gyaan praapt karne mein aalochya vishay mein parivartan karna padta hai taaki use apni ichha ke anusaar vash mein kiya ja sake aur fir usaka ichhit upayog kiya ja sake. parantu praachya darshan ke anusaar daarshanik gyaan jeevan saadhana hai. aise darshan se swayam daarshanik mein hi parivartan ho jaata hai. use divya drushti praapt ho jaati hai. jiske dvaara vah samast praaniyon ko apni samashti drushti se dekhta hai. samasaamayik vichaaradhaara mein praachya darshan ko dharm-darshan maana jaata hai aur paashchaatya darshan ko bhaasha sudhaar tatha pratyayon ka spashtikran kaha jaata hai.

darshanashaastr ka kshetr

darshanashaastr anubhav ki vyaakhya hai. is vyaakhya mein jo kuchh aspasht hota hai, use spasht karne ka yatn kiya jaata hai. hamaari jnyaaaneindriyaaain baahar ki or khulati hain, ham praaya: baahya jagat mein vileen rahate hain. kabhi kabhi hamaara dhyaan antarmukh hota hai aur ham ek nae lok ka darshan karte hain. tathya to dikhaai dete hi hain, naitik bhaavana aadesh bhi deti hai. vaastavikta aur sambhaavana ka bhed aadarsh ke pratyaya ko vyakt karta hai. is pratyaya ke prabhaav mein ham oopar ki or dekhte hain. is tarah darshan ke pramukh vishay baahya jagat, chetan aatma aur paramaatma ban jaate hain. inapar vichaar karte hue ham svabhaavat: inke sanbandho par bhi vichaar karte hain. praacheen kaal mein rachana aur rachayita ka sambandh pramukh vishay tha, madhyakaal mein aatma aur paramaatma ka sambandh pramukh vishay bana aur aadhunik kaal mein purush aur prakruti, vishyi aur vishay, ka sambandh viven ka kendra bana. praacheen yoonaan mein bhautiki, tark aur neeti, ye teenon darshanashaastr ke teen bhaag samajhe jaate the. bhautiki baahar ki or dekhti hai, tark swayam chintan ko chintan ka vishay banaata hai, neeti jaanana chaahati hai ki jeevan ko vyavasthit karne ke liye koi nirpeksh aadesh gyaat ho sakta hai ya naheen.

tatvajnyaaan mein pramukh prashn ye hain-

1. gyaan ke atirikt jnyaaata aur jnyaeya ka bhi astitv hai ya naheen?

2. antim satta ka svaroop kya hai? vah ek prakaar ki hai, ya ek se adhik prakaar ki?

praacheen kaal mein neeti ka pramukh lakshya ni:shreyas ke svaroop ko samajhna tha. aadhunik kaal mein can't ne kartavya ke prayatya ko maulik pratyaya ka sthaan diya. trupti ya prasannata ka moolyaankan vivaad ka vishay bana raha hai.

jnyaaanameemaansa mein pramukh prashn ye hain-

1. gyaan kya hai?

2. gyaan ki sambhaavana bhi hai ya naheen?

3. gyaan praapt kaise hota hai?

4. maanav gyaan ki seemaaeain kya hain?

jnyaaanameemaansa ne aadhunik kaal mein vichaarakon ka dhyaan aakrusht kiya. pehle darshan ko praaya: tatvajnyaaan (metaafijiks) ke arth mein hi liya jaata tha. daarshanikon ka lakshya samagr ki vyavastha ka pata lagaana tha. jab kabhi prateet hua ki is anveshan mein manushya ki buddhi aage ja naheen sakti, to kuchh gaun siddhaant vivechan ke vishay bane. yoonaan mein, sukaraat, pleto aur arastoo ke baad tatha Germany mein can't aur hegal ke baad aisa hua. yathaarthavaad aur sandehavaad aise hi siddhaant hain. is tarah daarshanik vivechan mein jin vishyon par vishesh roop se vichaar hota raha hai, ve ye hain-

(1) mukhya vishay -

(2) gaun vishay -

in vishyon ko vichaarakon ne apni apni ruchi ke anusaar vividh pakshon se dekha hai. kisi ne ek paksh par vishesh dhyaan diya hai, kisi ne doosare paksh par. pratyek samasya ke neeche upasamasyaaeain upasthit ho jaati hain.

bhaarateeya darshan

vistrut vivran ke liye bhaarateeya darshan dekhein.

vaise to samast darshan ki utpatti vedon se hi hui hai, fir bhi samast bhaarateeya darshan ko aastik evam naastik do bhaagon mein vibhkt kiya gaya hai. jo ishvar tatha vedokt baaton jaise nyaaya, vaisheshik, saankhya, yog, meemaansa aur vedaant par vishvaas karta hai, use aastik maana jaata hai; jo naheen karta vah naastik hai.

aastik ya vaidik darshan

vaidik parampara ke 6 darshan hain :

(1) meemaansa (2) nyaaya (3) vaisheshik (4) saankhya (5) yog (6) vedaant

yeh darshan paraavidya, jo shabdon ki pahunch se pare hai, ka gyaan vibhinn drushtikonon se samaksh karte hain. pratyek darshan mein anya darshan ho sakte hain, jaise vedaant mein kai mat hain.

naastik ya avaidik darshan

not - aksar log samajhte hai ki jo ishvar ko naheen maanata vah naastik hai par yahaaain naastik ka arth vedon ko na maanane se hai isliye oopar diye gaye teeno darshan naastik darshan mein aate hai ]

samakaaleen bhaarateeya daarshanik

  1. shri aravind
  2. mahaatma Gandhi
  3. sarvapalli Radhakrishnan

paashchaatya darshan

praacheen paashchaatya darshan

aadhunik paashchaatya darshan

samakaaleen paashchaatya darshan

sandarbh

  1. darshanakosh, pragati prakaashan, Moscow, 1980, prushth-265-66, ISBN: 5-01000907-2

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain