dantachikitsa

dantachikitsak

dantachikitsa (Dentistry) svaasthyaseva ki vah shaakha hai, jiska sambandh mukh ke bheetari bhaag aur daaaint aadi ki aakruti, kaaryakaran, raksha tatha sudhaar aur in angon tatha shareer ke ant:sambandh se hai. iske antargat shareer ke rogon ke mukh sambandhi lakshan, mukh ke bheetar ke rog, ghaav, vikrutiyaaain, trutiyaaain, rog athva durghatanaaon se kshatigrast daaainton ki marammat aur toote daaainton ke badle krutrim daaaint lagaana, ye sabhi baatein aati hain. is prakaar dantachikitsa ka kshetr lagbhag utana hi bada hai, jitna netr ya tvachaachikitsa ka. iska saamaajik mahatva tatha seva karne ka avsar bhi adhik hai. dantachikitsak ka vyavasaaya svatantr sangathit hai aur yeh svaasthyasevaaon ka mahatvapoorn vibhaag hai. dantachikitsa ki kala aur vigyaan ke liye mukh ki sanrachana, daaainton ki utpatti vikaas tatha kaaryakaran aur inke bheetar ke anya angon aur ootakon tatha unke aushadheeya, shalya tatha yaantrik upachaar ka samuchit gyaan aavashyak hai.

anukram

shaakhaaeain

dantavijnyaaan ki badhti hui jatiltaaon ke kaaran ismein kai ek visheshataaeain utpann ho gayi hain, theek usi prakaar jaise saamaanya aayurvigyaan (medisin) mein. iski kuchh shaakhaaeain neeche varnit hain :

mukh ki shalyachikitsa (Oral Surgery)

yeh dantachikitsa ki vah shaakha hai, jiske antargat jabade ka bhang athva anya kshati ya mukh ke bheetari bhaargon, jaise daaaint, jabade aur paas ki sanrachanaaon ke vikaas ki ve vikrutiyaaain tatha rog sanmilit hain jo shalyachikitsa se achhe kiye ja sakte hain. mukhachikitsak ke kshetr mein fate taaloo ko band karna, kate honth ko taaainkana aur baahar se ghuse padaarthon ko nikaalna aadi sabhi sanmilit hain.

krutrim dant sthaapana (Prosthetics)

yeh dantachikitsa ki vah shaakha hai jiska sambandh maanav daaainton tatha usase sambaddh bhaagon ke sthaan par krutrim daaaint aadi lagaane se hai. iske antargat nakali dantasamooh (artificial denture), shalya dvaara rikt sthaanon mein daaaint lagaana (surgical prosthesis), khandit daaainton ko theek karna (obturation), dantamoolon par daaaint baithaana, setu banaana aur daaaint sajaana aate hain. gat bees varshon mein is shaakha mein badi pragati hui hai. sheegra pragati aur naveen takaneekon ke vikaas ke kaaran, puraani sabhi vidhiyaaain praaya: lupt ho gayi hain. in naveen upakaranon ka nirmaan karne ke liye mukh sambandhi angarachana, ootak vigyaan aur shareerakriya vigyaan ityaadi ka gyaan aavashyak hai. rogi ki haani teen prakaar ki hoti hai, arthaat shareerarachanaatmak, shareerakriyaatmak aur man:shaareerik (psychosomatic). dantachikitsa ki is shaakha ke visheshagya ka kaarya keval itna hi naheen hai ki vah yaantrik reeti se daaaint baitha de, parantu yeh bhi hai ki vah rogi ki anya kshatiyon ki poorti kare aur use fir pehle jaisa changa bana de.

dantashodhan (Orthodontia)

is shaakha mein daaaint tatha jabadon ke asaamaanya sambandh tatha iske kaaran utpann mukhade ki vikrutiyon ka sanshodhan aur rokathaam hai. is shaakha ka visheshagya in asaamaanya sambandhon ko, daaainton ke kaaryon ko jabade aur mukhade ki asthiyon aur peshiyon ki praakrutik seemaaon ke bheetar rakhakar, uchit kaaryakaran utpann karke theek karta hai. jabadon tatha mukhade ki peshiyon aur asthiyon ka kitna vikaas hua hai, isi par daaainton ki chaal nirbhar hai. dantashodhan upakaranon, athva asaamaanya aadaton ke sanshodhan se, sthaayi laabh tabhi utpann hota hai jab yeh upakaran, ya naveen aadat, itne samay tak kaam karti rahe ki asthi aur peshiyon mein sambandh sthir ho jaae.

paridantavijnyaaan (periyodaunshiya, Periodontia)

is shaakha mein daaaint ko sahaara denevaale angon ke rogon aur trutimya parivartan ko rokana aur unki chikitsa karna aata hai. ye ang aidavyolar proses, (Alveolar process), jinjivi, (Gingivae), simeintam (Cementum) aur perisimeintam (Pericementum) hain. saamoohik roop se ye bhaag paridant (periydonthiym) kahalaate hain. paridant ootakon ke svasth bane rahane par hi daaainton ka sthaayi rahana bahut kuchh nirbhar hai. paridantakala (periodontal membrane) ka nasht hona hi periyodauntokleshiya naamak rog hai. isi ko saadhaaran bhaasha mein masoodon ka sadna (paairiya, pyorrhoea) kehte hain.

baaladant vigyaan (pedodaunshiya, Pedodontia)

is shaakha mein bachchon ki dantachikitsa aati hai. ismein bachchon ke mukh aur daaainton ka adhyayan aur upachaar kiya jaata hai aur yeh praudhon ke upachaaraadi se bhinn hai.

ant:dantya upachaar (Endodontics)

dantachikitsa ki nai shaakha hai. iske antargat praanarahit daaainton ki jadon ka upachaar aur bharna aate hain. in kriyaaon se daaaint jabadon mein drudh ho jaate hain, jisse ve kaatne aur chabaane ke kaam aa sakte hain.

dant ex-rashmi-lekhan (deintal rediyograafi, Dental Radiography)

rog ke nidaan mein ex rashmiyaaain bahut mahatvapoorn hain. inse rog ki chikitsa bhi ho sakti hai; theek vaise hi jaise saamaanya aayurvigyaan mein. parantu inka adhik prayog vishesh rogon ke nidaan mein hi kiya jaata hai.

lokasvaasthya dantachikitsa

is shaakha mein poore samaaj ki dant-svaasthya-samasyaaon par vichaar kiya jaata hai. iska uddeshya yeh hai ki samaaj sangathit roop se aisa prayatn kare ki daaainton ki kshamata badh jaaya aur rog hone na paaeain. daaainton ke rog vyaktiyon ke vishesh samooh mein hi naheen hote. ye rog sabhi ko ho sakte hain, chaahe vah stri ho ya purush, usaki aayu kuchh bhi ho aur vah kisi bhi jaati ka ho. isaliye daaainton ke rog ka mahatva sarvavyaapi hai.

Bhaarat mein dantachikitsa

Bhaarat mein dantachikitsakon aur unke sahaayakon ki badi kami hai. svaasthya sangathan aur svaasthya paristhitiyon ke sanrakshan ke liye sarkaar ne bhor samiti niyukt ki thi. usaka prativedan 1946 E mein upasthit kiya gaya tha. usaki sanstuti hai ki 5,000 vyaktiyon ke peechhe ek dantachikitsak avashya hona chaahiye, yadyapi paashchaatya deshon mein 3,000 vyaktiyon ke peechhe kam se kam ek dantachikitsak paramaavashyak samjha jaata hai. bhor samiti ki sanstuti ke anusaar 30-35 varshon mein 75,000 dantachikitsakon ki aavashyakta padegi. falat: is kaal mein kam se kam dhaai hajaar dantachikitsak prati varsh prashikshit karne padeinge. aisa tabhi sambhav hai jab 25 dantachikitsak vidyaalaya khole jaayain, jismein prati varsh 100 vidyaarthi bharati kiye jaayain. is samay 4,00,000 vyaktiyon ke peechhe keval ek dantachikitsak hai. nyoojeelaind mein pehle isi prakaar dantachikitsakon ki kami thi aur usaki poorti dantachikitsak parichaarikaaon ke prashikshan se ki gayi. unka prashikshan do varsh tak hota tha. unki nyoonatam yogyata yeh thi ki ve haai school pareeksha paas hon. in parichaarikaaon mein itni yogyata aa jaati thi ki ve dantachikitsa ki saralatam kriyaaeain kar sakein. saadhaaran dantachikitsak ka adhiktar samay inheen saral kriyaaon mein lag jaata hai. inmein vishesh nipunata ki aavashyakta naheen hoti. Bhaarat mein bahut se haai school utteern vyakti bekaar baithe rahate hain. unamein se kai ek is kaam ko sugamata se seekh sakte hain. prashikshit hone par ve yogya dantachikitsakon ki dekharekh mein aspataalon tatha daaaint ke schoolon mein sahaayak ka kaam kar sakte hain. aise vyaktiyon ko "dantarakshak" kaha ja sakta hai. unhein sarkaari kharch se prashikshit kiya ja sakta hai aur unase anubandh likha liya ja sakta hai ki ve paaainch se das varsh tak avashya kaam kareinge.

sanstuti ki gayi hai ki teen prakaar ke vyakti prashikshit kiye jaayain :

(1) dantachikitsak

(2) dantarakshak

(3) dantayaantrik

dantachikitsakon ka prashikshan aayurvejnyaaanik tatha dantavidyaalayon mein ho aur shesh vyaktiyon ka prashikshan keval dantavidyaalayon me. bhor samiti ki ek sanstuti yeh bhi hai ki dantachikitsa shiksha sab sthaanon par ek hi star ki ho. yeh kaaryaroop mein parint kar di gayi hai. kuchh sanstutiyaaain M di S (master ov deintal surgery) naamak upaadhi ke liye theen. unhein dheere dheere avsar ke anusaar kaaryaroop mein parint kiya ja sakta hai. dantavishyak vidhaan ke baare mein sanstutiyaaain maan li gayi hain aur dantachikitsak adhiniyam sveekrut ho gaya hai.

Bhaarat ki dantaparishd

san 1948 E ke dantachikitsak vidhaan ke anusaar yeh parishd sthaapit hui thi. ise is vyavasaaya ko niyantrit karne aur niyam banaane ka adhikaar hai. yeh parishd dant-chikitsa-shiksha ka bhi niyantran karti hai aur is prakar shiksha ka star sada samaan roop se ooaincha rahata hai. pratyek sanstha ko, jo dantachikitsa sambandhi upaadhiyaaain deti hai, is parishd ke maaaingane par apne paathyakram aur pareekshaaon ke baare mein byaurevaar soochana deni padti hai. yadi unka pareekshaastar santoshajanak naheen hota to sanstha ki maanyata chheen li ja sakti hai.

raajya dantachikitsa parishd

pratyek raajya mein apni niji dantachikitsa parishd hai, jiske sadasya anshat: chune jaate hain aur anshat: manoneet hote hain. iska kaarya apne praant mein vyavasaaya ko niyantrit karna aur yeh dekhna hai ki aachaarik star paryaapt ooaincha rahe.

panjeekaran

is parishd mein ek panjika rahati hai, jise bhaarateeya dantachikitsak panjika kehte hain. iske do khand hain. pratham khand (khand A) mein un sab dantachikitsakon ke naam likhe jaate hain, jinhein maanyata praapt dantachikitsa upaadhiyaaain mili hain. dviteeya khand (khand bi) mein unke naam rahate hain, jinke paas aisi koi upaadhi naheen hai. dantayaantrikon aur dantarakshakon ki bhi panjikaaeain rakhi jaati hain.

dantachikitsa shiksha

Bhaarat mein pratham dantachikitsa shaala san 1920 E mein kalakatte mein kholi gayi thi. 1926 idru mein doosari shaala Karachi mein khuli. naiyar dantachikitsa vidyaalaya 1933 E mein khula. san 1936 mein Lahore ke de mauntamoreinsi college ov deintistri mein beedru deedru esadru upaadhi ke liye niyamit shiksha aarambh hui. san 1945 mein 'M di S' upaadhi ke liye padhaai praarambh ki gayi. san 1949 mein uttar pradesh mein ek dantachikitsa vidyaalaya, Lucknow mein khola gaya aur King George medical college se sambaddh kar diya gaya. vartamaan kaal mein ye saat dantachikitsa vidyaalaya hain jo kisi na kisi vishvavidyaalaya se sambaddh hain :

1. deintal college aind hauspitl, King jaurjej medical college, Lucknow.

2. sar seedru idru emadru deintal college, baaikula, Mumbai.

3. naiyar hauspitl deintal college, laimingtan road, Mumbai.

4. Calcutta deintal college, 114, loar sarkular road, Calcutta.

5. Punjab gavarnameint deintal college, amrutasar.

6. deintal vigan, Madras medical college, Madras.

7. gavarnameint deintal college, Patiala.

bharti hone ke liye nyoonatam yogyata, jeevavijnyaaan sahit intarameediyet pareeksha utteern hain. paathyakram chaar varsh ka hai aur baichalar ov deintal surgery ki upaadhi milti hai. in sab vidyaalayon mein paathkram ek hi star ka hai. dantashalya mein master ki upaadhi ke liye Mumbai ke deintal college mein paathyakram chaaloo kar diya gaya hai.

dantachikitsa ke adhyaapak Bhaarat ke sabhi medical college mein niyukt kar diye gaye hain. iska uddeshya yeh hai ki sabhi aaryuvaijnyaaanik vidyaarthi dantashalya ke moolaadhaar se parichit ho jaaeain aur rogiyon ki dekhbhaal kar sakein. Indian kaaunsil ov medical research tatha uttar pradesh saaintifik research committee ke tatvaavadhaan mein dantachikitsa vidyaalayon mein dantachikitsa sambandhi anusandhaan bhi ho raha hai.

senaaon mein dantachikitsa

army deintal kor, army medical kor ki bhagini shaakha hai. medical kor ke pradhaan ko Colonel ki padavi mili rahati hai aur vah dantasevaaon ka upanideshak (depyuti director) bhi kahalaata hai. naavik aur vaayusenaaon mein pruthak dantavibhaag hote hain. dantachikitsa ki vividh shaakhaaon ke liye paaainch visheshagya hote hain. dantayaantrik aur dantarakshakon ke prashikshan ke liye aamrd forsej medical college, poona, mein padhaai hoti hai. bharti pehle alp kaal ke commission ke liye hoti hai. inmein se kuchh chune hue abhyarthiyon ko sthaayi commission diya jaata hai.

dantasangh

san 1946 se poorv keval thode se svatantr dantasangh the, jo Lahore, Calcutta, Mumbai aur Karachi ke dantachikitsa vidyaalayon se sanbanddh the. January, 1946 mein in samast sanghon ko ek mein sanyojit karke akhil bhaarateeya dantachikitsak sangh (all India deintal association) sthaapit kiya gaya. adhik samunnat deshon mein dantachikitsa ki pratyek visheshagya shaakha ke liye pruthak sangh hote hain.

dantachikitsa saahitya

sansaar mein dantachikitsa par anek pustakein aur patrikaaeain prakaashit hoti hain, jinmein United steints, amareeka aur great Britain agragaami hain. Bhaarat mein "di journal ov all India deintal aisosiyeshan" naamak ek patrika prakaashit hoti hai.

daaaint ka burush

dekhein - daaaint ka burush

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain