dar

dar ek nakaaraatmak bhaavana hai. dar sambhaavit khatre ke liye ek sahaj vrutti pratikriya ke roop mein sabhi jaanvaron aur logon mein poorv kramaadeshit ek aisi bhaavana hai. yeh bhaavana hamesha anukooli naheen hai. yeh ek achhi bhaavana naheen hai; koi aajaadi, khushi naheen hai. yeh kai roopon mein prakat hota hai. sabse aam abhivyakti gussa hai. aapka jeevan dar ke jeet ke liye ek sangharsh hai. dar ke vipreet, ekta ke baare mein jaagrukta hai. dar ke sabse shaktishaali generator mrutyu ki avadhaarana hai. dar ham sab ek samay par mahasoos karte hain. yeh bachchon ke roop mein sabse pehle anubhav kiya jaata hai. jyaadaatar logon ko dar ek apriya bhaavana lagti hai. khatre ki upasthiti ya niktasthata ki vajah se ek bahut apriya bhaavana ko dar kehate hain. bhaya, maanav prajaati dvaara anubhav kiya jaata hai, yeh ek poori tarah se aparihaarya bhaavana hai. bhaya ki had aur seema vyakti se doosare vyakti mein badalta hai, lekin bhaavana ek hi hai. yeh pratyaasha ke kaaran hota hai. dar mein kuchh aam chehare ke bhaav -- dara hua chahara, badi aankhein, khula muh aadi. andhavishvaasi, budghimaan, aur anishchitta: bhaya ke teen alag alag prakaar hote hain. andhavishvaasi dar kaalpanik cheejon ka ek bhaya hai. budghimaan dar bade ho jaane par aur uske duniya ka adhik gyaan laabh ke roop mein aata hai. anishchitta ke dar se ek ke kaarravaai ke parinaam ka na pata chalana hota hai. dar ek khatarnaak protsaahan ki upasthiti, ya pratyaasha mein ek bhaavanaatmak raajya hai. kuchh bhaya kandeeshaning prakriya ke maadhyam se haasil kiya jaata hai. kuchh maata pita aur bhaai ke bhaya ke nakal ke maadhyam se seekha rahe jaata hai. insaanon evam jaanvaron mein ek eesi bhaavana hai jo anubhooti dvaara sangraahak hoti hai. jab vastuon ya ghatnaaon ke liye bhaya tarkaheen ho jaata hai to use "fobeeya" kaha jaata hai. dar insaanon main tab dekha jaata hai jab unhein kisi vastu se kisi prakaar ka jokhim mahasoos hota ho. yeh jokhim kisi bhi prakaar ka ho sakta hai- svaasthya,dhan,niji suraksha,aadi. dar shabd "feer" se utpann hua jiska arth hai aapada ya khatra. America mein das prakaar ke dar hain-- aatankvaadi hamle, makadiyaaain, maut,asafalata, yuddh ya aaparaadhik haalaat, akelaapan, bhavishya ya parmaanu yuddh aadi.[1]

anukram

aam fobiya

makadiyon ka dar adhik aam fobiya mein se ek hai

sarvekshan ke anusaar yeh kuchh aam prakaar ke dar hain-- raakshas aur bhoot, buri shaktiyon ka astitv, tilchatte, makadiyaaain, saanp, haaits, paani, sui, saamaajik asveekruti, pareeksha aur saarvajanik bol aadi. araakanofobiya ke saath ek vyakti makadiyon ke aas paas halachal mahasoos karta hai yeh jaante hue ki vah koi nuksaan naheen degi. kabhi kabhi to vah vastu jo makadi ke samaan dikhti ho, yeh vyakti us se bhi dar mahasoos karega; is bhaya ko automaatonofobiya kehate hain. ek aur aam dar dard ka bhaya hota hai. [2]

maut ka bhaya evam anajaan ka dar

maut ke prati chinta bahuaayaami hai; yeh ek ki apni mrutyu se sambandhit aashankaaon ka parinaam hota hai. agyaat ya tarkaheen dar chinta se paida hoti hai, jo nakaaraatmak soch ke kaaran hota hai. bahut se log "agyaat" se darate hain. in maamalon mein visheshagyon ne ek paribhaasha ke roop mein jhoothi gavaahi jo sach lagti hai; is skel k upayog kiya hai. yeh ek vyakti main aalasya aur shithilta paida kar sakta hai. [3]

kaaran

kuchh logon mein dar ka vikaas seekhane se hota hai. yeh dar kandeeshaning ke roop mein manovijnyaaan mein padha jaata hai. bhaya anubhav ya dardanaak durghatana dekhne se seekha ja sakta hai. udaaharan ke liye, ek bachcha ek kuen mein gir jaata hai aur baahar nikalne ke liye sangharsh karta hai, to usamein kuon ke dar ka vikaas ho sakta hai. is se yeh pata chalta hai ki dar ka vikaas na sirf seekhane se balki niji itihaas se bhi ho sakta hai. dar saanskrutik aur aitihaasik sandarbh se bhi prabhaavit hota hai. udaaharan ke liye, beesvi sadi mein, bahut se amerikiyon ko poliyo se dar lagta tha. logon ki bhaya ke prati pratikriya lagaataar paar saanskrutik matabhedon se utpann hoti hain. iske baavajood ki dar seekha jaata hai, darane ki kshamata maanav svabhaav ka hissa hai. kai adhyayanon se yeh pata chala hai ki kuchh dar doosaron ki tulana mein aam hai. yeh ghatna taiyaariyon ke roop mein jaana jaata hai. dar chinta, bhaya, aatank aur dahashat ke roop mein badhte star par vyakt kiya jaata hai. dar bidkaana pratikriya ke saath shuroo hota hai. bhaya kai avachetan vyavahaar ko raasta deta hai. dar shareer mein jaivik ghatnaaon ki ek shrrunkhala utpann karta hai. dar turant kaarya karta hai. [4]

dar ke sanket evam lakshan

shareer mein dar ke saath kai shaareerik parivartan jude hue hain. khatre ka mukaabala karne ke liye ek sahaj pratikriya in lakshan dvaara dekhi jaati hai-- saaains lene ki dar mein teji, hrudaya gati, paridheeya rakt vaahikaaon ka kasana, maansapeshiyon mein tanaav, paseena, badhta rakt glookoj,safed rakt koshikaaon mein vruddhi aur sone mein ashaanti.

Hortus Deliciarum - Hell.jpg

sanskruti mein bhaya

maut

ant aur apne astitv ka dar doosare shabdon mein mrutyu ka bhaya hai. is bhaya ki vajah se log ek doosare ke saath milkar kathinaaiyon ka saamana karte hain na ki akele.

dharm

dharm sadiyon se manushya ki jindagi mein alag alag tarah ke dar ke roop mein maujood hain. yeh dar naitik hai. maut ek aur duniya ke liye ek seema ke roop mein dekha jaata hai. dar ek santaanochit ya ek slaav junoon ko vyakt karne ke liye prayog kiya jaata hai.

jod-tod

bhaya raajaneetik aur saanskrutik roop se chaalaaki se joda-toda ja sakta hai. bhaya aur buraai hamesha se hi ek doosare se sambandhit the.

dar par kaaboo paana

faarmaasyutikl

pramastishkakhand ke maadhyam se dar kandeeshaning aur fobiya ke liye ek dava upachaar glukokauratikaudas ka istemaal hota hai.

aapko daraane waali koi ek cheej rojaana karein

apni suvidha kshetr mein hamesha rahana sabse achha tareeka naheen hai. apni suvidha kshetr ke baahar kadam rakhakar sahaj banane par kaam karein.

[5]

taakat ke saath chinta ka saamana

dhyaan aapko shaant karta hai aur aapko kisi bhi sthiti ka saamana karne ke liye aantarik shakti deta hai. dhyaan aapki chinta kam karne mein madad karta hai.

apni kalpana par niyantran

hamaari sabse buri kalpana evam chinta tab hoti hai jab ham dar se apne dimaag mein ghire hue hon. dar se bachane ke liye sabse sahi tareeka yeh hai ki ham apni kalpana par thoda sa niyantran rakhein.

samarpan kar dar ko mahasoos karein

ham mein se kai logon ko dar pasand naheen hai kyonki dar hamein pangu bana deta hai. lekin agar aap bas apne aap ko bhaya mahasoos karne ki anumati dein to, aap khud dekheinge ki vah sthiti prabandhaneeya hai.

sandarbh

baahari kadiyaaain