daardi bhaashaaeain

daardi ya daardik bhaashaaeain (jbaan daardi) hind-aarya bhaashaaon ki ek upashaakha hai jiski sabse jaani-maani bhaasha Kashmiri hai. daardi bhaashaaeain uttari Pakistan, uttar-poorvi afgaanistaan aur Bhaarat ke Jammu-Kashmir raajya mein boli jaateen hain.[1] saari daardi bhaashaaoain mein Kashmiri ka hi rutaba sabse ooaincha hai kyonki iska apna prachalit saahitya hai aur ise Bhaarat ki ek aadhikaarik bhaasha hone ka maan bhi praapt hai.[1][2][3] Pakistan ke chitraal jile ki khovaar bhaasha, uttari Kashmir mein boli jaane waali sheena bhaasha aur afgaanistaan ke poorvi nooristaan, nangarahaar aur kunar raajyon mein boli jaane waali paashaai bhaasha anya mashahoor daardi bhaashaaeain hain.

anukram

daardi bhaashaaon ka prabhaav

ismein koi do rai naheen hain ki lagbhag sabhi daardi bhaashaaon par sanskrut, faarasi, punjabi, hindi-urdoo ityaadi ka prabhaav pada hai aur inke kai shabd daardi bhaashaaon mein istemaal hote hain. lekin bahut bhaashaavaijnyaaanikon ka maanana hai ke daardi bhaashaaon ne bhi gair-daardi hindi-aarya bhaashaaon par apni chhaap chhodi hai. yeh maanana hai ke punjabi, uttaraakhand ki kuchh boliyaaain aur kuchh aur bhaashaaon par daardi ka prabhaav nazar aata hai.[4][5][6] haalaanki is par vivaad jaari hai, lekin ek dhaarana yeh bhi hai ki praacheen kaal mein daardi ek bahut bade kshetr mein boli jaati thi jo sindhu nadi ke ird-gird (sindh se Kashmir tak) aur fir Himachal aur uttaraakhand mein faila hua tha.

daardi bhaashaaon ki visheshataaeain

daardi bhaashaaon ki kuchh khaas cheejein hain jinse samooche hind-aarya bhaasha parivaar mein unki pehchaan banti hai, jaise ki mahaapraan vyanjanon ka uchchaaran alpapraan vyanjanon jaisa hota hai (udaaharanat: 'bh' ko 'b' ki tarah uchchaarit kiya jaata hai).

mahaapraan ki jagah alpapraan vyanjan

jyaadaatar hid-aarya bhaashaaon mein mahaapraan vyanjanon ko vaayu-pravaah ke saath bola jaata hai, jaise ki mahaapraan vyanjan 'kh' ko munh se vaayu-pravaah se bola jaata hai jabki uske milte hue alpapraan vyanjan 'k' ko bahut kam vaayu-pravaah ke saath bola jaata hai. aisa daardik bhaashaaon mein naheen hai. in bhaashaaon mein vaayu-pravaah ki bajaay sur badal ke alpapraan aur mahaapraan vyanjanon mein antar kiya jaata hai. misaal ke taur par jahaaain sanskrut mein 'bhoomi' shabd hai vahaaain khovaar bhaasha mein 'buum' hai jisme aavaaj mote svar se patale svar ki or jaati hai (yaani mardaana svar se aurataana svar ke taraf).[7][8] isi tarah se jahaaain hindi mein mahaapraani 'dh' se 'dhuaaain' hota hai vahaaain paashaai mein alpapraani 'the' se 'duum' hota hai. sanskrut ke 'dugdh' or hindi ke 'doodh' ke sthaan par Kashmiri mein 'dod' hota hai.[7][8] pashchimi pahaadi or punjabi mein bhi isi tarah mahaapraan ke sthaan par svar-badlaav dekhne ko milta hai, jaise ki punjabi mein hindi ke 'ghar' ki jagah svar badalta hua shabd 'kar' hota hai.[7]

'r' shabdaansh sthaanaantaran

daardi bhaashaaon mein aksar shabdaansh sthaanaantaran ho jaata hai, jisme ek hi shabd ke 'r' ke varn ke ird-gird koi svar apne sthaan mein fer-badal kar leta hai. yeh daardi bhaashaaon mein praacheenakaal se hota aa raha hai aur gaandhaar kshetr mein (jahaaain daardi bhaashaaeain boleen jaateen theen) samraat ashok ke jmaane ki shilaaon mein bhi yeh dekha ja sakta hai, jo 269 i॰apu॰ se 231 i॰apu॰ mein khadi ki gayi theen. samraat ashok ki ek upaadhi 'priydarshi' thi - lekin in shilaaon par aksar 'priydrashi' dekhne ko milta hai kyonki shabdaansh sthaanaantaran ke kaaran 'darsh' ka 'drash' ban gaya. isi tarah in shilaaon par 'dharm' ke sthaan par 'dhram' milta hai.[4][9] aadhunik kaal mein sanskrut ke 'deergh' (yaani lamba) shabd ki jhalak kalash bhaashaaoain ke 'dreeg' shabd mein milti hai.[9] paaloola bhaasha mein sanskrut ka 'durbal' (yaani kamzor) badal kar 'drubal' ban jaata hai aur sanskrut ka 'bhurj' (jo ek pahaadi kshetr mein ugane vaale ped ka naam hai) badal kar 'barhuj' ban jaata hai.[9] sanskrut ka 'daridr' Kashmiri ka 'drolid' ban jaata hai aur 'karm' Kashmiri mein 'kram' ban jaata hai.[9] daardi bhaashaaon ki yeh pravruti punjabi aur pashchimi pahaadi bhaashaaon mein bhi kuchh had tak dekhi ja sakti hai. jahaaain faarasi mein ped ko 'darakht' kehte hain vahaaain punjabi mein yeh 'drakht' ho jaata hai.[4][10]

vaakya mein kriya ka sthaan

adhiktar hind-Irani bhaashaaon mein kriya vaakya ke ant mein aati hai. lekin daardik bhaashaaoain mein kriya shabd vaakya ke beech mein aate hain. is maamale mein daardi bhaashaaeain angreji ki tarah hoteen hain.[11]

bhaasha
angreji dis ij a haars vi vil go tu tokyo
Kashmiri (daardik) yi chhu akh gud as gachhav tokyo
sanskrut (hind-Irani) esh: ek: ashv asti vayan tokyo gachhaam:
faarasi (hind-Irani) in yek asb ast ma be tokyo khohim raft
hindi-urdoo (hind-Irani) yeh ek ghoda hai ham tokyo jaaenge
punjabi (hind-Irani) A ikk koda ai assi tokyo jaavaange

oopar likhe hue vaakyon mein kriya ko gaadhe aksharon mein likha gaya hai. jaisa ki spasht hai, lagbhag saari hind-Irani bhaashaaon mein kriya vaakya ke ant mein aati hai, lekin daardik is niyam ko bhang karti hai aur angreji ki tarah kriya ko sanjnyaa ke baad daalati hai. aisi bhaashaaon ko jo kriya sanjnyaa ke baad daalati hon "kriya dviteeya bhaashaaeain" kaha jaata hai.

daardi bhaashaaon ki soochi

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  1. a aa One thousand languages: living, endangered, and lost, Peter K. Austin, University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-25560-7, ... Kashmiri is one of the twenty-two national languages of India, and belongs to the Dardic group, a non-genetic term that covers about two dozen Indo-Aryan languages spoken in geographically isolated, mountainous northwestern parts of South Asia ...
  2. Routledge dictionary of language and linguistics, Hadumod Bussmann, Gregory Trauth, Kerstin Kazzazi, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 0-415-20319-8, ... Dardic Group of about fifteen Indo-Iranian languages in northwestern India; the most significant language is Kashmiri (approx. 3 million speakers) ...
  3. The Written Languages of the World: A Survey of the Degree and Modes of Use, Volume 2: India , H. Kloss, G.D. McConnell, B.P. Mahapatra, P. Padmanabha, V.S. Verma, Les Presses De L'Université Laval, ISBN 2-7637-7186-6, ... Among all the languages of the Dardic group, Kashmiri is the only one which has a long literary tradition ...
  4. a aa i The Indo-Aryan Languages, Colin P. Masica, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-29944-6, ... he agreed with Grierson in seeing Rajasthani influence on Pahari and 'Dardic' influence on (or under) the whole Northwestern group + Pahari ...[]... Sindhi and including 'Lahnda', Dardic, Romany and West Pahari, there has been a tendency to transfer of 'r' from medial clusters to a position after the initial consonant ...
  5. Essays on Konkani language and literature: Professor Armando Menezes felicitation volume, Dayanand Narasinh Shanbhag, K. J. Mahale, Konkani Sahitya Prakashan, ... Konkani is spoken. lt shows a good deal of Dardic (Paisachi) influence ...
  6. The origin and growth of Sindhi language, Gulam Allana, Institute of Sindhology, ... must have covered nearly the whole of the Punjabi ... still show traces of the earlier Dardic languags that they superseded. Still further south, we find traces of Dardic in Sindhi ...
  7. a aa i Concise encyclopedia of languages of the world, S. Munshi, Keith Brown (editor), Sarah Ogilvie (editor), Elsevier, 2008, ISBN 0-08-087774-5, Accessed 2010-05-11, ... Based on historical sub-grouping approximations and geographical distribution, Bashir (2003) provides six sub-groups of the Dardic languages ...
  8. a aa The Indo-Aryan Languages, George Cardona, Dhanesh Jain, Routledge, 2007, ISBN 0-415-77294-X, Accessed 2010-05-11, ... In others, traces remain as tonal differences (Khowar buúaam 'earth', Pashai dum 'smoke') ...
  9. a aa i E A new version of the Gandhari Dharmapada and a collection of previous-birth stories, Timothy Lenz, Andrew Glass, Dharmamitra Bhikshu, University of Washington Press, 2003, ISBN 0-295-98308-6, Accessed 2010-05-11, ... 'Dardic metathesis,' wherein pre- or postconsonantal 'r' is shifted forward to a preceding syllable ... earliest examples come from the Aśaokan inscriptions ... priyadarśaai ... as priyadraśaai ... dharma as dhrama ... common in modern Dardic languages ...
  10. The phonology and morphology of Panjabi, Amar Nath Malik, Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers, 1995, ISBN 81-215-0644-1, Accessed 2010-05-26, ... /drakhat/ 'tree' ...
  11. Aspects of the theory of clitics: Volume 11 of Oxford studies in theoretical linguistics, Stephen R. Anderson, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-927990-6, ... The literature on the verb-second construction has concentrated largely on Germanic ... we can compare with the Germanic phenomena, however: Kashmiri ... in two 'Himachali' languages, Kotgarhi and Koci, he finds word-order patterns quite similar ... they are sometimes said to be part of a 'Dardic' subfamily ...