daasapratha (paashchaatya)

maanav samaaj mein jitni bhi sansthaaon ka astitv raha hai unamein sabse bhayaavah daasata ki pratha hai. manushya ke haathon manushya ka bade paimaane par utpeedn is pratha ke anrtagat hua hai. daasapratha ko sansthaatmak shoshan ki paraakaashtha kaha ja sakta hai. Asia, Europe, Africa, amareeka aadi sabhi bhookhandon mein udaya haanevaali sabhyataaon ke itihaas mein daasata ne saamaajik, raajaneetik tatha aarthik vyavasthaaon ke nirmaan evam parichaalan mein mahatvapoorn yogadaan kiya hai. jo sabhyataaeain pradhaanataya talavaar ke bal par bani, badheen aur tiki theen, unamein daasata nagn roop mein pai jaati thi.

pashchimi sabhyata ke vikaas ke itihaas mein daasapratha ne vishisht bhoomika ada ki hai. kisi anya sabhyata ke vikaas mein daason ne sambhavat: na to itna bada yog diya hai aur na anyatr daasata ke naam par manushya dvaara manushya ka itna vyaapak shoshan tatha utpeedn hi hua hai. paashchaatya sabhyata ke sabhi yugon mein - yoonaani, roman, madhyakaaleen tatha aadhunik- daason ne sabhyata ki bhavya imaarat ko apne paseene aur rakt se uthaaya hai.

anukram

yoonaan

yoonaani itihaas ke praacheenatam stroton mein daasavyavastha ke astitv ka varnan praapt hota hai. yoonaan ke aadikvi homar (E.poo. 900 ke kareeb) ke mahaakaavyon - odisi tatha iliyd - mein daasata ke astitv tatha usase utpann naitik patan ka ullekh hai. E.poo. 800 ke pashchaat yoonaani upaniveshon ki sthaapana tatha udyogon ke vikaas ke kaaran daason ki maaaing tatha poorti mein abhivruddhi hui. daason ki praapti ka pradhaan strot tha yuddh mein praapt bandi kintu maataapita dvaara santaanavikraya, apaharan tatha sangathit daasabaajaaron se kraya dvaara bhi das praapt hote the. jo rinagrast vyakti apna rin ada karne mein asamarth ho jaate the, unhein bhi kabhi kabhi iski adaayagi ke liye daasata sveekaar karni padti thi. Athens, saaipras tatha semos ke daasabaajaaron mein Asiaee, afreeki athva Europeeya daason ka kraya vikraya hota tha. ghareloo kaaryon athva krushi tatha udyog dhandhon sambandhi kaaryon ke liye das rakhe jaate the. das apne svaami ki niji sapatti samjha jaata tha aur sampatti ki bhaaainti hi usaka kraya vikraya ho sakta tha. kabhi kabhi svaami prasann hokar svechha se das ko mukt bhi kar dete the aur yadaakada das apni svatantrata ka kraya swayam bhi kar leta tha.

yoonaan mein das bahut badi sankhya mein the aur aisa anumaan hai ki Athens mein daason ki sankhya svatantr naagrikon se bhi adhik thi. daason tatha naagrikon ke bhed ka aadhaar prajaati na hokar saamaajik sthiti thi. praaya: sabhi yoonaani vichaarakon ne daasata par apne mat prakat kiye hain. arastoo ke anusaar daasata svaami tatha das donon ke liye hitkar hai kintu afalaatoon ne daasata ka virodh kiya tha kyonki ise vah anaitik samajhta tha.

rom

rom ke utthaan ke saath daasavyavastha bhi apne poornatv ko praapt hui. daasata ka sabse adhik sabandh yuddhavijya se raha hai. vijetaaon dvaara apni seva ke liye paraajiton ka upayog karna yuddh ki svaabhaavik parinti rahi hai. roman saamraajya ka abhyudaya evam prasaar sainyabal par hua at: rom mein daasapratha ka prachalan atyadhik hua. roman ganaraajya ke uttaraardh (E.poo. teesari evam doosari shati) mein jab adhikaansh svasth roman naagrikon ko kaartheji yuddhon mein sanlagn hona pada to bhoosvaamiyon ne yuddhabandiyon ko krushikaaryon ke liye daason ke roop mein kraya karna praarambh kiya. in yuddhon ke kaaran rom mein daasata ka abhootapoorv prasaar hua. prakaar ka anumaan isse lagaaya ja sakta hai ki us samay delos dweep ke ek pramukh daasabaajaar mein ek din mein 10,000 daason ka krayavikraya saadhaaran baat thi. kehte hain ki aagastas ke samay mein jab ek naagrik ki mrutyu hui to akele uske adhikaar mein hi us samay chaar hajaar das the. sheegra hi itaalavi gram samudaayon mein daason ka bahumat ho gaya. nagaron mein bhi daason ka ghareloo kaaryon ke liye rakha jaata tha. roman naagrikon ke manonjanaarth das yoddhaaon-glaidiyetars-ko kavachaheen sthiti mein shastrayuddh karna padta tha. is yuddh mein mrutyu ho jaana saadhaaran ghatna thi.

jab roman saamraajya mein bahusankhyak daason par honevaala dussah atyaachaar paraakaashtha par pahuainch gaya to Italy tatha sisli ke graameen kshetron mein daasavidrohon ka silsila shu degree ho gaya. sabse prabal daasavidroh E.poo. 73 ke kareeb glaidiyetars ke veer neta spaartaakas ke netrutv mein hua. vidrohi daasasenaaon ka aakaar nirantar badhta gaya aur ek samay to samast dakshini Italy daason ke haath mein chala gaya tha. roman saamraajya ke antim charan mein jab saamraajyaprasaar ruk gaya to nae daason ka praapt hona band ho gaya. falat: roman daason ki sthiti bhi sudharane lagi. daasata ke sthaan par ardh-daasata badhne lagi. roman saamraajya tatha vyavastha ki asthirta ev patan ka ek pradhaan kaaran daasapratha thi. bahusankhyak daason ka apne shoshan aur utpeedn par khadi vyavastha se koi lagaav na hona svaabhaavik tha. aisi sthiti mein roman vyavastha ki jadein saamaajik drushti se adhik pusht na ho sakeen.

Europeeya desh

daasata ko nirmamata ke shikhar par pahuainchaanevaale roman saamraajya ke vightan ke uparaant Europe mein daasapratha ki kathorata mein kuchh kami I. ab Europeeya deshon ko adhiktar das slaav kshetr se praapt hote the. das shabd ke angreji, Europeeya bhaashaaon ke paryaaya "slev" shabd ki vyutpatti isi se hui hai. Europe mein 10veen tatha 14veen shati ke beech daasapratha saamaanya roop mein chalti rahi. 14veen shati ke aas paas poorvi Europe tatha pashchimi Asia par honevaale aakramanon se pashchimi Europe ko pun: yuddhabandiyon ki praapti hone lagi. madhyayug ke antim charan mein raashtravaad aur kattar dhaarmikta ke sammishran se yuddhabandiyon ke prati asahishnuta barati gayi. gair isaai bandiyon ko ""yeeshu ke shatru"" ghoshit kar daason ke roop mein unhein kraya karne ka dharmaadesh ek baar sarvochch dharmaguru Pope ne swayam jaari kiya tha. paadariyon ki seva ke liye rakhe jaanevaale girjaaghar ke daason ki sthiti kuchh maanon mein ghareloo daason se bhi badatar thi. yuddhabandiyon ki praapti se ek baar fir itaalavi daasavyaapaariyon ka bhaagya chamak utha. manushyon ke yeh vyaapaari Turkey se Syriai, aarmeeneeyaai tatha slaav daason ko laakar bhoomadhyasaagareeya deshon ki maaaing poori karte the. isi kaal se otoman turkon ke islaami saamraajyaprasaar ne bhi daasata ko badhaaya.

15veen shati ke madhya ke kareeb purtagaali naavikon ne habshi das vyaapaar mein arabon ka ekaadhikaar samaapt kar diya. pehli baar afreeki daason ka vyaapaar samudri maarg se praarambh hua. Portugal mein daason ki maaaing nirantar badhti ja rahi thi kyonki moor yuddhon evam aupaniveshik prasaar ke kaaran purtagaali janasankhya ghatati ja rahi thi. daason ka aayaat itna badha ki 16veen shati mein Portugal ke anek kshetron mein shveton ki apeksha habshiyon ki sankhya adhik ho gayi thi. chooainki daasata mein rangabhed prabal naheen tha ataev mukt roop se raktasanmishran hota tha. purtagaaliyon ki dhamaniyon mein aaj bhi habshi rakt tatha shvet rakt saath saath bahata hai. Portugal ke alaava Spain mein bhi kaale das rakhe jaate the.

nai duniya

pashchimi sabhyata ke aadhunik yug mein padaarpan karne par ek baar fir roman yug ki tarah daasata ka prasaar tab badha jab saahasik Europeeya naavikon ne Amreeki mahaadveepon ki khoj ki tatha upaniveshon ki neenv rakhi. nai duniya ke pashchimi dveepasamooh, maiksika, peroo, Brazil aadi deshon mein utpaadit ganne, kapaas, tanbaakoo jaisi vastuon ki maaaing Europe mein hone lagi. in vastuon ka sabse sasta utpaadan das ki mehnat ke aadhaar par hota tha. Spain ke tatvaavadhaan mein sarvapratham nai duniya ki khoj karanevaale kolanbas ne swayam hi pashchimi dveepasamoohon ke moolavaasiyon ko das banaana praarambh kiya tha. taduparaant in Europeeya upaniveshon ki dharati ke putron ki jo durdasha daason ke roop mein ki gayi usaka kuchh anumaan isse lagaaya ja sakta hai ki Spain ke aupaniveshik yug ka ant hote hote pashchimi dveepasamoohon ke kairibi mool nivaasiyon ka naamonishaan mit chuka tha. udhar dakshini amareeka ke Brazil aadi deshein mein purtagaaliyon ne bade paimaane mein vyaapaar chalaaya. khristaani Europeeya "sabhyon" ke anusaar "asabhya" mool nivaasiyon ko "sachche dharm" mein Dixit kar sabhya banaane ka ekamaatr maarg unhein das bana lena tha aur sabhya banaane ki is prakriya mein sab kuchh kshamya tha.

habshi daasata

1510 E. ke kareeb jab afreeki habshi daason se lada pehla jahaaj nai duniya pahuaincha to daasata ke itihaas mein ek naya mod aaya. moolanivaasi das kabhi kabhi apni vidrohi gatividhiyon ke kaaran shvet mahaaprabhuon ka saradard ban jaate the aur saath hi Spain evam Portugal ke raaja tatha dharmaguru bhi un daason ke prati sahishnuta baratne ki charcha karne lag jaate the. moolanivaasi daason ki tulana mein ye nae habshi das adhik aajnyaaakaari tatha kathor shrami the jiska pradhaan kaaran in habshiyon ka apni afreeki maatrubhoomi se door saat samoodr paar rahana tha. at: habshiyon ki maaaing badhne lagi. ganne, kapaas ke kheton mein aur khaanon mein das-shram pehle se bhi adhik upayogi ho gaya. falat: habshiyon ka aayaat itna badha ki sheegra hi pashchimi dveepasamoohon mein unka bahumat ho gaya. laalachi Europeeya shaktiyon ke tatvaavadhaan mein daasavyaapaar ki niji companiyon mein aisi ghor pratispardha chali ki 18veen sadi ke praarambh tak habshi daasavyaapaar paraakaashtha par pahuainch gaya. angrej to is kaam mein raani Elizabeth ke kaal mein hi nipun ho chuke the kyonki rele, gilbart, haakins tatha drek jaise vyakti apaharan, lootamaar aadi tareekon se daasavyaapaar chalaakar England ko samruddh bana rahe the.

habshiyon ko vastuon ke badle praapt kar aur jahaajon mein jaanvaron ki tarah thooainsakar atalaantik paar amareeka le jaaya jaata tha. vahaaain unhein bechakar cheeni, kapaas, chaaval tatha sone se lade jahaaj Europe lautate the. vaastav mein England, amareeka tatha Europeeya pooainjeevaad ka ek pramukh aadhaar daasavyaapaar hai. ek anumaan ke anusaar san 1680-1786 ke beech lakh habshiyon ko atalaantik paar le jaaya gaya. in daason ko apne vibhinn Europeeya svaamiyon ki bhaasha tatha dharm ko bhi grahan karna padta tha kyonki unhein us narak mein apni saanskrutik viraasat ko jeevit rakhane ke avsar hi kahaaain praapt ho sakte the. aatmahatya ya palaayan ke aalaava mukti ke koi maarg na the. habshi das shvet striyon ke saath sampark ki kalpana bhi naheen kar sakte the jab ki shvet svaami habshiyon ke saath yaun sambandh kar lete the. kintu varnasankar santaanein kuchh apavaadon ko chhodkar daasata ka hi star praapt karti theen. habshi daason ke aavaas atyant dayaneeya tatha bhojan nikrushtatam hota tha. das jhundon ke shvet nireekshak kheton ya khaanon mein kaam karaate samay unapar chaabukon ka khulkar prayog karte the.

uttari amareeka tatha visheshakar sanyukt raajya amareeka ke itihaas mein habshi daasata tatha tajjanit sthitiyon ka praarambh se lekar aaj tak vishesh mahatva raha hai. daasapratha ke kaaran hi vahaaain tanbaakoo, kapaas aadi ki krushi mein aashcharyajanak pragati hui tatha bhoomi se apratyaashit khanij sampatti nikaali gayi; daasavyavastha ne hi sanyukt raajya ko pooainjeevaadi tatha audyogik pragati mein vishv ka aguaa banane mein sabse adhik sahaayata di hai; tatha daasapratha ne hi sanyukt raajya ke raajaneetik itihaas mein sabse mahatvapoorn prabhaav daala hai kyonki daasata ke prashn par ukt raashtra bheeshan gruhayuddh se gujarakar vibhaajit hote hote bacha hai. yadyapi sanyukt raajya mein daasata pehle avaidhaanik karaar di ja chuki thi tathaapi aaj bhi vahaaain ki sabse badi raashtreeya samasya habshi samasya hai jiska poorn samaadhaan drushtigt naheen ho raha hai. yeh unheen habshiyon ki samasya hai jinke parvaj shvet mahaaprabhuon ke kreetadaas the.

sanyukt raajya mein 18veen shati mein jab habshiyon ke vidrohon ki kuchh sambhaavana hone lagi to vaidhaanik roop se habshiyon ke liye shastradhaaran, dhol nagaade rakhana tatha raatri mein sadkon par niklana varjit kar diya gaya. jab varjiniya mein, jo sanyukt raajya mein kaale daason ka praacheenatam tatha vishaalatam kendra tha, net turner naamak das paadari ke netrutv mein ek chhota vidroh hua to das raajyon mein habshiyon ko padhna-likhna sikhaana bhi avaidhaanik ghoshit kar diya gaya. sanyukt raajya mein daasapratha ki pradhaan visheshata rangabhed rahi hai.

yadyapi praarambh mein daason par bhayaavah atyaachaar hote the aur unhein asahaneeya kasht uthaane padte the, fir bhi dheere-dheere unke prati adhik udaarataapoorn vyavahaar kiya jaane laga. Athens mein yadi kisi das ke saath kashtakar durvyavahaar hota tha to vah kisi doosare svaami ke haath bech diye jaane ki maaaing kar sakta tha. uske svaami ko yeh adhikaar na tha ki jab ichha ho tab uske praan le le. maalik ke parivaar ke kisi vyakti ki hatya kar dene par bhi uske svaami ko yeh adhikaar na tha. saamaanyataya nyaayaalaya mein mukadama chalaae bina use praanadand naheen diya ja sakta tha. rom mein unki sthit sudhaarane mein adhik samay laga. vahaaain das ke praan le lene ki poori chhoot svaami ko thi. use vivaah karne ka adhikaar na tha. bahut se daason ko aksar raat mein janjeeron se baaaindhakar rakha jaata tha. kramash: is sthiti mein thoda sudhaar hota gaya. kuchh maalikon ne apne bachchon ki achhi tarah dekhbhaal karne par daason ko svatantr kar dene ka aashvaasan dena shu degree kiya aur kuchh ne unhein nirdhaarit avadhi tak kadi mehnat karne par chhod dene ka vachan diya. kaanoon ke anusaar bachchon ko gulaam ke roop mein bechne ki mumaaniyt kar di gayi aur karj chukaane ke liya bhi kisi ko das banaane par rok laga di gayi.

daasapratha ka unmoolan

pashchim mein daasapratha unmoolan sambandhi vaataavaran 18veen shati mein banane laga tha. Amreeki svaatantrya yuddh ka ek pramukh naara manushya ki svatantrata tha aur falasvaroop sanyukt raajya ke uttari raajyon mein san 1804 tak daasataavirodhi vaataavaran banaane mein maanaveeya mool adhikaaron par ghor nishtha rakhanevaali fraanseesi raajyakraanti ka adhik mahatva hai. us mahaan kraanti se prerana paakar san 1821 mein saanto domingo mein Spain ke viruddh vidroh hua aur haaiti ke habshi ganaraajya ki sthaapana hui. Amreeki mahaadveepon ke sabhi deshon mein daasataavirodhi aandolan prabal hone laga.

sanyukt raajya amareeka ke udaaravaadi uttar raajyon mein daasata ka virodh jitna prabal hota gaya utani hi pratikriyaavaadi dakshin ke das raajyon mein daason ke prati kathorata barati jaane lagi tatha yeh tanaav itna badha ki antat: uttari tatha dakshini raajyon ke beech gruhayuddh chhid gaya. is yuddh mein Abraham Lincoln ke netrutv mein daasavirodhi ekataavaadi uttari raajyon ki vijay hui. san 1888 ke adhiniyam ke anusaar sanyukt raajya mein daasata par khade purtagaali Brazil saamraajya ka patan hua. shanai: shanai: Amreeki mahaadveepon ke sabhi deshon se daasata ka unmoolan hone laga. 1890 mein brasels ke 18 deshon ke sammelan mein habsh daason ke samudri vyaapaar ko avaidhaanik ghoshit kiya gaya. 1919 ke saint Germaine sanmelan mein tatha 1926 ke league ov nations ke tatvaavadhaan mein kiye gaye sanmelan mein har prakaar ki daasata tatha daasavyaapaar ke sampoorn unmoolan sambandhi prastaav par sabhi pramukh deshon ne hastaakshar kiye. british adhikrut pradeshon mein san 1833 mein daasapratha samaapt kar di gayi aur daason ko mukt karne ke badle mein unke maalikon ko do karod pound harajaana diya gaya. anya deshon mein kaanoonan iski samaapti in varshon mein hui - Bhaarat 1846, sviden 1859, braajil 1871, afrikn sanrakshit raajya 1897, 1901, filipaain 1902, abeeseeniya 1921. is prakaar 20veen shati mein praaya: sabhi raashtron ne daasata ko amaanaveeya tatha anaitik sanstha maankar uske unmoolanaarth kadam uthaae. sambhavat: Africa mein angola jaise purtagaali upaniveshon ki tarah ke do ek apavaadon ko chhodkar is samay kaheen bhi us bhayaavah daasavyavastha ka sansthaatmak astiv naheen hai jo aaj ki paashchatya sabhyata ki samruddhi tatha vaibhav ka ek pradhaan aadhaar rahi hai.

baahari kadiyaaain