dakshin afreeka

dakshin Africa ka kulachihn
dhvaj kul chinh
raashtravaakya: ike krra ke (ikaam)
"ekta vividhta mein"
raashtragaan: dakshin afreeka ka raashtra gaan
rajdhani pritoriya (kaaryapaalika)
blomafaanten (nyaayik)
kep taaun (vidhaayi)
sabse bada nagar johaansabarg (2006)
raajabhaasha(eain) afrikaans
angreji
dakshini ndabele
uttari suthu
dakshini suthu
svaati
tsonga
tsvaana
veinda
kosa
juloo
maanavajaateeya varg 79.3% Black
9.1% White
9.0% Coloured
2.6% Asian
nivaasi dakshin afreeki
sarkaar samvaidhaanik lokatantr
- raashtrapati jekab jooma
- up raashtrapati gaalema motalaanthe
svatantrata United kingadam se
- sangh 31 May 1910
- vest ministar ki sthaapana 11 December 1931
- ganaraajya 31 May 1961
kshetrafal
- kul 1 221 037 varg kilometer (25vaan)
471 443 varg meal
- jal (%) naganya
janasankhya
- 2009 janaganana 49,320,000 (25vaan)
- 2001 janaganana 44 819 778
sakal ghareloo utpaad (PPP) 2008 praakkalan
- kul $493.490 billion (25 vaan)
- prati vyakti $10,136 (79vaan)
maanav vikaas soochakaank (2013) Green Arrow Up Darker.svg 0.658[2]
madhyam · 118vaaain
mudra reind (ZAR)
samay mandal SAST (yoo॰atee॰asee॰+2)
yaataayaat chaalan disha left
doorabhaash koot 27
Internet teeeladi .za

dakshin afreeka (saauth ऍfrik bhi kaha jaata hai) Africa ke dakshini chhor par sthit ek ganaraajya hai. iski seemaaeain uttar mein naameebiya, botsavaana aur jimbaabve tatha uttar-poorv mein mojaambik aur svaajeelaind ke saath lagti hain, jabki lesootho ek svatantr aisa desh hai, jo poori tarah se dakshin afreeka se ghira hua hai.

aadhunik maanav ki basaahat dakshin Africa mein ek lakh saal puraani hai. Europeeya logon ke aagaman ke dauraan kshetr mein rahane vaale bahusankhyak sthaaneeya log aadivaasi the, jo Africa ke vibhinn kshetron se hajaar saal pehle aae the. 4thee-5veen shataabdi ke dauraan bantoo bhaashi aadivaasi dakshin ko or badhe aur dakshin Africa ke vaastavik nivaasiyon ko visthaapit karne ke saath-saath unke saath shaamil bhi ho gaye. Europeeya logon ke aagaman ke dauraan shosa aur jooloo do bade samudaaya the.

kep samudri maarg ki khoj ke kareeban dedh shataabdi baad 1962 mein dach East India company ne us jagah par khaanapaan kendra (rifreshameint center) ki sthaapana ki, jise aaj kep taaun ke naam se jaana jaata hai. 1806 mein kep taaun british kaaloni ban gaya. 1820 ke dauraan boar (dach, flemish, jarman aur French setalars) aur british logon ne desh ke poorvi aur uttari kshetron mein basane ke saath hi Europeeya basaahat mein vruddhi hui. iske saath hi kshetr par kabje ke liye shosa, juloo aur afreekaan ke beech jhadap ki badhti gayi.

heera aur baad mein sone ki khoj ke saath hi 19veen shataabdi mein dvand shuroo ho gaya, jise englo-boar yuddh ke naam se jaana jaata hai. haalaanki british ne boar par yuddh mein vijay praapt kar li thi, lekin 1910 mein dakshin Africa ko british dominiyn ke taur par seemit svatantrata pradaan ki. 1961 mein dakshin Africa ko ganaraajya ka darja mila. desh ke bheetar aur baahar virodh ke baavajood sarkaar ne rangabhed ki neeti ko jaari rakha. 20 veen shataabdi mein desh ki damanakaari neetiyon ke virodh mein bahishkaar karna shuroo kiya. kaale dakshin afreeki aur unke sahayogiyon ke saalon ke adaruni virodh, kaarravaai aur pradarshan ke parinaamasvaroop aakhirkaar 1990 mein dakshin afreeki sarkaar ne vaarta shuroo ki, jiski parinti bhedabhaav waali neeti ke khatm hone aur 1994 mein lokataantrik chunaav se hui. desh fir se raashtrakul deshon mein shaamil hua.

dakshin afreeka Africa mein jaateeya rup se sabse jyaada vividhtaaon wala desh hai aur yahaaain Africa ke kisi bhi desh se jyaada shvet rahate hain; afreeki janajaatiyon ke alaava yahaaain kai Asiaee deshon ke log bhi hain jinme sabse jyaada Bhaarat se aaye logon ki sainkhya hai.

anukram

bhaashaaeain

dakshin afreeka mein gyaarah bhaashaaon ko aadhikaarik bhaasha ka darja diya gaya hai, jismein angreji ke saath-saath afreekaans, dakshini deebeeli, uttari sotho, dakshini sotho, svaaji, songa, svaana, shosa aur juloo shaamil hai. kisi ek desh mein boli jaane waali bhaashaaon ki sankhya ke hisaab se yeh boliviya aur Bhaarat ke baad teesara desh hai. varsh 2001 ke raashtreeya janaganana ke anusaar, maatrubhaasha ke taur par boli jaane waali teen pehli bhaashaaon mein juloo (23.8 prati.), shosa (17.6 prati.) aur afreekaans (13.3 prati.) hain. haalaanki angreji vaanijya aur vigyaan ki bhaasha hai, lekin dakshin Africa mein keval 8.2 pratishat logon ki maatrubhaasha hai. in bhaashaaon ke alaava desh mein aath anya gair aadhaakaarik bhaashaaon ko bhi maanyata pradaan ki gayi hai, jismein faanaagaalo, khoi, lobedoo, naama, uttari deebeeli, foothi, saan aur dakshin afreeki sign bhaasha shaamil hain.


sandarbh

  1. "The Constitution". Constitutional Court of South Africa. http://www.constitutionalcourt.org.za/site/theconstitution/thetext.htm. abhigman tithi: 3 September 2009.
  2. "2014 Human Development Report Summary". United Nations Development Programme. 2014. pp. 21–25. http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr14-summary-en.pdf. abhigman tithi: 27 July 2014.

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