dalit

dalit
Ayyankali Statue.jpg K. R. Narayanan.jpg Young Ambedkar.gifMeira Kumar.jpg
jagajeevan Ram · ayyankali · kochchereel Raman Narayanan · bheemaraav raamaji aanbedakar · maayaavati · meera Kumar ·
kul janasankhya
khaas aavaas kshetr
Flag of भारत Bhaarat ~ 16 karod 60 lakh[1]
Flag of नेपाल Nepal ~ 45 lakh (2005)
Flag of पाकिस्तान Pakistan ~ 20 lakh (2005)[2]
Flag of श्रीलंका Sri Lanka agyaat (2008)
Flag of बांग्लादेश Bangladesh agyaat (2008)
Flag of the United Kingdom UK 5 lakh (lagbhag)[3] (2013)
Flag of the United States sanyukt raajya agyaat (2013)
Flag of कनाडा Canada agyaat (2013)
Flag of मलेशिया Malaysia agyaat (2013)
Flag of सिंगापुर Singapore agyaat (2013)
bhaashaaeain
dakshin Asiaee bhaasha
dharm
hindu · sikkh · bauddh · isaai · islaam
anya sambandhit samooh
indo aaryan, Dravid, munda

dalit hajaaron varshon tak as‍aaprush‍aaya samajhi jaane waali un tamaam jaatiyon ke liye saamoohik roop se prayuk‍aat hota hai jo hindu samaaj v‍aayavas‍aatha mein sabse nichle paayadaan par sthit hai. samvaidhaanik bhaasha mein in‍aahein hi anusoochit jaati kaha gaya hai. Bhaarat ki janasankh‍aaya mein lagbhag 16 pratishat aabaadi daliton ki hai.

anukram

arth va avadhaarana

dalit shab‍aad ka shaabdik arth hai- dalan kiya hua. iske tahat vah har v‍aayakti aa jaata hai jiska shoshan-ut‍aapeedan hua hai. raamachandr varma ne apne shab‍aadakosh mein dalit ka arth likha hai, masala hua, mardit, dabaaya, raunda ya kuchala hua, vinsh‍aat kiya hua.[4] pichhle chhah-saat dashakon mein 'dalit' pad ka arth kaafi badal gaya hai. dau॰ bheemaraav anbedakar ke aandolan ke baad yeh shab‍aad hindu samaaj v‍aayavas‍aatha mein sabse nichle paayadaan par sthit hajaaron varshon se as‍aaprush‍aaya samajhi jaane waali tamaam jaatiyon ke liye saamoohik roop se prayog hota hai. ab dalit pad as‍aaprush‍aaya samajhi jaane waali jaatiyon ki aandolanadharmita ka parichaayak ban gaya hai. bhaarateeya samvidhaan mein in jaatiyon ko anusoochit jaati naam se jaana jaata hai. bhaarateeya samaaj mein vaal‍aameeki ya bhangi ko sabse neechi jaati samjha jaata raha hai aur usaka paaramparik pesha maanav mal ki safaai karna raha hai. parantu aaj ke samay mein is stithi mein bahut badlaav aaya hai.

aitihaasik paripreksh‍aaya

Bhaarat mein dalit aandolan ki shurooaat jyotiraav govindaraav fule ke netrutv mein hui. jyotiba jaati se maali the aur samaaj ke aise tabake se sanbadh rakhate the jinhe uchch jaati ke samaan adhikaar naheen praapt the. iske baavajood jyotiba foole ne hamesha hi tathaakathit 'neechi' jaati ke logon ke adhikaaron ki pairavi ki. bhaarateeya samaaj mein jyotiba ka sabse daliton ki shiksha ka prayaas tha. jyotiba hi vo pehle shakhs the jinhonn daliton ke adhikaaron ke saath-saath daliton ki shiksha ki bhi pairavi ki. iske saath hi jyoti ne mahilaaon ke shiksha ke liye sahaaraneeya kadam uthaae. bhaarateeya itihaas mein jyotiba hi vo pehle shakhs the jinhonne daliton ki shiksha ke liye na keval vidyaalaya ki vakaalat ki balki sabse pehle dalit vidyaalaya ki bhi sthaapana ki. jyoti mein bhaarateeya samaaj mein daliton ko ek aisa path dikhaaya tha jispar aage chalakar dalit samaaj aur anya samaaj ke logon ne chalakar daliton ke adhikaaron ki kai ladaai ladi. yoon to jyotiba ne Bhaarat mein dalit aandolanon ka sootrapaat kiya tha lekin ise samaaj ki mukhyadhaara se jodne ka kaam Baba saahab ambedakar ne kiya. ek baat aur jiska jikr kiye bina dalit aandolan ki baat bemaani hogi vo hai bauddh dharm. isa poorv 600 isavi mein hi baudgh dharm ne samaaj ke nichle tabakon ke adhikaaron ke liye aavaaj uthaai. budgh ne iske saath hi bauddh dharm ke jariye ek saamaajik aur raajaneetik kraanti laane ki bhi pahal ki. ise raajaneetik kraanti kehna isliye jaroori hai kyonki us samay satta par dharm ka aadhiptya tha aur samaaj ki disha dharm ke dvaara hi tay ki jaati thi. aise mein samaaj ke nichle talabe ko kraanti ki jo disha budgh ne dikhaai vo aaj bhi praasaangik hai. Bhaarat mein chaarvaak ke baad budgh hi pehle aise shakhs the jinhonne braahmanavaad ke khilaaf na keval aavaaj uthaai balki ek darshan bhi diya. jisse ki samaaj ke log baudghik daasata ki janjeeron se mukt ho sakein.

yadi samaaj ke nichle tabakon ke aadolanon ka aadikaal se itihaas dekha jaae to chaarvaak ko nakaarana bhi sambhav naheen hoga. yadyapi chaarvaak par kai tarah ke aarop lagaae jaate hain iske baavajood chaarvaak vo pehla shakhs tha jisne logon ko Bhagwan ke bhaya se mukt hone sikhaaya. bhaarateeya darshan mein chaarvaak ne hi bina dharm aur ishvar ke sukh ki kalpana ki. is tarj par dekhne par chaarvaak bhi daliton ki aavaaj uthaata nazar aata hai.....khair baat ko lautaate hain us vakt jis vakt daliton ke adhikaaron ko kaanooni jaama pahanaane ke liye Bhaarat ratn Baba saaheb bheem Rao anbedakar ne ladaai shuroo kar di thi...vakt tha jab hamaara desh Bhaarat british upanivesh ki shreni mein aata tha. logon ke ye daasata ka samay raha ho lekin daliton ke liye kai maayanon mein svarnakaal tha.

aadhunik Bhaarat va dalit adhikaar

aaj daliton ko Bhaarat mein jo bhi adhikaar mile hain usaki prushthabhoomi isi shaasan ki den thi. Europe mein hue purnajaagaran aur jnyaaanodaya aandolanon ke baad maanaveeya moolyon ka mahima mandan hua. yahi maanaveeya moolya Europe ki kraanti ke aardash bane. in aardashon ki jariye hi Europe mein ek aise samaaj ki rachana ki gayi jismein maanaveeya moolyon ko praathamikta di gayi. ye alag baad hai ki audyogikeekaran ke chalte in moolyon ki jagah sabse pehle poonji ne bhi Europe mein li...lekin iske baavajood Europe mein hi sabse pehle maanaveeya adhikaaron ko kaanooni maanyata di gayi. iska seedha asar Bhaarat par padna laajami tha aur pada bhi. iska seedha sa asar ham Bhaarat ke samvidhaan mein dekh sakte hain. bhaarateeya samvidhaan ki prastaavana se lekar sabhi anuchhed inhi maanaveeya adhikaaron ki raksha karte nazar aate hain. Bhaarat mein daliton ki kaanooni ladaai ladne ka jimma sabse sashakt roop mein Dr॰ ambedakar ne uthaaya. Dr ambedakar dalit samaaj ke praneta hain. Baba saahab anbedakar ne sabse pehle desh mein daliton ke liye saamaajik, raajaneetik aur aarthik adhikaaron ki pairavi ki. saaf daur bhaarateeya samaaj ke taatkaalik svaroop ka virodh aur samaaj ke sabse pichhde aur tirskrut logon ke adhikaaron ki baat ki. raajaneetik aur saamaajik har roop mein iska virodh svaabhaavik tha. yahaan tak ki mahaatma Gandhi bhi in maangon ke virodh mein kood pade. Baba saahab ne maang ki daliton ko alag pratinidhitv (pruthak nirvaachika) milna chaahiye yeh dalit raajaneeti mein aaj tak ki sabse sashakt aur prabal maang thi. desh ki svatantrata ka beeda apne kandhe par maanane waali Congress ki saansein bhi is maang par tham gayi theen. kaaran saaf tha samaaj ke taane baane mein logon ka seedha svaarth nihit tha aur koi bhi is taane baane mein jara sa bhi badlaav naheen karna chaahata tha. mahaatma Gandhi ji ko iske virodh ki laathi banaaya gayi aur baitha diya gaya aamaran anashan par. aamaran anashan vaise hi desh ke mahaatma ke sabse prabal hathiyaar tha aur vo is hathiyaar ko aaye din apni baaton ko manaane ke liye prayog karte rahate the. Baba saahab kisi bhi keemat par is maang se peechhe naheen hatna chaahate the vo jaante the ki is maang se peechhe hatne ka seedha sa matlab tha daliton ke liye uthaai gayi sabse mahatvapoorn maang ke khilaaf mein haami bharna. lekin un par chaaron or se dabaav padne laga.aur antat: poona paikt ke naam se ek samjhaute mein daliton ke adhikaaron ki maang ko dharm ki duhaai dekar samaapt kar diya gaya. in sabke baavajood dau॰aaanbedakar ne haar naheen maani aur samaaj ke nichle tabakon ke logon ki ladaai jaari rakhi. anbedakar ki prayaason ka hi ye parinaam hai ki daliton ke adhikaaron ko bhaarateeya samvidhaan mein jagah di gayi. yahaan tak ki samvidhaan ke maulik adhikaaron ke jariye bhi daliton ke adhikaaron ki raksha karne ki koshish ki gayi.

dalit samaaj ke preranaasrot v‍aayakti

daliton ki saamaajik sthiti par aadhaarit pustak "taaki bacha rahe lokatantr" ka kavar prushth

dalit saahitya

haalaanki saahitya mein dalit varg ki upasthiti bauddh kaal se mukharit rahi hai kintu ek lakshit maanavaadhikaar aandolan ke roop mein dalit saahitya mukhyat: beesaveen sadi ki den hai.[5]raveendr prabhaat ne apne upanyaas taaki bacha rahe lokatantr mein daliton ki saamaajik sthiti ki vruhad charcha ki hai[6]vaheen dau॰aaen.Singh ne apaneen pustak "dalit saahitya ke pratimaan " mein hindi dalit saahitya ke itihaas kon bahut hi vistaar se likha hai.[7]

sandarbh

  1. "India at a Glance : Scheduled Castes & Scheduled Tribes Population". Census of India. http://www.censusindia.gov.in/Census_Data_2001/India_at_Glance/scst.aspx. abhigman tithi: 2013-07-09.
  2. Satyani, Prabhu (2005). "The Situation of the Untouchables in Pakistan". ASR Resource Center. http://www.countercurrents.org/dalit-sikand230905.htm. abhigman tithi: 2013-07-09.
  3. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-22166044
  4. sankship‍aat shab‍aad saagar -raamachandr varma (sampaadak), naagari prachaarini sabha, kaashi, navam sans‍aakaran, 1987, prush‍aath 468
  5. bhaarateeya dalit aandolan : ek sankshipt itihaas, lekhak : mohanadaas naimishraaya, books for change, aai॰aesa॰abee॰aena॰ : 81-87830-51-1
  6. taaki bacha rahe lokatantr, lekhak - raveendr prabhaat, prakaashak-hind yugm, 1, jiya saraaya, hauj khaas, nai Delhi-110016, Bhaarat, varsh- 2011, I S bi N 8191038587, I S bi N 9788191038583
  7. dalit saahitya ke pratimaan : dau॰ ena0 Singh, prakaashak : vaani prakaashan, nai Delhi -110002, sanskaran: 2012


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