dakshin soodaan

dakshin soodaan ganaraajya
dhvaj kul chinh
raashtravaakya: "nyaaya, svatantrata, samruddhi"
raashtragaan: "south soodaan oyi!"
rajdhani
aur sabse badaa nagar
juba
04°a51′aN 31°a36′aE / 4.85°aN 31.6°aE / 4.85; 31.6
raajabhaasha(eain) angreji[1]
sarkaar sangheeya adhyaksheeya lokatantr ganaraajya
- raashtrapati salva keer maayaardit
- uparaashtrapati James vaani igga
soodaan se svatantrata
- angreji- misri soodaan ka ant 31 December 1955
- vyaapak shaanti samjhauta 6 January 2005
- svaayattata 9 July 2005
- svatantrata 9 July 2011
kshetrafal
- kul 6 19 745 varg kilometer (42vaan)
2 39 285 varg meal
janasankhya
- 2008 janaganana 8,260,490 (vivaadit)[2] (94vaan)
sakal ghareloo utpaad (PPP) 2012 praakkalan
- kul $10.450 billion$
- prati vyakti $1,006$
sakal ghareloo utpaad (saanketik) 2012 praakkalan
- kul $12.202 billion$[3]
mudra dakshin soodaani pound (SSP)
samay mandal poorvi afreekan samay (yoo॰atee॰asee॰+3)
doorabhaash koot 211[4]
Internet teeeladi .ss[5]a
panjeekrut hai, lekin abhi tak parichaalan naheen.

dakshin soodaan ya 'janoob-us-soodaan' (aadhikaarik taur par dakshini soodaan ganatantr) uttar-poorv afreeka mein sthit sthal-ruddh desh hai. juba desh ki vartamaan rajdhani aur sabse bada shahar bhi hai. desh ke uttar mein soodaan ganatantr, poorv mein ithiyopiya, dakshin-poorv mein kenya, dakshin mein yugaanda, dakshin-pashchim mein kaango lokataantrik ganaraajya aur pashchim mein madhya afreeki ganaraajya hai.

dakshin soodaan ko 9 July 2011 ko janamat-sangrah ke pashchaat svatantrata praapt hui. is janamat-sangrah mein bhaari sankhya (kul mat ka 98.83%) mein desh ki janta ne soodaan se alag ek nae raashtra ke nirmaan ke liye mat daala. yeh vishv ka 196vaan svatantr desh, sanyukt raashtra ka 193vaan sadasya tatha Africa ka 55vaan desh hai.[6] July 2012 mein desh ne jineva sammelan par hastaakshar kiye. apni aajaadi ke theek baad se raashtra ko aantarik sangharsh ka saamana karna pad raha hai.

anukram

itihaas

dakshini soodaan, 2005 se soodaan ganaraajya ka ek svaayatt kshetr tha. Africa ke sabse bade desh soodaan ke vibhaajan ke pashchaat yeh desh 9 July 2011 mein tab astitv aaya, jab January 2011 mein dakshin soodaan mein janamat sangrah ke pashchaat soodaan ke vibhaajan par sahamati bani.[7]

ullekhaneeya hai ki uttar ki muslim bahul aabaadi aur dakshin ki isaai bahul aabaadi ke beech kai dashakon se chale aa rahe sangharsh mein 20 lakh logon ki maut hui. uttari soodaan ke daarafoor ilaake mein raashtrapati basheer par janasanhaar ka aarop laga. unke khilaaf antararaashtreeya aparaadh adaalat ne giraftaari ka warrant bhi jaari kiya. sanyukt raashtra sangh ke dakhal ke baad 2005 mein hinsa ko khatm karne ke liye ek shaanti prastaav aaya, jismein do raashtron ka jikr kiya gaya. shaanti sandhi mein dakshin soodaan ko naya desh banaane ki baat kahi gayi. soodaan sarkaar ke beech hue is samjhaute mein janamat sangrah karaane par rajaamandi hui aur January 2011 mein dakshin soodaan mein janamat sangrah hua. vahaan ke logon ne bahumat se alag desh banaane ke paksh mein vote diya. afreeki mahaadveep ka sabse bada desh soodaan do hisson mein banta. isaai bahul aabaadi wala desh ka dakshini hissa aadhikaarik roop se duniya ka 193vaan raashtra bana aur isaprakaar dashakon ke khoon kharaabe ke baad dakshin soodaan ke astitv ka raasta saaf hua. soodaan ki sarkaar aur vidrohi soodaan people's liberation army ke beech vyaapak shaanti samjhaute par hastaakshar kiye jaane ke baad is nae desh ko aajaadi mili.[8]

bhoogol

dakshin soodaan ka stelaait chitr

dakshin soodaan 3° aur 13° samaanaantar uttar aakshaansh tatha 24° aur 36 ° madhyaahn poorv deshaantar par sthit hai. yeh ushnakatibandheeya van, daladalon aur ghaas ke maidaani bhaagon se paripoorn hai. yahaaain ki pramukh nadi shvet neel hai, jo dakshin soodaan ki rajdhani juba sahit desh ke kai bhaagon se hokar gujarata hai.

yeh Africa mahaadveep ke kendra mein sthit hai aur iski seema chhah deshon se sati hai. yeh praakrutik tel ke lihaaj se sampann desh hai. Spain aur Portugal ke sanyukt kshetrafal se bhi bade ilaake mein sadkein kaheen-kaheen hi najar aati hain. yahi vajah hai ki yahaan parivhan aur kaarobaar ka mukhya jariya neel nadi hai. dakshin soodaan mein aaj bhi logon ki sampannta ki nishaani unke maveshiyon ki sankhya hoti hai.[9]

raajya evam County

soodaan ke teen aitihaasik praanton mein baante gaye dakshin soodaan ke das raajya. █a█ bahar al gjl █a█ ekvetoriya █a█ greater upper neel

dakshin soodaan das raajyon mein vibhaajit hai, jo teen aitihaasik kshetron ke andar aate hain: bahar al gjl, ikvetoriya aur greater upper neel.

  • uttari bahar al gjl
  • pashchimi bahar al gjl
  • leks
  • varraap
ekvetoriya
  • pashchimi ikvetoriya
  • madhya ikvetoriya (yahaaain raashtreeya rajdhani juba hai)
  • poorvi ikvetoriya
greater upper neel
  • jongalei
  • unity
  • upari neel

in 10 raajyon ko aage 86 kauntiyon mein upavibhaajit kiya gaya hai.

aarthik sthiti

tel utpaadan is desh ki mukhya aarthik taakt hai. 2011 mein soodaan se alag hone ke liye dakshin soodaan ke logon ne bade paimaane par matadaan kiya. sarkaar ki mukhya chinta tel utpaadan ko lekar thi, isi saal April mein soodaan ki rajdhani khaartoom se hue samjhaute ke baad tel utpaadan shuroo hua.[9]

jab soodaan ka vibhaajan hua tha to soodaan ke khaartoom ko 75 pratishat tel utpaadan se haath dhona pada tha lekin dakshin soodaan ke jooba ko bhi tel paaipalaainon se vanchit hona pada tha. kshin soodaan mein utpaadit kachche tel mein lagbhag 45 pratishat hissa cheen ka hai. Africa ka yeh 54 vaan raashtra tel sanpada ke maamale mein kaafi dhani hai aur yahi yahaan jaari takaraav ki ek badi vajah bhi hai. varshon ki hinsa aur 20 lakh se adhik logon ke maare jaane ke baad soodaan se yeh svatantr hua. Bhaarat Asia ka pehla desh tha jisne dakshini soodaan ki rajdhani jooba mein apna vaanijya dootaavaas khola.[10]

dakshin soodaan mein badhti hinsa ke beech bhaarateeya sainikon ke 32 sadasyeeya kaafile par hamle ke baad 40 hajaar barrel prati din tel utpaadan vaale greater neel Oil project aur block 5 A se Bhaarat ne apne sabhi adhikaariyon ko vaapas bula liya. is hamle mein bhaarateeya sena ke ek lieutenant Colonel sahit paanch sainyakarmi maare gaye. Bhaarat sarkaar ki company ONGC ka videsh mein kaam dekhne waali company ONGC videsh limited [oveeel] ne apne 11 adhikaariyon ko soodaan ki us tel pariyojana ke liye tainaat kiya tha. satta se hataae gaye soodaan ke up raashtrapati reek mechar ki vafaadaar vidrohi sena ne unity raajya par kabja kar liya hai jahaan sabse adhik tel kshetron mein kaam hota tha. oveeel ka greater neel aayal project mein oveeel ki 25 feesad hissedaari hai jabki block 5e mein 24.125 feesad hai jahaan se paanch hajaar barrel pratidin tel niklata hai. is pariyojana mein 40 feesad hissedaar cheen aur 30 feesad hissedaar Malaysia ne bhi dakshin soodaan se apne adhikaariyon ko khaali karaane ka faisala liya. isaprakaar desh ki maujooda sankaton ke kaaran tel utpaadan ghatne se vishv ke tel baajaar par bhi asar padne ki aashanka hai.[11]

janasankhya

dakshin soodaan ka ek gaanv.

varsh 2008 mein poore soodaan ke liye "paaainchaveen janasankhya aur aavaas janaganana" hui, jiske anusaar dakshini soodaan ki janasankhya 82.60 lakh aaainki gayi.[12] haalaanki us samay dakshini soodaan ke adhikaariyon ne dakshini soodaan ki janaganana ke parinaam ko khaarij karne ke baad kendreeya saankhyiki bureau khaartoom ne janaganana, saankhyiki aur moolyaankan ke liye dakshini soodaan kendra ke saath raashtreeya soodaan ki janaganana ke aankadon ko saajha karne se inkaar kar diya tha.[13]

varsh-2009 mein pun: aagaami 2011 ke svatantrata janamat sangrah ko dhyaan mein rakhate hue dakshini soodaan ki janaganana shuroo hui. is janaganana mein dakshin soodaan daayaspora ko shaamil kiye jaane ki bhi baat kahi gayi, kintu iski bhi bharpoor aalochna hui.[14]

mausam

dakshin soodaan ek uchch aardrata wala desh hai, jo garmi ke saath-saath badi maatra mein barasaat ke mausam ke liye jaana jaata hai. yahaaain ki jalavaayu ushnakatibandheeya hai. yahaaain ka ausat taapamaan July ke maheene mein kam garmi arthaat 20 se 30 degree celcius aur March maheena 23 se lekar 37 degree celcius tak sabse garm hota hai. sabse adhik varsha May aur October ke beech dekha jaata hai, lekin barasaat ka mausam April mein shuroo hokar November tak jaari rahata hai. ausat roop se May ka maheena nam hota hai.[15][16]

dharm aur sanskruti

dakshin soodaan mein paaramparik svadeshi dharm ke saath-saath isaai dharm aur islaam ko maanane vaale logon ki sankhya sarvaadhik hai. dharm ke aadhaar par 1956 mein hui janaganana ke anusaar svadeshi dharm ke saath-saath isaai dharm ko maanane vaale logon ke alaava 18 pratishat musalmaan the.[17][18]

dakshin soodaan mein aaingreji bhaasha mein likha ek vigyaapan

soodaan ke uttar mein sarvaadhik sankhya islaam ki hone ke kaaran yahaaain ki sanskruti islaam se prabhaavit hai, jabki dakshin soodaan isaai dharm aur paaramparik afreeki dharmon vo sanskrutiyon se prabhaavit hai. kai varshon tak chale gruhayuddh ke kaaran bhari maatra mein dakshin soodaan ke sanskruti apne padosiyon se bhi prabhaavit hai. yahaaain ke logon ne apne padosiyon ithiyopiya, kenya, yugaanda, soodaan aur misr ki sanskrutiyon ko hi naheen aatmasaat kiya hai, balki bhaari maatra mein yahaaain ki sanskruti mein arab ki sanskruti ghuli-mili hai. yaha ke kabaayali mool ke adhikaansh log dakshin soodaan ki mool sanskruti ko apanaae hue hain, haalaanki unki paaramparik sanskruti aur boli nirvaasan aur pravaas ki sthiti mein hai. yahaaain sabse jyaada log "jooba arabi" aur aaingreji bhaasha ka istemaal karaate hain, jabki apne poorvi afreeki padosiyon ke saath sambandh sudhaar ke kaaran "kaisvaahili" ka bhi prayog ki jaane lagi hai.[19]

bhaasha

dakshin soodaan ki aadhikaarik bhaasha aaingreji hai,[1] jo aupaniveshik kaal ke dauraan kshetr mein shuroo ki gayi thi. haalaanki dakshin soodaan mein 60 se adhik svadeshi bhaashaaeain hain. jyaadaatar logon ke dvaara is desh mein "dinka", "nuer", "baari" aur "jande" aadi svadeshi bhaashaaon ka prayog kiya jaata hai. dakshin soodaan ki rajdhani jooba mein "arabi pidgin" bhaasha ko "jooba aravik" ke roop mein kai hajaar logon dvaara prayog kiya jaata hai.

raajaneetik sthiti

जॉन गारंग की प्रोफ़ाइल
John gaarang de mobior ne 2005 mein apni mrutyu tak soodaan people's liberation army ka netrutv kiya.
selva keer maayaardit, dakshin soodaan ke pehle raashtrapati.jinki pehchaan topi thi jo sanyukt raajya America ke raashtrapati George bush se unhein upahaar mein mila tha.

9 January 2005 ko dakshini soodaan sarkaar vyaapak shaanti samjhaute par hastaakshar kiye jaane ke baad sthaapit hua tha. soodaan people's liberation army ke poorv vidrohi neta John gaarang dakshini soodaan ki sarkaar ke raashtrapati aur soodaan ke up raashtrapati ke roop mein niyukt huye. July 2005 ko gaarang ki yugaanda mein ek helikauptar durghatana mein mrutyu ho gayi, uske pashchaat ukt donon pad par selava keer maardit aaseen huye aur dakshini soodaan ke uparaashtrapati ke roop mein reek maarchar ko niyukt kiya gaya.

9 July 2011 ko nae desh ke roop mein astitv mein aane ke baad se hi yeh desh lagaataar raajaneetik asthirta ke daur se gujar raha hai. dashakon ke gruhayuddh ke baad uttari soodaan se pruthak hokar 2011 mein dakshini soodaan svatantr raashtra bana. magar ab aalochak raashtrapati keer par taanaashaah hone ka aarop lagaate hain, jo bhrashtaachaar, kuprabandhan evam svatantrata ki kami waali sarkaar ka sanchaalan karte hain. doosari taraf mechaar virodhi unhein avasaravaadi bataate hain, jinhonne soodaan ke khilaaf gruhayuddh ke dauraan apne aur nuer samudaaya ke faayde ke liye paala badal liya tha.

20 August 2011 ko raashtrapati selva keer maayaardit ne ek cabinet ka gathan karne ke liye dakshin soodaan ke 29 sarkaari mantraalayon kramash: cabinet maamalon ke mantraalaya, raksha aur vayovruddh maamalon ke mantraalaya, videsh maamalon aur antarraashtreeya sahayog ke mantraalaya, mantri-raashtrapati ke kaaryaalaya, raashtreeya suraksha-raashtrapati ke kaaryaalaya ke liye mantri, nyaaya mantraalaya, aantarik mantraalaya, mantraalaya sansadeeya kaarya vitt mantraalaya aur aarthik yojana, shram-lok seva aur maanav sansaadhan vikaas mantraalaya, vaanijya-udyog aur nivesh ke mantraalaya, soochana aur prasaaran mantraalaya, svaasthya mantraalaya, krushi aur vaaniki ke mantraalaya, sadkon aur pulon ke mantraalaya, parivhan mantraalaya, saamaanya shiksha mantraalaya aur nirdesh, uchch shiksha mantraalaya, vigyaan aur praudyogiki paryaavaran mantraalaya, aavaas aur shaareerik yojana mantraalaya, doorasanchaar aur daak sevaaon ke mantraalaya, petrolium aur khanan mantraalaya, bijli aur baandhon ke mantraalaya, ling mantraalaya, baal evam samaaj kalyaan, mantraalaya maanaveeya maamalon aur aapada prabandhan ki jal sansaadhan mantraalaya aur sinchaai, vanya jeev sanrakshan aur paryatan mantraalaya, pashu sansaadhan aur matsya paalan mantraalaya, sanskruti, yuva aur khel mantraalaya ki sthaapana ke ek farmaan jaari kiya aur nayi sarkaar ke gathan ki prataavaana rakhi.[20]

poorv uparaashtrapati mechaar, jinhein keer ne poore mantrimandal ko bhang karne ke saath July 2013 mein pad se hata diya tha, nuer samudaaya se hain. jabki raashtrapati bahusankhyak dinka samudaaya se taalluk rakhate hain. rajdhani juba mein dakshin soodaani suraksha bal nuer samudaaya ke logon ko nishaana bana rahe hain. unhonne kaiyon ko maar diya gaya hai aur bahuton ko hiraasat mein le liya gaya hai. unamein sainik, neeti-nirmaata, chhaatr, maanavaadhikaar kaaryakarta aur sharanaarthi shaamil bataae jaate hain. lekin rajdhani se baahar jongalei praant mein iske ult ho raha hai. nuer samudaaya ki sainya tukadiyaan dinka samudaaya ke logon ko nishaana bana rahi hain. Britain se dauktaret ki upaadhi lene vaale mechaar soodaani peepul libreshan army (jis party ka netrutv abhi keer kar rahe hain, usaki sainya tukadi) ke varishth sadasya the. 1991 mein vah us aandolan se alag ho gaye aur apna alag samooh banaaya, jisne 1997 mein soodaani sarkaar se shaanti samjhauta kiya tha. is dauraan mechaar ke samooh ne dakshin soodaani vidrohiyon ke khilaaf ladaai ladi, lekin baad mein vah fir dakshini vidrohi balon ke saath shaamil ho gaye. jab dakshin soodaan 2011 mein alag hua, to mechaar ko up raashtrapati banaaya gaya.[21]

parivhan

ek train vaaoo ki or jaati hui
juba havaai adda

railway

dakshin soodaan mein 248 kimi (154 meal) lamba ekal railway track soodaan ki seema se vaaoo tarmeenas tak hai. ise vaaoo se rajdhani juba tak badhaane ka prastaav hai. iske alaava juba ko kenya aur yoogaanda ke rel tantr se bhi jodne ka prastaav hai.

havaai

dakshin soodaan ka sabse viksit aur vyastatam havaai adda juba havaai adda hai, jahaan se asmaara, enteebi, nairobi, kaahira, aadis abaaba aur khaartoom ki udaane upalabdh hai. juba havaai adda feedar airlines aur saaudarn star airlines ka gruh aadhaar bhi hai.[22]

kuchh anya havaai adde makkal, vaaoo, rumbek hai, jahaan se khaartoom, aadis abaaba tatha kuchh anya shaharon ke liye udaane upalabdh hai.

sankat

duniya ka yeh sabse naya desh apni aajaadi ke baad se hi lagaataar nasleeya sankaton aur raajaneetik asthirta ke daur se gujarata raha hai, kintu jab yeh apni aarthik neetiyon ko ek thos shakl dene aur desh chalaane ke liye jaroori sankalpon ko gadhne ki disha mein juta hua tha ki achaanak vartamaan shaasan ke takhta-palat ki koshishon ki khabar saamane aane ke baad yeh desh hinsa ki chapet mein aa gaya. satta sangharsh ke is gruhayuddh ki sthiti ne ek vaishvik sankat ka roop leti ja rahi hai. sanyukt raashtra mahaasachiv ke daftar se jaari bayaan mein kaha gaya hai ki mahaasachiv dakshin soodaan mein ek khaas samudaaya ko nishaana banaae jaane ko lekar behad 'chintit' hain.[23]

2011 mein soodaan se alag hone ke liye dakshin soodaan ke logon ne bade paimaane par matadaan kiya. sarkaar ki mukhya chinta tel utpaadan ko lekar thi, isi saal April mein soodaan ki rajdhani khaartoom se hue samjhaute ke baad tel utpaadan shuroo hua. haalaanki dakshin soodaan mein chhote sashastr vidrohi ladaakon ka gut maujood tha, jinke beech sangharsh hote rahate the. lekin ab tak ye sab rajdhani juba se door daraaj hota rahata tha. fir July-2013 mein sattaaroodh esapeeelaem party mein aantarik sangharsh ubhara jab bahusankhyak dinka samudaaya se pratinidhi raashtrapati salva keer ne apne deputy raayak maachar ko barkhaast kar diya tha, jo doosare bade samudaaya nuer ke pratinidhi hain. yahaan varsh-2013 mein yeh ladaai tab shuroo hui thi jab raashtrapati salva keer ne riyek machaar par takhta palat ki saajish rachane ka aarop lagaaya tha. machaar tab up-raashtrapati the aur unhein barkhaast kar diya gaya tha. unhonne aaropon se inkaar kiya lekin baad mein khud vidrohi gut bana liya tha. ulalakhaneeya hai, ki dakshin soodaan duniya ke sabse greeb deshon mein se ek hai. desh mein December 2013 mein is takaraav ki shuruaat hui thi. uske baad se ab tak das lakh se adhik log apne ghar chhodkar bhaag gaye hain. desh mein gruh-yuddh ki sthiti hai jahaan bade paimaane par maanavaadhikaaron ka hanan hua hai.[9]


maanaveeya sthiti

dakshin soodaan mein kuchh svaasthya sanketakon ki sthiti duniya mein sabse kharaab hain.[24][25] paanch saal ki aayu ke neeche shishu mrutyu dar prati 1,000 mein 135.3 hai, jabaki maatru mrutyu dar prati 100,000 jeevit janmon mein 2,053.9 hai, jo ki vishv mein sabse adhik hai.[25] 2004 ke aankadon ke anusaar dakshini soodaan mein teen uchit aspataalon ke saath keval teen surgeon sevaarat the aur kuchh kshetron mein har 500,000 logon ke liye sirf ek Doctor upalabdh tha.[24]

dakshin soodaan mein echaaaivi/eds ki mahaamaari par jaankaari theek tarah se abhilekhit naheen hai, lekin maana jaata hai ki lagbhag 3.1% log isse sankramit hain.[26]

2005 ke vyaapak shaanti samjhaute ke samay dakshini soodaan mein maanaveeya jarooraton ki bhaari aavashyakta thi. maanaveeya maamalon ke samanvaya ke liye sanyukt raashtra kaaryaalaya (OCHA) ke netrutv mein maanaveeya sangathan sthaaneeya aabaadi ke liye raahat hetu paryaapt dhan sunishchit karne mein kaamayaab rahe. punarpraapti evam vikaas mein sahaayata ke saath saath sanyukt raashtra aur sahabhaagi sanghathanon ki 2007 kaarya yojana mein maanaveeya pariyojanaaon ko bhi shaamil kiya gaya. sampoorn soodaan ka prati vyakti sakal ghareloo utpaad $1200 ($ 3.29/pratidin) hone ke baavajood, dakshin soodaan ki janasankhya ka 90% se adhik hissa pratidin $1 se kam mein apna gujaara karta hai.[27]

2007 mein maanaveeya sthiti mein dheere-dheere sudhaar aane ke kaaran dakshini soodaan mein sanyukt raashtra kaaryaalaya ki bhaageedaari mein kami I aur punarpraapti aur vikaas kaarya ka jimma gair sarkaari sangathanon evam samudaaya aadhaarit sangathanon par badhta gaya.[28]

khabaron ke anusaar 2011 ke madhya mein aae akaal ke kaaran uttari bahar al gjl aur varraap raajyon mein logon ki mrutyu hui, haalaanki donon raajyon ki sarkaaron ne bhukhamari ko jaanleva maanaane se inkaar kar diya.[29]

December 2011 aur January 2012 mein jongalei raajya mein sthit peebor County mein pashu chori ki ghatnaaon ke kaaran shuroo hue seema sangharsh ne aage jaakar vyaapak jaateeya hinsa ka roop le liya. is hinsa mein hajaaron ki sankhya mein log maare gaye evam 20[30] se 50 hajaar[31] dakshin soodaani visthaapit hue. sarkaar ne kshetr ko aapada grast kshetr ghoshit kar diya aur sthaaneeya adhikaariyon se niyantran vaapas le liya.[32]

jal sankat

dakshini soodaan ko paani ki aapoorti ke liye kai chunautiyon ka saamana karna pad raha hai. anumaan lagaaya jaata hai ki dakshin soodaan ki janasankhya ke 50% se 60% hisse ko chaanpaakal, sanrakshit kuainve, evam – ek chhote varg ko – paaipalaain saplaai ke rup mein behtar paani ka srot upalabdh hai. desh mein shvet neel ke bahne ke baavajood sookhe mausam mein aise kshetron mein paani durlabh hai, jo ki nadi par sthit na hon.

lagbhag aadhi aabaadi ko 1 kimi ke bheetar kisi sanrakshit kuainve, paaipalaain ya chaanpaakal ke roop mein behtar paani ke srot upalabdh naheen hai. kuchh maujooda paaipalaain aadhaarit paani aapoorti pranaaliyon ka aksar achhi tarah se rakharakhaav naheen kiya jaata hai aur unke dvaara saplaai kiya gaya paani peene ke liye aksar surakshit naheen hota. ghar laut rahi visthaapit aabaadi buniyaadi suvidhaaon par bhaari dabaav daal rahi hai aur is vibhaag ke prabhaari sarkaari sansthaan bhi kamjor hain. kai sarkaari evam gair sarkaari sangathanon ki or paani ki aapoorti mein sudhaar ke liye paryaapt baahari daan raashi upalabdh hai.

vaatar is besik, obakki foundation[33] evam uttari America se brijtan-lek reejan rotari club[34] jaise kai gair sarkaari sangathan dakshini soodaan mein paani ki aapoorti sudhaarane mein sahaara dete hain.

sharanaarthi

fravari 2014 ke roop mein, dakshin soodaan 230,000 se adhik sharanaarthiyon ka ghar hai, jismein se jyaadaatar log – 209,000 se adhik, yahaaain haal hi mein soodaan se pahunche hain. anya sharanaarthi madhya afreeki ganaraajya, ithiyopiya aur kaango lokataantrik ganaraajya jaise aaspaas ke afreeki deshon se aae hain.[35] December 2013 se, dakshin soodaan mein kareeb 740,000 aantarik roop se visthaapit log (aaideepi) hain jinmein se lagbhag 75,000 sanyukt raashtra ke addon mein rahate hain.

aantarik roop se visthaapit logon ki janasankhya mein vruddhi ke baavajood, sharanaarthiyon ke liye sanyukt raashtra uchchaayukt (yooenaechaseeaar) ne sanrakshan ki maang kar rahe aise logon ki sankhya mein giraavat darj ki hai. nateejatan, yooenaechaseeaar maanaveeya samanvayak ke netrutv mein antar-agency sahayog ke maadhyam se aage badh rahi hai aur pravaasan ke liye antarraashtreeya sangathan (aaioem) ke saath kaam kar rahi hai. February 2013 ke shuruaat mein, yooenaechaseeaar ne maalaakal mein sthit sanyukt raashtra adde ke baahar raahat saamagri vitran karna shuroo kiya. yeh 10,000 logon tak pahunchane ki ummeed hai.[35]

sandarbh

  1. a aa "The Transitional Constitution of the Republic of South Sudan, 2011". Government of South Sudan. http://www.goss-online.org/magnoliaPublic/en/home/mainColumnParagraphs/0/content_files/file/FINAL%20TCRSS.doc. abhigman tithi: 12 July 2011. Part One, 6(2). "English shall be the official working language in the Republic of South Sudan". sandarbh truti: Invalid <ref> tag; name "engwork" defined multiple times with different content
  2. "Discontent over Sudan census". News24.com. AFP. 21 May 2009. http://www.news24.com/Content/World/News/1073/b52cc36803164f39be83598566f1eb70/21-05-2009-07-23/Discontent_over_Sudan_census. abhigman tithi: 14 July 2011.
  3. "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". World Economic Outlook Database, April 2013. International Monetary Fund. April 2013. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2013/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?pr.x=39&pr.y=12&sy=2012&ey=2013&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=733&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC&grp=0&a=. abhigman tithi: 18 April 2013.
  4. International Telecommunication Union (14 July 2011). New country, new number: Country code 211 officially assigned to South Sudan. press release. http://www.itu.int/net/pressoffice/press_releases/2011/25.aspx. abhigman tithi: 20 July 2011.
  5. ".ss Domain Delegation Data". Internet Assigned Numbers Authority. ICANN. http://www.iana.org/domains/root/db/ss.html. abhigman tithi: 1 September 2011.
  6. naya desh bana dakshin soodaan
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  9. a aa i "kya hai dakshin soodaan ka sankat?". BBC hindi. 25 December 2013. http://www.bbc.co.uk/hindi/international/2013/12/131225_south_sudan_conflicts_pk.shtml. abhigman tithi: 24 April 2014. sandarbh truti: Invalid <ref> tag; name ".E0.A4.AC.E0.A5.80.E0.A4.AC.E0.A5.80.E0.A4.B8.E0.A5.80_.E0.A4.B9.E0.A4.BF.E0.A4.A8.E0.A5.8D.E0.A4.A6.E0.A5.80" defined multiple times with different content
  10. Rajiv ranjan tivaari (23 December 2013). "dakshin soodaan mein aakhir kyon maare gaye hamaare sainik". navabhaarat times. http://hindi.economictimes.indiatimes.com/other/thoughts-platform/focus/south-sudan/articleshow/19542400.cms. abhigman tithi: 24 April 2014.
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  12. Fick, Maggie (8 June 2009). "S. Sudan Census Bureau Releases Official Results Amidst Ongoing Census Controversy". !enough The project to end genocide and crimes against humanity. http://www.enoughproject.org/blogs/s-sudan-census-bureau-releases-official-results-amidst-ongoing-census-controversy.
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  17. "South Sudan's Muslims welcome secession". The Daily Star. 9 January 2011. http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=169306.
  18. "South Sudan profile". BBC News. 8 July 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-14069082. abhigman tithi: 25 April 2014.
  19. "SustainabiliTank: The animist culture of South Sudan (Juba) clashed with Islamic North and the Divide & Rule Brits. Now they prepare for a January 2011 vote for Independence and the first break-away African State will be born. Many more should be allowed to follow. But this particular case is specifically hard as most people are still centuries behind". Sustainabilitank.info. http://www.sustainabilitank.info/2010/07/the-aninist-culture-of-south-sudan-clashed-with-islamic-north-and-the-divide-rule-brits-now-they-prepare-for-a-january-2011-vote-for-independence-and-the-first-break-away-african-state-will-be-born/. abhigman tithi: 25 April 2014.
  20. "Kiir announces new South Sudan ministries". Sudan Tribune. 21 August 2011. http://www.sudantribune.com/Kiir-announces-new-South-Sudan,39898. abhigman tithi: 24 April 2014.
  21. Interview in aljazeera/South Sudan gripped by power struggle
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  24. a aa "Southern Sudan has unique combination of worst diseases in the world – Sudan Tribune: Plural news and views on Sudan". soodaan tribyoon. http://www.sudantribune.com/spip.php?article1616. abhigman tithi: 2014-04-24.
  25. a aa "dakshin soodaan parivaar sarvekshan". dakshin soodaan medical journal. December 2007. http://www.southernsudanmedicaljournal.com/assets/files/misc/SHHS.pdf.
  26. hakeem, James (August 2009). "HIV/AIDS: an update on Epidemiology, Prevention and Treatment". dakshin soodaan medical journal. http://www.southernsudanmedicaljournal.com/archive/2009-08/untitled-resource.html.
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  31. "Thousands flee South Sudan tribal conflict". Al Jazeera. 2 January 2012. http://www.aljazeera.com/news/africa/2012/01/201212101840599359.html. abhigman tithi: 26 April 2014.
  32. meladram, endroo (6 January 2012). "South Sudan News: Ethnic clashes must be solved in the long term". globalapost. Archived from the original on 2012-02-05. http://web.archive.org/web/20120205004734/http://web1.globalpost.com/dispatch/news/regions/africa/120105/south-sudan-news-ethnic-clashes-must-be-solved-long-term. abhigman tithi: 26 April 2014.
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