dandi

dandi sanskrut bhaasha ke prasiddh saahityakaar hain. inke jeevan ke sambandh mein praamaanik soochanaaon ka abhaav hai. kuchh vidvaan inhein saataveen shati ke uttaraardh ya aathaveen shati ke praarambh ka maanate hain to kuchh vidvaan inka janm 550 aur 650 i0 ke madhya maanate hain.

anukram

parichay

dandi kab hue aur inki rachanaaeain kaun kaun si hain, yeh prashn ab bhi vivaadaaspad hai. unka jeevanavrutt bhi vishesh gyaat naheen hai. dakshin Bhaarat mein upalabdh 'avantisundari katha' aur 'avantisundari kathaasaar' -- in donon ke aadhaar par unke jeevan ke vishay mein itna hi (nae aur praamaanik paath ke anusaar) gyaat ho saka hai ki dandi ke prapitaamah Damodar pandit the. ve kadaachit‌ bhaaravi ke mitr the. unheen ki sahaayata se chaalukyavanshi raaja vishnuvardhan ke nikat pahuainch sake. bhaaravi ki chauthi peedhi mein dandi ka janm huaatha. kaancheenaresh ke aashray mein inka jeevan vyateet hua. kannad bhaasha ke alankaaragranth 'kavaraajamaarg' (815 io ke aas paas) par dandi ke 'kaavyaadarsh' ka yathesht prabhaav dekhkar tatha sinhali ke alankaaragranth 'seeya-bas-lakar' (846-866 io) ko kaavyaadarsh ke aadhaarapar nirmit paakar itna nishchit hai ki naveen shataabdi se poorv dandi vartamaan the. is prakaar 'lakshm lakshmeen tanoteeti' is uddharan ke kaalidaas ke ek prasiddh padyaansh par aashrit hone se dandi ka kaal asandigdh roop se kaalidaas ke pashchaat‌ thaharata hai. proo paathak ke mat se kaavyaadarsh ka hetuvishyak vibhaag -- bhartruhari (650 io) ke aadhaar par hone se kaavyaadarsh ki rachana 650 io ke baad hui hogi. kaavyaadarshokt raajavarma (rantivrma) ko narasinhavarma dviteeya ka virud ya upanaam maananevaalon ke anusar dandi ka samay saataveen shati ka uttaraardh aur aathaveen ka aarambh maana ja sakta hai. yadi 'kaavyaadarsh' ke ek shlok par kaadanbari ke shukanaashopadesh ka prabhaav sveekaar kiya jaaya to unka kaal -- baanabhatt ke bhi anantar hota hai. avantisundari kathaasaar ko dandi ki kruti maananevaalon ke mat se bhi uparyukt kathan ki pushti hoti hai. parantu kuchh vidvaan dandi ko subandhu se poorv aur kuchh log unhein baanabhatt ka bhi poorvavarti maanate hain. dviteeya mat vaalon ke anusaar subandhu, dandi aur baan -- teenon hi 550 io aur 650 io ke beech utpanan hue the. in logon ke mat se 'avantisundari katha' ya 'kathaasaar' ko (drudh pramaanaabhaav ke kaaran) dandeekrut maanane mein aapatti hai.

rachanaaeain

kinvadanti aur subhaashit ke anusaar dandi ki teen rachanaaeain vishrut bataai gayi hain. pratham rachana 'kaavyaadarsh' aur doosari hai 'dashakumaaracharit'. adhiktar vidvaanon ne yeh maan liya hai, parantu kuchh anya vidvaan‌ -- in donon ko ek saahityakaar ki na maankar dandi naam ke do bhinn vyaktiyon ki rachana hone ka anumaan karte hain. iska ek pramukh kaaran yeh hai ki kaavyashaastr ke jin maanya siddhaanton ka 'kaavyaadarsh' mein pratipaadan aur nirdesh milta hai, 'dashakumaaracharit' mein usaki asangati aur virodh dikhaai deta hai. at: aachaarya aur kaavyakaar ke siddhaant aur vyavahaar ki asangati ek naheen do bhinn krutikaaron ka sanket karti hai. parantu adhiktar vidvaanon ke anusaar ukt asangati ka kaaran yeh maan liya gaya hai ki apne saahityik jeevan ke aaranbhakaal mein mahaakavi ne 'dashakumaaracharit' ki rachana ki thi. 'kaavyaadarsh' us praudhaavastha ki rachana hai jab dandi ka shaastreeya vaidushya paripakva ho gaya tha. at: in donon krutiyon ko dandi rachit maanane mein adhiktar vidvaanon ko koi vipratiptti naheen hai. parantu teesari kruti ka nirdhaaran ab tak vivaadaaspad hai. 'pirol' ke mat se shoodrakarachit kaha jaanevaala 'mruchhakatik' hi dandi ki truteeya rachana hai. iska ek aadhaar 'kaavyaadarsh' mein bina kisi naam ke 'mruchhakatik' ki ek pankti ka uddharan hai. doosra kaaran hai -- 'mruchachhakatik' aur 'dashakumaaracharit‌' donon mein chitrit samaaj evam unke paatron ke charitrachitran mein atyadhik saamya. pratham kaaran koi mahatvapoorn kaaran naheen hai. doosra keval itna hi soochit karta hai ki donon hi krutiyaaain praaya: samakaaleen samaaj ke yugabodh ka yathaarthonnmukh aur jeevant chitran karne mein prayatnasheel hain. 'mallikaamaarut' bhi kabhi kabhi dandeekrut kaha jaata hai. par vah 15veen sadi ke 'udand ranganaath' ki kruti hai. 'avantisudanreekatha' ko (jo apoorn gadyakaavya hai) ab anek vidvaan‌ 'dashakumaaracharit‌' ki kathaaon ke saamya par dandi ki truteeya rachana maanane lage hain.

donon gadyakaavyon ki shaileegat bhinnata ko dekhkar kuchh panditon ne uske dandeekrut hone mein aapatti ki hai. par anya vidvaan‌ yuvaavastha ki shaili mein 'dashakumaaracharit‌' ko virchit aur praudhaavastha ki paripakva shaili mein 'avantisundareekatha' ka nirmaan maankar ise bhi (avantisundareekathaasaar ke pramaan par) asandigdh roop mein dandi ki truteeya rachana sveekaar karte hain. kuchh log -- 'avantisundareekatha' ko 'dashakumaar charit‌' ki khoi hui poorv peethika maanane lage hain. 'dashakumaaracharit‌' sanskrut ke teen prasiddh (vaasavadatta, kaadanbari aur dashakumaar charit) gadyakaavyon mein ek mahatvapoorn aur prasiddh kruti hai. vah kaavya ki kathaashaili mein likhit hai. 'mahaabhaashya' aur praacheen upanishdon ki sahaj gadyashaili, (panchatantr) 'hitopadesh' aadi ki neetisaahityavaali subodh aur vyaavahaarik gadyashaili ki tulana mein dashakumaaracharit‌ ki bhaashaashaili adhik saahityik aur kaavyaatmak hai. parantu subandhu aur baan ki alankrut evam kalaatmak gadyashaili se yeh bhinn hai. kathaamoolak alankrut shaili ke chamatkaar ki paripkvata yadyapi subandhu mein praudh aur baan mein praudhtar hai, tathaapi un donon mein varnya vastu aur paatron ka charitraankan 'dashakumaaracharit‌' ki apeksha dhoomil hai. kalaamoolak aadarshavaadita ne 'vaasavadatta' aur 'kaadanbari' ki shaili ko yathaarthonmukh parivesh se door hataakar kuchh krutrim bana diya hai. par dandi ki gadyakaavyashaili mein us 'ati' aur saayaasata ka prabhaav seemaatikraami naheen hai.

dashakumaaracharit

'dashakumaaracharit‌' par sambhavat: paishaachi bhaashaavaali gunaadhya ki bruhatkatha (baddhakaha) ka prabhaav pada hai. sambhavat: isi kaaran 'dashakumaaracharit' par lokakathaaon ki kathaaroodhiyon ka bhi prabhaav pada hai. kahaani mein doosari, teesari aadi ki shrunkhala ko jodne ka rachanaavidhaan bhi yahaaain lakshit hota hai. ismein saataveen aathaveen shataabdi ke samaaj ki durbalataaon aur sabalataaon, us kaal ke sankuchit aur svaarthaparak raajaneetik sangharshon, naana varg ke vyaktiyon ki kaamaarthamoolak kamjoriyon evam tadyugeen samaaj ki andharoodhiyon, andhavishvaason tatha saiddhaantik aur vyaavahaarik vaishamyon ka atyant jeevant chitran milta hai.

vibhinn shreniyon aur vargon ke vyaktimaadhyam se kiye gaye vargaparak charitrachitran mein tatkaaleen samaaj ki sajeev jhaaainki dikhaai padti hai. kul milaakar yugavishesh ke yathaarth jeevan ka kavi ne paryaapt ankan kiya hai. is granth ki poorvapeethika ke paaainch uchh‌aavaas aur uttar peethika ke ansh ko praaya: sabhi vidvaan dandi rachit naheen maanate. unahein anya lekhakon dvaara likhit sveekaar karte hain. poorvapeethika aur uttarapeethika ki abhivyaktishaili madhya ke aath uchh‌aavaason se bhinn (adhik alankrut aur kalaatmak chamatkaar se adhik gunfit) hai. donon mein maanyataavishyak varnyamaanyata bhi bhinn bhinn drushtiyon ka sanket karti hai. ho sakta hai, iske aaranbhik aur antim ansh nasht bhrasht ho gaye hon, parantu nishchaya hi dandeelikhit donon peethikaaon ke madhya ka ansh upakram aur upasanhaar se rahit hai. yeh bhi kaha jaata hai ki is grantharachana ki yojana -- jo dandi ke man mein thi -- paishaachi ki 'bruhatkatha' ki anugaamini thi. usamein lokakathaaon ka vishaal sangrah karne ka vichaar bhale hi raha ho, par vah (sambhavat:) apoorn rah gayi. kuchh log is granth ko neetivishyak ya upadeshaarth rachit maanate hain. parantu iski rachana mukhyat: kaavyaatmak hai aur saundaryabodh ke aasvaadanaarth hi hui hai. ismein kaheen-kaheen jo ashleelta dosh bataaya jaata hai vah thoda bahut vaisa hi hai jaisa 'kumaarasanbhav', naishadhacharit', 'shishupaal vadh' ya 'kiraataarjunneeya' mein. dandi dvaara 'dashakumaaracharit' mein prayukt shabd sankhya 'kaadanbari' ya 'vaasavadatta' mein prayukt shabdon ki apeksha adhik bataai jaati hai. in tatha anya kaaranon se sanskrut ke gadyakaavyakaaron mein dandi ka sthaan vishisht hai.

kaavyaadarsh

kaavyaadarsh dandi ki aisi rachana hai jo kaavyashaastr ke vichaar se vishesh mahatva ki hai. drushyakaavya sambandhi 'naatyashaastr' ke anantar keval 'bhaamah' hi dandi se praacheenatar aise aalankaarik hain jinka granth adyaavadhi upalabdh hai. parantu unki kruti 'kaavyaalankaar' ki apeksha dandi ka 'kaavyaadarsh' adhik praudh, adhik vyaapak aur adhik vyavasthit hai. usane paravarti anek aalankaarikon ke granthon aur unki rachanaashaili ko prabhaavit kiya hai.

avantisundareekatha

'avantisundareekatha' bhi ek praudh gadyakaavya hai. parantu uske krutitv ke vivaadaaspad aur granth ke apoorn hone mein yahaaain vishesh kuchh na kehkar itna hi kehna paryaapat hai ki vah ek praudh gadyakaavya hai. yeh bhi ho sakta hai ki 'dashakumaaracharit‌' ki vah poorvapeethika rahi ho. sab milaakar dandi ko ham utkrusht kaavyakaar aur tadyugeen shaastrabodh ki drushti se uchch koti ka aalankaarik kah sakte hain.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain